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British Mandate of Palestine

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1 British Mandate of Palestine
The Creation of Israel Nationalism led to the creation of Israel Late 1800s Jewish nationalist movement of Zionism growing Jews calling for an independent state in ancient homeland After World War I, League of Nations gave Britain control over Palestine, required Britain to make preparations for Jewish homeland After World War II, Jewish leaders in Palestine pressed British to create Jewish state British Mandate of Palestine 1947, Britain announced it was giving up control of mandate, turning matter over to the UN UN proposed to partition, or divide, Palestine into Jewish state and Arab state with Jerusalem under international control End of British Mandate Jewish leaders accepted the proposal, but Arabs did not. Despite Arab objections, the UN passed a resolution supporting the partition as valid.


3 Independence and War No Arab State Gaza Strip, West Bank
As British pulled out of Palestine, David Ben-Gurion, other Jewish leaders, declared birth of democratic State of Israel, May 14, 1948 Ben-Gurion later became Israel’s first prime minister Day after Israel declared independence, armies from Arab countries of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, Iraq invaded Israel, launching first Arab-Israeli war War lasted from May to December; Arab armies soundly defeated Arab states negotiated cease-fire agreements, but would not sign permanent peace treaties One result: Arab state proposed by UN did not come into existence No Arab State Both Israel, neighboring Arab countries seized, held land planned for new Arab state Egypt controlled Gaza Strip, Transjordan controlled territory west of Jordan River known as West Bank Gaza Strip, West Bank


5 Refugee Problems Arab-Israeli war caused massive refugee problems
By end of fighting around 700,000 Palestinian Arabs had become refugees Fled or expelled from areas that Israel took control of, as well as from general war, chaos Jewish refugees fled Arab countries and resettled in Israel

6 What events led to the creation of Israel as an independent state?
Summarize What events led to the creation of Israel as an independent state? 1947: Britain announced it was giving up control of the mandate; UN proposed to partition Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state; 1948: Jewish leaders declared birth of the State of Israel

7 Conflicts in the Middle East

8 However, oil has also been a source of conflict.
Regional Issues Over the last few decades, major conflicts have erupted in the Middle East. Issues that have contributed to the conflicts include the presence of huge oil reserves, the growth of Islamism, and the conflict between Israel and its neighbors. About two-thirds of world’s known oil reserved located in Middle East Reserves have been great source of wealth for Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, other countries Most members of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Oil in the Middle East OPEC attempts to regulate production of oil exports to maximize revenues Oil revenues allowed Middle East governments to modernize countries, promote industrialization, economic, social development Oil Revenues However, oil has also been a source of conflict.

9 Importance of Oil Oil as source of conflict in Middle East
Some governments have used oil revenues to build up military, maintain power, threaten neighbors Oil wealth has caused internal clashes within countries, societies Region’s strategic importance as source of oil has led outside nations to become involved in Middle Eastern affairs, politics

10 Growth of Islamism Islamists Conflicts, Violence
Movement to reorder government, society according to Islamic laws Islamists believe Muslim countries have strayed from true Islam, followed Western models of political, economic development Islamists Egypt, Iran, Iraq have seen growth of Islamism; has led to conflicts within society, government Some extremists have used violence to bring about changes, have attacked regional governments, their allies, innocent civilians Conflicts, Violence

11 Conflicts with Israel Expansion of Israel
1948, Israel established; since then most Middle Eastern countries have refused to recognize its right to exist Some countries have repeatedly attacked Israel, funded militant groups that conduct raids, terrorist attacks against Israelis Expansion of Israel Series of wars between Israel, neighbors has led to expansion of Israel Israel controls more land now than in 1948 when created Result: many Palestinian Arabs live under Israeli control; another source of tension, conflict in region

12 What regional issues have led to conflicts in the Middle East?
Summarize What regional issues have led to conflicts in the Middle East? Answer(s): use of oil revenues; growth of Islamism; conflicts with Israel

13 The Arab-Israeli Conflict
The Arab-Israeli conflict that began in 1948 has continued through the years. In 1967 and again in 1973, war erupted. Six years after the 1973 war, Egypt and Israel signed a peace agreement, but unrest among Palestinian Arabs in Israel remained a major problem. 1967, Egypt demanded UN remove troops from Gaza, Sinai Peninsula Egyptian troops moved into Sinai to close off Gulf of Aqaba, Israel’s route to Red Sea War in 1967, 1973 Israel expected large-scale Arab attack, decided to strike first Launched air strikes against Egypt, Syria, Jordan; destroyed most of airplanes on ground Ground troops moved in, defeated Arabs Israeli Attacks In Six-Day War Israel took control of Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, East Jerusalem Took control of land in West Bank, Gaza with large Palestinian population Six-Day War

14 Egypt Strikes Back Yom Kippur War U.S. Support Oil Embargo
Egypt, Syria determined to win territory back, launched Yom Kippur War, surprise attack against Israel in 1973 Took name from Jewish holy day when attack began U.S. Support At first Arab troops made gains in war; Israeli’s government, led by Golda Meir, not fully prepared for attack; needed military support from U.S. With support, Israeli forces regrouped, pushed back Egyptian, Syrian armies Oil Embargo Both sides agreed to cease-fire after weeks of fighting During war, Arab members of OPEC declared oil embargo against countries supporting Israel Price of oil around world rose dramatically as result of refusal to sell oil


16 A Peace Agreement Camp David Peace Treaty
Until the late 1970s, no Arab nation had recognized Israel’s right to exist. 1977, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat made momentous declaration: Egypt wanted peace with Israel U.S. president Jimmy Carter invited Sadat, Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin to Camp David, presidential retreat in Maryland Camp David 1978, Sadat, Begin reached agreement known as Camp David Accords Egypt recognized Israel; Israel returned Sinai Peninsula to Egypt Treaty ended 30 years hostility between Egypt, Israel Peace Treaty

17 Palestinian Nationalism Palestinian Resentment
Palestinian Unrest Egypt, Israel made peace; Palestinian Arabs continued struggle for nationhood 1947 UN partition plan had called for two states in Palestine—a Jewish state, an Arab state After 1948 Arab-Israeli war, land set aside for Arab state occupied by Israel, Egypt, Jordan 1964, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) formed Pledged to destroy Israel, replace with Palestinian state 1969, Yasser Arafat became leader, PLO launched guerilla attacks against Israel Palestinian Nationalism In effort to stop attacks, Israel invaded Lebanon, 1978 and 1982 Tensions building also in West Bank, Gaza where Israel had begun building settlements 1987, Palestinian resentment began rebellion called intifada Palestinian Resentment



20 Tenuous Peace Intifada Oslo Accords Undermining Peace
Palestinian youths battled Israeli troops in widespread street violence Israel responded with military, police resistance; fighting continued to 1990s 1993, Arafat, Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin negotiated Oslo Accords Oslo Accords Oslo Accords called for Palestinians to gradually gain control over governing West Bank, Gaza Israel, PLO supposed to sign permanent peace agreement by 1998 Undermining Peace Extremists on both sides worked to undermine peace process Militant group Hamas launched suicide bombings in Israel 1995, Rabin assassinated; relations between Israeli, Palestinian leadership soured

21 Continuing the Conflict
2000—second intifada began Palestinian youths joined by Palestinian security forces with guns Hamas sent suicide bombers into Israel to attack civilians Israelis countered by sending troops backed by tanks, fighter jets, helicopter gunships into cities in West Bank, Gaza 2004, Arafat died, succeeded by Mahmoud Abbas More Fighting 2004, Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon withdrew Israel from Gaza, parts of West Bank 2005, Gaza turned over to Palestinians 2006, militant Hamas won control of Palestinian parliament Hamas in Control Armed conflict also erupted when Israeli soldiers were kidnapped along borders with Gaza and Lebanon. Israel launched air strikes to secure its borders.

22 Describe the sequence of events in the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Answer(s): 1967: Six-Day War; 1973: Yom Kippur War; 1978: Camp David Accords; 1987: intifada; 1993: Oslo Accords; 2000: second intifada; 2005: Israel withdraws from Gaza

23 Changes in Egypt and Iran
Israel’s victory had effects throughout the Arab world. The victory discredited many of the region’s leaders, and young nationalist leaders came to power in places such as Egypt and Iran. 1922, Egypt gained formal independence from Great Britain However British troops occupied Suez Canal Zone 1936 treaty allowed Britain to defend Egypt if attacked A New Government Egyptian King Farouk I strongly pro-British, seen as dependent on Britain for power Egypt’s loss in first Arab-Israeli war discredited Farouk, leaders of Egypt’s parliament Farouk Discredited Many believed corruption in palace, parliament, army contributed to defeat Gap between rich, poor in post independence government also angered many Egyptians Growing Anger

24 Nasser Out of dissatisfaction came 1952 military coup led by 34-year old colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser; forced King Farouk out of power Nasser, followers abolished monarchy, created single government party, undertook ambitious land reform program to gain support among poor Suez Crisis Nasser became most important figure in Arab world after confrontation with Britain, France, Israel over Suez Canal Suez Crisis had roots in politics of the Cold War After Nasser came to power, refused to join Baghdad Pact, U.S.-led alliance against communism in Middle East

25 Growing Crisis Dealing Arms Nationalizing the Canal Growing Hostility
Nasser requested western countries sell him arms; they refused Turned to Soviet-controlled Czechoslovakia, signed arms deal U.S., Britain responded by refusing to loan Egypt money to build Aswan Dam Nationalizing the Canal Nasser enraged that funding denied for building dam on Nile River Decided to nationalize, take control of, Suez Canal, which was owned by international company controlled by Britain, France Growing Hostility Nasser’s action celebrated as act of defiance by people in Arab world British, French outraged by seizure of property Hostility also growing between Egypt, Israel

26 Nasser Popular in Arab World
Pan-Arabism October 1956, Britain, France, Israel launched coordinated attack on Egypt Militarily defeated Egyptian forces U.S. did not support actions, which created tensions with Soviet Union; pressured Britain, France, Israel to withdraw, which they did Attack on Egypt Countries withdrew; Egypt left in control of Suez Canal Suez Crisis had become great victory for Nasser Nasser promoted Pan-Arabism, or Arab unity Brought Egypt, Syria together as United Arab Republic, but Syria withdrew two years later Nasser Popular in Arab World


28 Conflict in Iran When Mohammad Reza Pahlavi became shah of Iran in 1941, British and Russian troops occupied parts of his country. British-run company also controlled Iran’s profitable oil industry, kept most of profits Iranian nationalists determined to take control of country’s oil resources, reduce power of shah, establish constitutional monarchy Nationalists led by Mohammad Mosaddeq, opponent of foreign influence in Iran Conflict in Iran 1951, Iranian parliament named Mosaddeq prime minister, voted to nationalize oil industry Britain, U.S. called for boycott of Iranian oil, preventing Iran from selling much on world market Mosaddeq worked to reduce power of monarchy and placed army forces under control of government Mosaddeq

29 Coups Military Coup Mosaddeq Overthrown Reforms Reforms Opposed
Many military officers upset with reforms, joined coup to replace Mosaddeq Coup supported by U.S., Britain Mosaddeq Overthrown Coup successful Mosaddeq overthrown, shah returned to power Reforms Shah began ambitious program of reforms, including land and literacy, women’s rights Iran’s industry, education, health care improved Reforms Opposed Shah continued to rule with iron hand, secret police Reforms opposed by conservatives as moving away from traditional Islamic values


31 Find the Main Idea What changes occurred in Egypt and Iran, and how were they related to nationalism? Egypt—Nasser overthrew King Farouk, who was seen as too pro-British; promoted Pan-Arabism; Iran—nationalized oil industry; U.S. and Britain supported overthrow of Shah Mosaddeq, who had opposed foreign influence

32 Revolution in Iran Different Kind of Conflict Westernization of Iran
Different kind of conflict erupted in Iran Revolution ousted shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Westernization of Iran Shah had close ties with Western governments, oil companies Iran westernized, foreign influence grew Society Changed By 1970s, Iran had changed from traditional rural society Had become more industrialized, urban society Islamists Opposed Shah Many Iranians felt threatened by rapid change, others felt betrayed by corrupt government Islamists opposed shah because of ties to West

33 Rise of Khomeini 1978, Iranians began to protest against shah’s rule
Protests inspired by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Shia religious leader 1979, unable to calm unrest, shah fled Iran Iran became Islamic republic with Khomeini as leader, during Iranian Revolution

34 Khomeini’s Reign Khomeini’s Reign American Hostages
Under Khomeini, government suppressed political opposition, enforced strict social religious values Foreign policy strongly anti-Western, especially after shah went to U.S. for medical treatment Khomeini’s Reign 1979, Iranian revolutionaries seized U.S. embassy in Tehran, took 66 Americans hostage Iranians demanded shah be returned to Iran, stand trial Shah left U.S., but Iranians held hostages until January, 1981 American Hostages

35 What was the sequence of events that led to the Iranian Revolution?
Answer(s): Protests began against the shah; the shah fled Iran in 1979; Iran became an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader

36 Conflict in Iraq Iran-Iraq War Persian Gulf War
As Iran’s new government was dealing with the hostage crisis, it found itself at war with its neighbor, Iraq. 1980, Iraq attacked Iran because of border disputes Also Iran called for revolution among Iraq’s Shiite population War long, costly; as many as 500,000 dead on both sides Iraq used chemical weapons 1988, both sides agreed to cease-fire Iran-Iraq War After cease-fire, Saddam Hussein continued to build up Iraq’s military; already had largest army in Arab world 1990, Iraq accused neighboring Kuwait of drilling into Iraqi oil field, stealing oil Hussein used this as excuse to invade Kuwait Persian Gulf War

37 Sanctions In effort to end Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, UN passed economic sanctions against Iraq; sanctions failed Result: U.S.-led coalition launched Persian Gulf War Attacked Iraqi forces in Kuwait; Kuwait freed within weeks Weapons After war, UN continued economic sanctions, insisted Iraq destroy chemical, biological weapons, agree not to develop nuclear weapons Inspectors had been sent to verify Iraq’s weapons had been destroyed Iraq failed to fully cooperate with UN weapons inspectors

38 The Iraq War After attacks of September 11, 2001, some U.S. leaders believed Saddam Hussein posed a greater threat to America than before Hussein might have deadly weapons he could give to terrorists UN weapons inspections did not find stockpiles of chemical, biological, nuclear weapons Iraq again did not fully cooperate Some U.S. officials convinced Hussein hiding weapons Weapons Inspections 2003, another U.S.-led coalition invaded Iraq, forcing Hussein out Efforts to restore peace thwarted Growing insurgency targeted coalition forces, Iraqi allies, innocent civilians Growing Insurgency Insurgent attacks by different groups from both inside and outside Iraq caused a greater number of casualties.

39 Coalition Government Meanwhile, coalition worked to create new, democratic government in Iraq 2004, power transferred to Iraqis 2005, Iraqis voted in country’s first multiparty election in fifty years Later approved new constitution to make Iraq Islamic federal democracy Continued violence, potential for civil war made country’s future highly uncertain

40 What are the main problems Iraq has faced in recent years?
Infer What are the main problems Iraq has faced in recent years? Answer(s): wars, economic sanctions, insurgency, potential for civil war


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