Presentation on theme: "British Mandate of Palestine"— Presentation transcript:
1British Mandate of Palestine The Creation of IsraelNationalism led to the creation of IsraelLate 1800s Jewish nationalist movement of Zionism growingJews calling for an independent state in ancient homelandAfter World War I, League of Nations gave Britain control over Palestine, required Britain to make preparations for Jewish homelandAfter World War II, Jewish leaders in Palestine pressed British to create Jewish stateBritish Mandate of Palestine1947, Britain announced it was giving up control of mandate, turning matter over to the UNUN proposed to partition, or divide, Palestine into Jewish state and Arab state with Jerusalem under international controlEnd of British MandateJewish leaders accepted the proposal, but Arabs did not. Despite Arab objections, the UN passed a resolution supporting the partition as valid.
3Independence and War No Arab State Gaza Strip, West Bank As British pulled out of Palestine, David Ben-Gurion, other Jewish leaders, declared birth of democratic State of Israel, May 14, 1948Ben-Gurion later became Israel’s first prime ministerDay after Israel declared independence, armies from Arab countries of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, Iraq invaded Israel, launching first Arab-Israeli warWar lasted from May to December; Arab armies soundly defeatedArab states negotiated cease-fire agreements, but would not sign permanent peace treatiesOne result: Arab state proposed by UN did not come into existenceNo Arab StateBoth Israel, neighboring Arab countries seized, held land planned for new Arab stateEgypt controlled Gaza Strip, Transjordan controlled territory west of Jordan River known as West BankGaza Strip, West Bank
5Refugee Problems Arab-Israeli war caused massive refugee problems By end of fighting around 700,000 Palestinian Arabs had become refugeesFled or expelled from areas that Israel took control of, as well as from general war, chaosJewish refugees fled Arab countries and resettled in Israel
6What events led to the creation of Israel as an independent state? SummarizeWhat events led to the creation of Israel as an independent state?1947: Britain announced it was giving up control of the mandate; UN proposed to partition Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state; 1948: Jewish leaders declared birth of the State of Israel
8However, oil has also been a source of conflict. Regional IssuesOver the last few decades, major conflicts have erupted in the Middle East. Issues that have contributed to the conflicts include the presence of huge oil reserves, the growth of Islamism, and the conflict between Israel and its neighbors.About two-thirds of world’s known oil reserved located in Middle EastReserves have been great source of wealth for Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, other countriesMost members of Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesOil in the Middle EastOPEC attempts to regulate production of oil exports to maximize revenuesOil revenues allowed Middle East governments to modernize countries, promote industrialization, economic, social developmentOil RevenuesHowever, oil has also been a source of conflict.
9Importance of Oil Oil as source of conflict in Middle East Some governments have used oil revenues to build up military, maintain power, threaten neighborsOil wealth has caused internal clashes within countries, societiesRegion’s strategic importance as source of oil has led outside nations to become involved in Middle Eastern affairs, politics
10Growth of Islamism Islamists Conflicts, Violence Movement to reorder government, society according to Islamic lawsIslamists believe Muslim countries have strayed from true Islam, followed Western models of political, economic developmentIslamistsEgypt, Iran, Iraq have seen growth of Islamism; has led to conflicts within society, governmentSome extremists have used violence to bring about changes, have attacked regional governments, their allies, innocent civiliansConflicts, Violence
11Conflicts with Israel Expansion of Israel 1948, Israel established; since then most Middle Eastern countries have refused to recognize its right to existSome countries have repeatedly attacked Israel, funded militant groups that conduct raids, terrorist attacks against IsraelisExpansion of IsraelSeries of wars between Israel, neighbors has led to expansion of IsraelIsrael controls more land now than in 1948 when createdResult: many Palestinian Arabs live under Israeli control; another source of tension, conflict in region
12What regional issues have led to conflicts in the Middle East? SummarizeWhat regional issues have led to conflicts in the Middle East?Answer(s): use of oil revenues; growth of Islamism; conflicts with Israel
13The Arab-Israeli Conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict that began in 1948 has continued through the years. In 1967 and again in 1973, war erupted. Six years after the 1973 war, Egypt and Israel signed a peace agreement, but unrest among Palestinian Arabs in Israel remained a major problem.1967, Egypt demanded UN remove troops from Gaza, Sinai PeninsulaEgyptian troops moved into Sinai to close off Gulf of Aqaba, Israel’s route to Red SeaWar in 1967, 1973Israel expected large-scale Arab attack, decided to strike firstLaunched air strikes against Egypt, Syria, Jordan; destroyed most of airplanes on groundGround troops moved in, defeated ArabsIsraeli AttacksIn Six-Day War Israel took control of Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, East JerusalemTook control of land in West Bank, Gaza with large Palestinian populationSix-Day War
14Egypt Strikes Back Yom Kippur War U.S. Support Oil Embargo Egypt, Syria determined to win territory back, launched Yom Kippur War, surprise attack against Israel in 1973Took name from Jewish holy day when attack beganU.S. SupportAt first Arab troops made gains in war; Israeli’s government, led by Golda Meir, not fully prepared for attack; needed military support from U.S.With support, Israeli forces regrouped, pushed back Egyptian, Syrian armiesOil EmbargoBoth sides agreed to cease-fire after weeks of fightingDuring war, Arab members of OPEC declared oil embargo against countries supporting IsraelPrice of oil around world rose dramatically as result of refusal to sell oil
16A Peace Agreement Camp David Peace Treaty Until the late 1970s, no Arab nation had recognized Israel’s right to exist.1977, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat made momentous declaration: Egypt wanted peace with IsraelU.S. president Jimmy Carter invited Sadat, Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin to Camp David, presidential retreat in MarylandCamp David1978, Sadat, Begin reached agreement known as Camp David AccordsEgypt recognized Israel; Israel returned Sinai Peninsula to EgyptTreaty ended 30 years hostility between Egypt, IsraelPeace Treaty
17Palestinian Nationalism Palestinian Resentment Palestinian UnrestEgypt, Israel made peace; Palestinian Arabs continued struggle for nationhood1947 UN partition plan had called for two states in Palestine—a Jewish state, an Arab stateAfter 1948 Arab-Israeli war, land set aside for Arab state occupied by Israel, Egypt, Jordan1964, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) formedPledged to destroy Israel, replace with Palestinian state1969, Yasser Arafat became leader, PLO launched guerilla attacks against IsraelPalestinian NationalismIn effort to stop attacks, Israel invaded Lebanon, 1978 and 1982Tensions building also in West Bank, Gaza where Israel had begun building settlements1987, Palestinian resentment began rebellion called intifadaPalestinian Resentment
20Tenuous Peace Intifada Oslo Accords Undermining Peace Palestinian youths battled Israeli troops in widespread street violenceIsrael responded with military, police resistance; fighting continued to 1990s1993, Arafat, Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin negotiated Oslo AccordsOslo AccordsOslo Accords called for Palestinians to gradually gain control over governing West Bank, GazaIsrael, PLO supposed to sign permanent peace agreement by 1998Undermining PeaceExtremists on both sides worked to undermine peace processMilitant group Hamas launched suicide bombings in Israel1995, Rabin assassinated; relations between Israeli, Palestinian leadership soured
21Continuing the Conflict 2000—second intifada beganPalestinian youths joined by Palestinian security forces with gunsHamas sent suicide bombers into Israel to attack civiliansIsraelis countered by sending troops backed by tanks, fighter jets, helicopter gunships into cities in West Bank, Gaza2004, Arafat died, succeeded by Mahmoud AbbasMore Fighting2004, Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon withdrew Israel from Gaza, parts of West Bank2005, Gaza turned over to Palestinians2006, militant Hamas won control of Palestinian parliamentHamas in ControlArmed conflict also erupted when Israeli soldiers were kidnapped along borders with Gaza and Lebanon. Israel launched air strikes to secure its borders.
22Describe the sequence of events in the Arab-Israeli conflict. Answer(s): 1967: Six-Day War; 1973: Yom Kippur War; 1978: Camp David Accords; 1987: intifada; 1993: Oslo Accords; 2000: second intifada; 2005: Israel withdraws from Gaza
23Changes in Egypt and Iran Israel’s victory had effects throughout the Arab world.The victory discredited many of the region’s leaders, and young nationalist leaders came to power in places such as Egypt and Iran.1922, Egypt gained formal independence from Great BritainHowever British troops occupied Suez Canal Zone1936 treaty allowed Britain to defend Egypt if attackedA New GovernmentEgyptian King Farouk I strongly pro-British, seen as dependent on Britain for powerEgypt’s loss in first Arab-Israeli war discredited Farouk, leaders of Egypt’s parliamentFarouk DiscreditedMany believed corruption in palace, parliament, army contributed to defeatGap between rich, poor in post independence government also angered many EgyptiansGrowing Anger
24NasserOut of dissatisfaction came 1952 military coup led by 34-year old colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser; forced King Farouk out of powerNasser, followers abolished monarchy, created single government party, undertook ambitious land reform program to gain support among poorSuez CrisisNasser became most important figure in Arab world after confrontation with Britain, France, Israel over Suez CanalSuez Crisis had roots in politics of the Cold WarAfter Nasser came to power, refused to join Baghdad Pact, U.S.-led alliance against communism in Middle East
25Growing Crisis Dealing Arms Nationalizing the Canal Growing Hostility Nasser requested western countries sell him arms; they refusedTurned to Soviet-controlled Czechoslovakia, signed arms dealU.S., Britain responded by refusing to loan Egypt money to build Aswan DamNationalizing the CanalNasser enraged that funding denied for building dam on Nile RiverDecided to nationalize, take control of, Suez Canal, which was owned by international company controlled by Britain, FranceGrowing HostilityNasser’s action celebrated as act of defiance by people in Arab worldBritish, French outraged by seizure of propertyHostility also growing between Egypt, Israel
26Nasser Popular in Arab World Pan-ArabismOctober 1956, Britain, France, Israel launched coordinated attack on EgyptMilitarily defeated Egyptian forcesU.S. did not support actions, which created tensions with Soviet Union; pressured Britain, France, Israel to withdraw, which they didAttack on EgyptCountries withdrew; Egypt left in control of Suez CanalSuez Crisis had become great victory for NasserNasser promoted Pan-Arabism, or Arab unityBrought Egypt, Syria together as United Arab Republic, but Syria withdrew two years laterNasser Popular in Arab World
28Conflict in IranWhen Mohammad Reza Pahlavi became shah of Iran in 1941, British and Russian troops occupied parts of his country.British-run company also controlled Iran’s profitable oil industry, kept most of profitsIranian nationalists determined to take control of country’s oil resources, reduce power of shah, establish constitutional monarchyNationalists led by Mohammad Mosaddeq, opponent of foreign influence in IranConflict in Iran1951, Iranian parliament named Mosaddeq prime minister, voted to nationalize oil industryBritain, U.S. called for boycott of Iranian oil, preventing Iran from selling much on world marketMosaddeq worked to reduce power of monarchy and placed army forces under control of governmentMosaddeq
29Coups Military Coup Mosaddeq Overthrown Reforms Reforms Opposed Many military officers upset with reforms, joined coup to replace MosaddeqCoup supported by U.S., BritainMosaddeq OverthrownCoup successfulMosaddeq overthrown, shah returned to powerReformsShah began ambitious program of reforms, including land and literacy, women’s rightsIran’s industry, education, health care improvedReforms OpposedShah continued to rule with iron hand, secret policeReforms opposed by conservatives as moving away from traditional Islamic values
31Find the Main IdeaWhat changes occurred in Egypt and Iran, and how were they related to nationalism?Egypt—Nasser overthrew King Farouk, who was seen as too pro-British; promoted Pan-Arabism; Iran—nationalized oil industry; U.S. and Britain supported overthrow of Shah Mosaddeq, who had opposed foreign influence
32Revolution in Iran Different Kind of Conflict Westernization of Iran Different kind of conflict erupted in IranRevolution ousted shah, Mohammad Reza PahlaviWesternization of IranShah had close ties with Western governments, oil companiesIran westernized, foreign influence grewSociety ChangedBy 1970s, Iran had changed from traditional rural societyHad become more industrialized, urban societyIslamists Opposed ShahMany Iranians felt threatened by rapid change, others felt betrayed by corrupt governmentIslamists opposed shah because of ties to West
33Rise of Khomeini 1978, Iranians began to protest against shah’s rule Protests inspired by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Shia religious leader1979, unable to calm unrest, shah fled IranIran became Islamic republic with Khomeini as leader, during Iranian Revolution
34Khomeini’s Reign Khomeini’s Reign American Hostages Under Khomeini, government suppressed political opposition, enforced strict social religious valuesForeign policy strongly anti-Western, especially after shah went to U.S. for medical treatmentKhomeini’s Reign1979, Iranian revolutionaries seized U.S. embassy in Tehran, took 66 Americans hostageIranians demanded shah be returned to Iran, stand trialShah left U.S., but Iranians held hostages until January, 1981American Hostages
35What was the sequence of events that led to the Iranian Revolution? Answer(s): Protests began against the shah; the shah fled Iran in 1979; Iran became an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader
36Conflict in Iraq Iran-Iraq War Persian Gulf War As Iran’s new government was dealing with the hostage crisis, it found itself at war with its neighbor, Iraq.1980, Iraq attacked Iran because of border disputesAlso Iran called for revolution among Iraq’s Shiite populationWar long, costly; as many as 500,000 dead on both sidesIraq used chemical weapons1988, both sides agreed to cease-fireIran-Iraq WarAfter cease-fire, Saddam Hussein continued to build up Iraq’s military; already had largest army in Arab world1990, Iraq accused neighboring Kuwait of drilling into Iraqi oil field, stealing oilHussein used this as excuse to invade KuwaitPersian Gulf War
37SanctionsIn effort to end Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, UN passed economic sanctions against Iraq; sanctions failedResult: U.S.-led coalition launched Persian Gulf WarAttacked Iraqi forces in Kuwait; Kuwait freed within weeksWeaponsAfter war, UN continued economic sanctions, insisted Iraq destroy chemical, biological weapons, agree not to develop nuclear weaponsInspectors had been sent to verify Iraq’s weapons had been destroyedIraq failed to fully cooperate with UN weapons inspectors
38The Iraq WarAfter attacks of September 11, 2001, some U.S. leaders believed Saddam Hussein posed a greater threat to America than beforeHussein might have deadly weapons he could give to terroristsUN weapons inspections did not find stockpiles of chemical, biological, nuclear weaponsIraq again did not fully cooperateSome U.S. officials convinced Hussein hiding weaponsWeapons Inspections2003, another U.S.-led coalition invaded Iraq, forcing Hussein outEfforts to restore peace thwartedGrowing insurgency targeted coalition forces, Iraqi allies, innocent civiliansGrowing InsurgencyInsurgent attacks by different groups from both inside and outside Iraq caused a greater number of casualties.
39Coalition GovernmentMeanwhile, coalition worked to create new, democratic government in Iraq2004, power transferred to Iraqis2005, Iraqis voted in country’s first multiparty election in fifty yearsLater approved new constitution to make Iraq Islamic federal democracyContinued violence, potential for civil war made country’s future highly uncertain
40What are the main problems Iraq has faced in recent years? InferWhat are the main problems Iraq has faced in recent years?Answer(s): wars, economic sanctions, insurgency, potential for civil war