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The Republic of China (Taiwan). Republic of China 1912 First republic in Asia First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925)

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Presentation on theme: "The Republic of China (Taiwan). Republic of China 1912 First republic in Asia First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Republic of China (Taiwan)

2 Republic of China 1912 First republic in Asia First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925)

3 ROC Constitution (1946) First constitutional president (1948 - 1975): Chiang Kai-shek (1887 - 1975) Defeated by CCP in 1949 Retreated to Taiwan Authoritarian rule for a quarter century

4 ROC Government President (4-year term after 1996) The Five ``Yuan”: –Executive Yuan –Legislative Yuan –Judicial Yuan –Examination Yuan –Control Yuan 2 Provinces and 18 counties

5 Taiwan before 1949 Immigration from mainland China for centuries (Fujian and Hakka) 1885, Qing government promoted Taiwan from prefecture to province 1895, ceded to Japan 1945, returned to Republic of China ``Taiwanese” versus ``mainlanders” –Fujian 70%, Hakka 15%, ``mainlanders” 13%

6 Taiwan & Islands Area: 13,900 square miles Population: 23 million

7 Chiang Kai-shek’s Rule Popular elections at the basic level Land reform 9-year compulsory education Economic take-off from 1960s –Export processing zones attract foreign direct investment –Industrialization strengthens manufacturing sector

8 Chiang’s One-China Policy ``Mainland was temporarily usurped by communist bandits” ``Gloriously retake the mainland” Refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognized PRC ROC was a permanent member of UN Security Council until 1971

9 Lee Teng-hui (1923 - ) Succeeded Chiang Kai-shek’s son as president of ROC and chairman of GMD in 1988 Became the first popularly elected president of ROC in 1996 Helped Democratic Progressive Party gain power in 2000

10 Chen Shui-bian (1950 - ) Leader of the pro-independent Democratic Progressive Party President of ROC 2000-2008 Prisoner #2630 since 2008-11-12


12 Diplomatic Tug of War 162 countries recognize PRC (Beijing) as the legitimate government of China –8 (’49) 32 (’59) 49 (’69) 113 (’79) 129 (’89) 29 countries recognize ROC (Taipei) as the legitimate government of China

13 US Official Policy US government shifted diplomatic recognition from ROC to PRC in 1979 US congress passed Taiwan Relations Act in 1979 American Institute in Taiwan Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices in US

14 Economic Ties Trade and investment expanded rapidly despite restrictions by ROC government Workaround: Hong Kong and Macau ``Three links”: –mail, transportation, and trade Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) was signed in 2010

15 In 2012, Taiwan’s exports to Mainland China was $132 billion, and imports from Mainland China was $37 billion.


17 Hong Kong Hong Kong SAR

18 Land & People 422 square miles –Hong Kong Island –Kowloon Peninsular –New Territories –Outlying islands 7 million residents –95% Chinese

19 Brief History HK Island was occupied by UK in 1841 New Territories on 99-year lease in 1898 Occupied by Japan during World War II Shanghai enterprises fled CCP forces in late 1940s –industrialization of Hong Kong One of the four ``Asian Tigers”

20 Negotiations with UK Deng Xiaoping: “1 country, 2 systems” PRC Constitution of 1982: S.A.R. PRC & UK Joint Declaration in 1984

21 Handover to PRC 7th National People’s Congress adopted Basic Law of HKSAR in Beijing in 1990 Became Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of PRC in July 1, 1997

22 Basic Law of Hong Kong SAR Stipulated in PRC-UK Joint Declaration in 1984 Drafted by a committee with members from both Hong Kong and mainland Adopted by 7th NPC in Beijing in 1990 Came into effect on July 1, 1997 Constitutional document for HKSAR

23 3 Principles in the Basic Law ``One Country, Two Systems” –Capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years (B.L. A5) ``High Degree of Autonomy” ``Hong Kong People Running Hong Kong”

24 ``One Country, Two Systems” Legal system (British common law) shall be maintained, except for any law that contravene the Basic Law and subject to amendment by the legislature (B.L. A8)

25 `` High Degree of Autonomy” HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative, and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication (B.L. A2)

26 ``HK People Running HK” executive authorities and legislature shall be composed of permanent residents of Hong Kong (B.L. A3) public servants must be permanent residents of Hong Kong, with some exceptions

27 Central People’s Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs relating to HKSAR (B.L. A13-14) authorizes HKSAR to conduct relevant external affairs on its own (B.L. A13) HKSAR shall be responsible for the maintenance of public order 11 PRC laws apply to HK (B.L. A18)

28 Rights and Freedoms freedom of speech, of the press, of publication, of association, of assembly, of procession, of demonstration, of communication, of movement, of conscience, of religious belief, of marriage.. the right and freedom to form and join trade unions, and to strike

29 3 Branches of Political Structure Chief Executive –C. Y. Leung Legislative Council Court of Final Appeal

30 S/election of CE & Legco Shall be specified in the light of the actual situation in the HKSAR and in accordance with the principle of gradual and orderly progress (B.L. A45 & A68) The ultimate aim is the election of the Chief Executive and all the members of the Legislative Council by universal suffrage (B.L. A45 & A68)

31 S/election of Chief Executive 800-member Election Committee –industrial, commercial, and financial sectors 1/4 –the professions 1/4 –labor, social services, religious, & other 1/4 –Legco, HK deputies to NPC, etc. 1/4 C. Y. Leung (2012 - 2017) –no more than two consecutive terms

32 S/election of 60-member Legco

33 Since 1997 Freedoms and rights substantially intact –dissident groups –Falun Gong Judicial system remains the same Weak executive and strong civil service Lack of political skills Multiple political parties

34 Hong Kong’s Competitiveness Geographic location –one of the best deep-water ports in the world hardworking well-educated workforce –literacy rate 94%

35 ``World’s Freest Economy” exports and imports each (>US$400b) greater than GDP GDP per capita: US$50,700 (PPP) no VAT, sales tax, or capital gains tax only 3 types of income are taxed: –profits, salaries, and property but –31% live in public housing

36 Influence on Mainland China US$400 billion direct investment each way Hong Kong bodies of law and expertise Hong Kong attracts talents from mainland Hong Kong radios, TV, newspapers, magazines, and Internet on mainland

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