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Presentation on theme: "EXPERIENCE OF EMPIRE: EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA"— Presentation transcript:

America: Past and Present Chapter 4

2 Growth and Diversity colonial population rises from 250,000 to over two million Much growth through natural increase Large influx of non-English Europeans

3 Distribution of European and African Immigrants

4 Ethnic Cultures of the Backcountry
800 miles along Appalachian Range from western Pennsylvania to western Georgia Already populated by Native Americans and African Americans Large influx of European immigrants in the eighteenth century

5 Scotch-Irish Flee English Oppression
Many from Northern Ireland Concentrate on the Pennsylvania frontier and Shenandoah Valley Often regarded as a disruptive element

6 Germans Search for a Better Life
Fled from warfare in Germany Admired as peaceful, hard-working farmers Tried to preserve German language, customs Aroused the prejudice of English neighbors

7 Convict Settlers Transportation Act of 1718 allows judges to send convicted felons to American colonies 50,000 convicts to America some felons were dangerous criminals most committed minor crimes against property life difficult for transported convicts British praise system, colonists deplore it

8 Native Americans Stake Out a Middle Ground
Many eastern Indians moved into trans-Appalachian region a "middle ground" where no colonial power was yet established Remnants of different Indian peoples regrouped, formed new nations European trade eventually weakened collective resistance to European aggression

9 Spanish Borderlands of the Eighteenth Century
Spain occupied a large part of America north of Mexico since sixteenth century Range from Florida Peninsula to California Indian resistance, lack of interest limited Spanish presence Never a secure political or military hold on borderlands

10 Conquering the Northern Frontier
1692—final establishment of Spanish rule in New Mexico after Popé’s revolt (1680) 18th-century St. Augustine a Spanish military outpost unattractive to settlers 1769—belated Spanish mission settlements in California to prevent Russian claims

11 Peoples of the Spanish Borderlands
Slow growth of Spanish population in borderlands Spanish influence architecture, language Spanish influence over Native Americans Spanish exploit native labor Indians live in proximity to Spanish as despised lower class Indians resist conversion to Catholicism

12 The Spanish Borderlands, ca. 1770

13 The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture
Change in eighteenth-century colonies Growth of urban cosmopolitan culture Aggressive participation in consumption

14 Provincial Cities Urban areas included Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, and Charles Town Economies were geared to commerce Inhabitants took lead in adopting new fashions, the latest luxuries Emulated British architecture Cities attract colonists seeking opportunity

15 American Enlightenment
An intellectual movement stressing reasoned investigation of beliefs and institutions optimistic view of human nature view cosmos as orderly result of natural laws belief in perfectibility of the world search for practical ways of improving life Mixed reception in America

16 Benjamin Franklin Franklin ( ) epitomized provincial, urban culture Became a writer by emulating British literature Achieved wealth through printing business Dedicated to practical uses of reason, science

17 Economic Transformation
Rising demand for English, West Indian goods Colonists paid for imports by exporting tobacco, wheat, and rice purchasing on credit Dependence on commerce led to colonial resentment of English regulations England restricted colonial manufacture or trade of timber, sugar, hats, and iron.

18 Birth of a Consumer Society
English mass-production of consumer goods stimulated rise in colonial imports Wealthy Americans began to build up large debts to English merchants Intercolonial, West Indian trade earn colonists the surplus needed for imports Inter-colonial commerce gave Americans a chance to learn about one another

19 The Great Wagon Road

20 Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies
The Great Awakening was a series of revivals revival: a phenomenon among Protestant Christians characterized by large meetings where large numbers experience religious conversion in response to gifted preaching People began to rethink basic assumptions about church and state, institutions and society

21 The Great Awakening Awakening occurred among many denominations in different places at different times New England in the 1730s, Virginia in the 1750s and 1760s Jonathan Edwards was a prominent minister during this time His sermons encouraged people to examine their eternal destiny

22 The Voice of Popular Religion
George Whitefield symbolized the revivals Whitefield preached outdoor sermons to thousands of people in nearly every colony Itinerants disrupted established churches Laypeople, including women and blacks, gain chance to shape their own religious institutions The Awakening promoted a democratic, evangelical union of national extent

23 The Voice of Popular Religion (2)
Most revivalists well-trained ministers Revivalists found Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, and Rutgers Revivalists held optimistic attitudes toward America's religious role in world history Fostered American patriotism

24 Clash of Political Cultures
Colonists attempted to emulate British political institutions Effort led to discovery of how different they were from the English people

25 The English Constitution
The British Constitution universally admired not a written document, but a system of government based on statute and common law Believed to balance monarchy, aristocracy and democracy Balance believed to guarantee liberties

26 The Reality of British Politics
Less than 20% of English males could vote Members of Parliament notorious for corruption and bribery “Commonwealthmen” criticized corruption, urged return to truly balanced constitution

27 Governing the Colonies: The American Experience
Colonists attempt to model England’s balanced constitution Royal governors most incompetent most bound by instructions from England possessed little patronage for buying votes little power to force their will Governors’ councils steadily lose influence

28 Colonial Assemblies Elected officials depended on popular sentiment
Assemblies more interested in pleasing constituents than in obeying the governor Assemblies controlled all means of raising revenue Assemblies jealously guarded their rights Assemblies held more popular support than governor

29 Colonial Assemblies (2)
Commerce, communication, religion broaden colonists’ horizons by 1754 Colonial law courts increasingly adopt English usage Growing awareness of ideas, institutions, problems shared with England, each other

30 Century of Imperial War
British Americans increasingly drawn into European conflict during eighteenth century Main opponents: France and Spain British colonies militarily superior to New France but ineffective

31 North America, 1750

32 King William's and Queen Anne's Wars
King William’s War ( ): French frontier raids on New York, New England Queen Anne’s War ( ): French frontier raids on North, Spanish South Wars settled nothing France subsequently extended its American empire from Canada into Louisiana

33 King George's War and Its Aftermath
Fought Embroiled colonists more extensively than earlier wars 1745--New England troops captured Fort Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island 1748--Louisbourg returned to France by Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle 1750s--fresh conflict over Ohio Valley

34 Albany Congress and Braddock's Defeat
Albany Congress, Benjamin Franklin propose plan for a central government Albany Plan disliked by English and Americans, fails 1755--General Edward Braddock leads force to drive French from Ohio Valley Braddock’s army ambushed, destroyed

35 Seven Years' War 1756--England declares war on France
Prime Minister William Pitt leads English to concentrate on North America 1759--Quebec captured 1763--Peace of Paris cedes to Great Britain all North America east of Mississippi

36 The Seven Years War,

37 Perceptions of War Colonists realize how strong they could be when they worked together English learn that Americans took forever to organize, easier to command obedience

38 North America after 1763

39 7th ed. revisions by Don Whatley, Blinn College

40 Rule Britannia? Most Americans bound to England in 1763 Ties included
British culture British consumer goods British evangelists British military victories Empire seemed bound by affectionate ties


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