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Presentation on theme: "EXPERIENCE OF EMPIRE: EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA America: Past and Present Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:


2 Growth and Diversity  colonial population rises from 250,000 to over two million  Much growth through natural increase  Large influx of non-English Europeans

3 Distribution of European and African Immigrants

4 Ethnic Cultures of the Backcountry  800 miles along Appalachian Range from western Pennsylvania to western Georgia  Already populated by Native Americans and African Americans  Large influx of European immigrants in the eighteenth century

5 Scotch-Irish Flee English Oppression  Many from Northern Ireland  Concentrate on the Pennsylvania frontier and Shenandoah Valley  Often regarded as a disruptive element

6 Germans Search for a Better Life  Fled from warfare in Germany  Admired as peaceful, hard-working farmers  Tried to preserve German language, customs  Aroused the prejudice of English neighbors

7 Convict Settlers  Transportation Act of 1718 allows judges to send convicted felons to American colonies  50,000 convicts to America  some felons were dangerous criminals  most committed minor crimes against property  life difficult for transported convicts  British praise system, colonists deplore it

8 Native Americans Stake Out a Middle Ground  Many eastern Indians moved into trans- Appalachian region  a "middle ground" where no colonial power was yet established  Remnants of different Indian peoples regrouped, formed new nations  European trade eventually weakened collective resistance to European aggression

9 Spanish Borderlands of the Eighteenth Century  Spain occupied a large part of America north of Mexico since sixteenth century  Range from Florida Peninsula to California  Indian resistance, lack of interest limited Spanish presence  Never a secure political or military hold on borderlands

10 Conquering the Northern Frontier  1692—final establishment of Spanish rule in New Mexico after Popé’s revolt (1680)  18 th -century St. Augustine a Spanish military outpost unattractive to settlers  1769—belated Spanish mission settlements in California to prevent Russian claims

11 Peoples of the Spanish Borderlands  Slow growth of Spanish population in borderlands  Spanish influence architecture, language  Spanish influence over Native Americans  Spanish exploit native labor  Indians live in proximity to Spanish as despised lower class  Indians resist conversion to Catholicism

12 The Spanish Borderlands, ca. 1770

13 The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture  Change in eighteenth-century colonies  Growth of urban cosmopolitan culture  Aggressive participation in consumption

14 Provincial Cities  Urban areas included Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, and Charles Town  Economies were geared to commerce  Inhabitants took lead in adopting new fashions, the latest luxuries  Emulated British architecture  Cities attract colonists seeking opportunity

15 American Enlightenment  An intellectual movement stressing reasoned investigation of beliefs and institutions  optimistic view of human nature  view cosmos as orderly result of natural laws  belief in perfectibility of the world  search for practical ways of improving life  Mixed reception in America

16 Benjamin Franklin  Franklin ( ) epitomized provincial, urban culture  Became a writer by emulating British literature  Achieved wealth through printing business  Dedicated to practical uses of reason, science

17 Economic Transformation  Rising demand for English, West Indian goods  Colonists paid for imports by  exporting tobacco, wheat, and rice  purchasing on credit  Dependence on commerce led to colonial resentment of English regulations  England restricted colonial manufacture or trade of timber, sugar, hats, and iron.

18 Birth of a Consumer Society  English mass-production of consumer goods stimulated rise in colonial imports  Wealthy Americans began to build up large debts to English merchants  Intercolonial, West Indian trade earn colonists the surplus needed for imports  Inter-colonial commerce gave Americans a chance to learn about one another

19 The Great Wagon Road

20 Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies  The Great Awakening was a series of revivals  revival: a phenomenon among Protestant Christians characterized by large meetings where large numbers experience religious conversion in response to gifted preaching  People began to rethink basic assumptions about church and state, institutions and society

21 The Great Awakening  Awakening occurred among many denominations in different places at different times  New England in the 1730s, Virginia in the 1750s and 1760s  Jonathan Edwards was a prominent minister during this time  His sermons encouraged people to examine their eternal destiny

22 The Voice of Popular Religion  George Whitefield symbolized the revivals  Whitefield preached outdoor sermons to thousands of people in nearly every colony  Itinerants disrupted established churches  Laypeople, including women and blacks, gain chance to shape their own religious institutions  The Awakening promoted a democratic, evangelical union of national extent

23 The Voice of Popular Religion (2)  Most revivalists well-trained ministers  Revivalists found Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, and Rutgers  Revivalists held optimistic attitudes toward America's religious role in world history  Fostered American patriotism

24 Clash of Political Cultures  Colonists attempted to emulate British political institutions  Effort led to discovery of how different they were from the English people

25 The English Constitution  The British Constitution universally admired  not a written document, but a system of government based on statute and common law  Believed to balance monarchy, aristocracy and democracy  Balance believed to guarantee liberties

26 The Reality of British Politics  Less than 20% of English males could vote  Members of Parliament notorious for corruption and bribery  “Commonwealthmen” criticized corruption, urged return to truly balanced constitution

27 Governing the Colonies: The American Experience  Colonists attempt to model England’s balanced constitution  Royal governors  most incompetent  most bound by instructions from England  possessed little patronage for buying votes  little power to force their will  Governors’ councils steadily lose influence

28 Colonial Assemblies  Elected officials depended on popular sentiment  Assemblies more interested in pleasing constituents than in obeying the governor  Assemblies controlled all means of raising revenue  Assemblies jealously guarded their rights  Assemblies held more popular support than governor

29 Colonial Assemblies (2)  Commerce, communication, religion broaden colonists’ horizons by 1754  Colonial law courts increasingly adopt English usage  Growing awareness of ideas, institutions, problems shared with England, each other

30 Century of Imperial War  British Americans increasingly drawn into European conflict during eighteenth century  Main opponents: France and Spain  British colonies militarily superior to New France but ineffective

31 North America, 1750

32 King William's and Queen Anne's Wars  King William’s War ( ): French frontier raids on New York, New England  Queen Anne’s War ( ): French frontier raids on North, Spanish South  Wars settled nothing  France subsequently extended its American empire from Canada into Louisiana

33 King George's War and Its Aftermath  Fought  Embroiled colonists more extensively than earlier wars  New England troops captured Fort Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island  Louisbourg returned to France by Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle  1750s--fresh conflict over Ohio Valley

34 Albany Congress and Braddock's Defeat  Albany Congress, Benjamin Franklin propose plan for a central government  Albany Plan disliked by English and Americans, fails  General Edward Braddock leads force to drive French from Ohio Valley  Braddock’s army ambushed, destroyed

35 Seven Years' War  England declares war on France  Prime Minister William Pitt leads English to concentrate on North America  Quebec captured  Peace of Paris cedes to Great Britain all North America east of Mississippi

36 The Seven Years War,

37 Perceptions of War  Colonists realize how strong they could be when they worked together  English learn that Americans took forever to organize, easier to command obedience

38 North America after 1763

39 7th ed. revisions by Don Whatley, Blinn College

40 Rule Britannia?  Most Americans bound to England in 1763  Ties included  British culture  British consumer goods  British evangelists  British military victories  Empire seemed bound by affectionate ties

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