Presentation on theme: "Choose the Worst Dictator! It’s time to play “Africa’s Worst Dictator”! Number your paper 1-12 and rank these African Dictators in order of cruelty Write."— Presentation transcript:
Choose the Worst Dictator! It’s time to play “Africa’s Worst Dictator”! Number your paper 1-12 and rank these African Dictators in order of cruelty Write their name and country #1 is the worst Answer the 2 summary questions at the end
1. Mengistu Haile Mariam (1937 - ) Ethiopia Know as “The Red Terror” for his links with the USSR. Executed 1.5 million of his own people in 4 years. (Top ten genocides of the century) Stole international food aid during Ethiopia’s famine. Ousted in 1991 and fled to Zimbabwe.
1. Mariam Ruled from 1977 to 1987 Oversaw the Ethiopian Red Terror Fled to Zimbabwe in 1991 at the conclusion of the Ethiopian Civil War Found guilty of genocide with some estimates being as high as more than two million deaths
2. Omar Al-bashir (1947 – ) Sudan Seized power by military coup in 1989 over the democracy. 1 million people killed in Sudanese Civil War. 9 million have fled the country or been place in “internal exile” Dissolved Sudan’s parliament, banned political parties, closed down all independent media. Imposed strict Islamic Law (Shariah) and brutally repressed non-Muslims.
2. Al-Bashir Came to power through a bloodless military coup in 1989 Has been elected president three times since then Major Projects: Merowe Dam, Roseires Dam, expansion of electricity, construction of five new bridges over Nile River, building a large number of highways and roads, drilling oil, building oil refineries and oil pipes, established 36 new universities, expanded water pipelines, built up car and aircraft industry Introduced Islamic law---Sharia Law
2. Al-Bashir But for all the positive things he has done, he has carried out the Sudanese Civil War, which is one of the longest running and deadliest wars in the last century Carried out the Darfur Genocide that led to the split and creation of South Sudan The Civil War led to the death of at least 200,000 to 400, 000 people and the creation of 2.5 million refugees. March 2009---arrest warrant issued on counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity Has embezzled at least 9 billion dollars
3. Idi Amin Dada (1925 - 2003) Uganda President from 1971-1979 A former boxer, rose through the ranks of the Army. Seized power through military coup. Reigned with brutal torture and violence. Bodies were found with genitals, noses, livers, and eyes missing. Prison camps were filled with common citizens and prisoners were forced to kill each other. 300,000 people were killed under Amin, with 60,000 Kenyans being expelled from the country. 1976 – declared himself president for life. Heavy Military – soldiers held government positions Invaded Tanzania in 1978, but was defeated Has been called “Africa’s Adolph Hitler”
3. Dada Rule was characterized by human rights abuses, political repression, ethnic persecution, extrajudicial killings, nepotism, corruption, and gross economic mismanagement He killed between 100,000 to 500,000 people depending on what source you go to.
4. Charles Taylor (1931 - ) Liberia Elected as president in 1997 Has been accused of using rape, mutilation, and torture as instruments of terror Is accused of using civilians as slave labor Personal wealth is greater than Liberia’s Gross National Product Gained wealth by looting Liberia’s natural resources: gold, diamonds, rubber, and timber Supports rebels in Sierra Leone by smuggling illegal diamonds
4. Taylor Was a warlord before his election to presidency Linked to blood diamonds and illegal arms trading Frequently interferes with neighboring states
5. Robert Mugabe (1924- ) Zimbabwe In 1980 became first president after independence from Britain Became more dictatorial and lost popularity Physically removed white farmers from their land in “land redistribution program” Any opposition to Mugabe’s regime is not tolerated Accused of stashing large amounts of money in foreign bank accounts
5. Mugabe Arrested and tortured opponents and human rights activists. His actions created an inflation increase of over 200,000 percent. Gave amnesty to the murderers of his political opponents in 2000 Ignores all court rulings
6. Issayas Afeworki (1945 - ) Eritrea Became president in 1991 with independence from Ethiopia His party split and brutally repressed opponents Shut down all of Eritrea’s free media and arrested high-ranked officials of his own government Cracked down on young dissidents at Eritrea’s only university Over 2000 university students were sent to “community work camps” The student union leader “disappeared”
7. Siad Barre (1919-1995) Somalia Seized power in 1969 military coup Divided up Somalia’s clans against each other Accused of killing thousands of innocent civilians and their livestock and poisoning their water supplies Estimated that 50,000 to 60,000 people were killed between 1988-1990 Overthrown in 1991 and fled to Nigeria
7. Barre Took over in a military coup Attempted to develop a cult of personality Dreamed of a Greater Somalia Tried to annex part of Ethiopia
8. Muammar Al-Gaddafi (1942 - 2011) Libya Overthrew monarchy in 1969 coup ‘Anti-western’ attitudes have brought conflict with U.S. Accused of being associated with terrorist organizations Controls all media in Libya and criticism is not tolerated Ordered assassination of Libyan dissidents in the 1980’s Political trials are held in private and offenders regularly tortured Believed to be more moderate in recent times
8. Gaddafi Ruled for 42 years, seized power in a bloodless military coup in 1969 Controlled Africa’s largest oil reserves
9. Laurent Kabila (1939-2001) Democratic Republic of Congo Overthrew Joseph Mobutu in 1997 to become president 3.3 million people were killed under his rule Removed officials from different tribes than his own Sent political opponents into exile Shot by his own bodyguard in 2001
9. Kabila Took power in a coup No elections while he was in power Actions led to the First and Second Congo Wars
10. Hissene Habre Chad President from 1982 until 1990 Widespread genocide against ethnic minorities during his rule Personal secret police believed to have assassinated tens of thousands of political opponents Systematic use of torture was common practice Currently in exile in Senegal Facing charges of crimes against humanity in Belgium
11. Jean-Bedel Bokassa (1921-1996) Central African Republic Became president from 1966 until 1979 in a military coup Helped establish the new army of independent C.A.R. Abolished the country’s constitution and declared himself president for life Adopted the title of ‘emperor’ after a $30 million coronation ceremony Made himself rich while brutally exploited his people Personally involved in torture, executions, and even cannibalism Ousted by a French-backed coup in 1979 Returned in 1986, but was arrested, convicted and sentenced to death for crimes against humanity His sentence was changed to life in prison, but was released in 1993 Had 17 wives and 50 children Died of a heart attack in 1996
11. Bokassa Ruled from 1966-1979 Took power in a coup Assumed power as president of the Republic and became head of the sole political party Abolished the constitution Made himself emperor in 1976
12. Sekou Toure (1922-1984) Guinea Became first president after independence in 1958 Brought poverty and slavery to Guinea Established ‘death camps’ in the 1960’s that lasted 20 years Tortured and executed many of Guinea’s elite class One million Guineans fled the country for political and economic reasons Died during surgery in the U.S. in 1984
12. Toure Killed at least 50,000 people Actions led to 250,000 refugees
Who’s your #1? Add up the votes for each dictator to find out… Africa’s Worst Dictator! http://abesha.wordpress.com/2008/01/31/top-12-africas- worst-dictators/
Summary Why have there been so many dictators in Africa? What impact have corrupt leaders had on African countries?