Presentation on theme: "Topic 13 Modern Christianity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Topic 13 Modern Christianity 17th century18th century19th century20th century
2 I. The 17th Century Religious conflicts Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) Protestants vs. CatholicsBegan with Defenestration of Prague – Protestant protesters tossed 2 Catholic royal advisors out of window – fell in dung pile.War engulfed Europe.Peace of Westphalia (1648)Agreed to quit fighting.Granted religious freedom for Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists (not Anabaptists).French persecutionProtestantism was outlawed in 1685.Huguenots (French Reformed) were persecuted terribly; many fled.
3 I. The 17th Century Developments in English Protestantism Puritans Group in Anglican Church which thought Anglican reform did not go far enough; many were influenced by Calvinism.Wanted to purge Anglican church of remaining Catholic trappings.Wanted to purge society of immorality (heavy drinking, gambling, frivolous games, etc.).SeparatistsRadical Puritans who withdrew from Anglican Church (gave up on reform from within).Set up separate churches to implement reforms.
4 Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock I. The 17th CenturyB. Developments in English Protestantism – cont.Persecution by James I – many fled1620 – Plymouth Colony – Separatists1630 – Massachusetts Bay Colony – PuritansBaptists – emerged out of Separatist movementJohn Smyth – Separatist pastorFled to Amsterdam – influenced by Anabaptists.1609 – adopted believer’s baptism – first English-speaking Baptist church.Thomas Helwys1612 – led part of group back to London – first Baptist church on English soil.Booklet outlining Baptist principles: believer’s baptism; general atonement (Christ died for all people); religious freedom for all; separation of church and state; etc..5. Act of Toleration (1689) – ended persecution; granted toleration to most dissident groups.Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock
5 I. The 17th CenturyControversy in Reformed Church: Calvinism vs. ArminianismHard-line Calvinist predestination – TULIP (p. 177):T – Total depravityU – Unconditional electionL – Limited atonementI – Irresistible graceP – Perseverance of the saintsArminianism – Jacob Arminius: Dutch Reformed theologian; opposed strict Calvinist predestination; wanted more room for human free will.Christ died for all (general atonement).Grace can be accepted or rejected by anyone.Believers can fall from grace.
6 I. The 17th Century Arminianism vs. Calvinism – cont. 3. Synod of Dort ( )Rejected Arminianism.Affirmed “5-point” Calvinism.InfluencePresbyterians / Reformed – CalvinisticMethodists – ArminianBaptists – mixed
7 I. The 17th Century The Enlightenment Age of Reason Sir Isaac NewtonThe EnlightenmentAge of ReasonScientific knowledge – based on observation and reason.Natural law – world operates by laws of nature, like a machine.Deism – rational religion, consistent with reasonLord Herbert of Cherbury – father of Deism; blended religion and Enlightenment rationalism.Major tenets of Deism:God created universe to operate by laws of nature.Skeptical of miracles.Rejected idea of Trinity.Jesus not divine, but a great moral teacher.Questioned inspiration of Bible.Most of the “founding fathers” of U. S. A. were Deists.Thomas Jefferson
8 II. The 18th Century Pietism – Germany – 3 key leaders Three evangelical movements reacting against “Protestant rationalism” (i.e., emphasis on dry, intellectual doctrine).Pietism – Germany – 3 key leadersPhilipp Jakob Spener – founderSought revival of Lutheran Church.Needed “religion of heart” as well as head.Organized small groups for prayer and Bible study.Wrote Pia Desideria (1675) – primary source for Pietist principles.August Hermann FranckeProfessor at Univ. of Halle.Turned Halle into Pietist training center.Count ZinzendorfSheltered Moravian refugees on his estate.Organized into Pietist community.Became Moravian Church (1727); sent missionaries out.Stressed emotional conversion & personal relationship with Christ.
9 II. The 18th Century Methodism – England Founded in England by John Wesley (and Charles)Students at Oxford – nicknamed “methodists”Mission to Georgia – contact with Moravians“Conversion” (1738)Moravian Church service in London.“I felt my heart strangely warmed.”PreachingSought revival within Anglican Church.Necessity of personal conversion and sanctified living.Preached outdoors to large crowds.Methodist Church separated in 1795.AmericaMethodism grew rapidly.“Circuit riders” like Francis Asbury.
10 C. First Great Awakening – Colonial America II. The 18th CenturyC. First Great Awakening – Colonial AmericaJonathan EdwardsCongregationalist pastor in Mass.; began insisting on necessity of emotional conversion experience.Led great revival in ; hundreds of conversions.Many learned theological works.George WhitefieldTraveling evangelist from England; formerly associated with Wesley (broke over Calvinism; Wesley was Arminian).Famous for outdoor preaching.Several tours of colonies.ResultsGrowth in church membership.Division over emotional excesses.Helped unify colonies; prepared for Revolution.
11 III. The 19th Century Second Great Awakening Charles Grandison Finney Techniques of revival meetings (“new measures”).Protracted meetings; advertising; praying for sinners by name; anxious bench; etc.Many imitators; churches grew.Founded Oberlin College – first coed college in America.Frontier revivalismTraveling evangelists followed settlers westward.“Camp meetings” – settlers came from miles around; camped for weeks.ResultsChurch growth, esp. Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians.Movements aimed at social evils: temperance in alcohol use, poverty relief, abolition of slavery.
12 III. The 19th Century B. Modern missions movement William Carey English Baptist cobbler – self-educated.1792 – published call to take gospel to world.Baptist Missionary Society – sent Carey to India.Adoniram and Ann JudsonCongregationalist missionaries to India – became Baptist en route; no support.Friend, Luther Rice, returned and organized Baptist support.Triennial Convention (1814) – Baptist organization for mission support.ResultsBy end of century, most denominations had mission societies.Missionaries around the world: Africa, Asia, Central and South America.
13 III. The 19th Century Slavery issue Abolitionist movement divided churches as well as the nation.Many northern preachers decried evils of slavery, called for abolition.Many southern preachers defended slavery.Many denominations formally split into Northern and Southern bodies.Southern Baptist Convention – formed in 1845 when Triennial Convention refused to appoint missionaries who owned slaves.
14 Scopes “Monkey” Trial (1925) III. The 19th CenturyLiberalism and FundamentalismBoth were reactions to “Modernism.”New sciences challenging religion.Darwin’s theory of evolution; geology; archaeology; historiography; etc.Varied Christian reactions: some embraced modern thought; others rejected it.Charles DarwinScopes “Monkey” Trial (1925)
15 III. The 19th Century Liberalism and Fundamentalism – cont. “Liberal” Protestant theologyFriedrich Schleiermacher“Father” of Liberal theology.Essence of Christianity is feeling of “absolute dependence” on God; specific doctrines are negotiable.Liberal theologyUniversal Fatherhood of God – God is Father of all people.Innate goodness of man – task of religion is to tap that goodness and develop it.Kingdom of God is being achieved through progress of Christian culture.Historical criticism of Bible (“higher criticism”)Studied Bible with same methods as other literature: written by human authors, influenced by their culture, etc.Documentary hypothesis of Pentateuch: multiple authors, evolved over several centuries (Julius Wellhausen).Two-source theory of Gospels: Mark and Q used by Matt. and Lk.Questioned historical/scientific accuracy of Bible.Julius Wellhausen
16 III. The 19th Century Liberalism and Fundamentalism – cont. Conservative reaction against modern science (evolution), Liberal theology, and biblical criticism.Five fundamentals of the faith (cannot be compromised)Inerrancy of the Bible (verbal inspiration)Virgin birth of JesusSubstitutionary atonement (or “satisfaction” theory)Physical, bodily resurrection of JesusVisible second coming of Christ (premillennial)Catholic anti-modernism“Syllabus of Errors” (1864) – condemned various “modernisms”: liberalism, socialism, modern science, biblical studies, democracy, freedom of thought, and religious liberty.Vatican Council I (1870) – declared “papal infallibility .”
17 “Social Gospel” movement IV. The 20th Century“Social Gospel” movementApplied power of gospel to social problems stemming from Industrial Revolution – poverty; poor working/living conditions; child labor; etc.Walter Rauschenbusch – German Baptist pastor in slums of NYC; saw poverty at its worst; challenged churches to organize against it.A Theology for the Social Gospel (1917):Building Kingdom of God takes more than conversion of individuals.Churches must also work to transform social structures to get rid of systemic injustice.Advocated legislation to force better wages, working conditions, housing; ban child labor; etc.
18 IV. The 20th Century B. Neo-orthodoxy Optimism of Liberal theology was shattered by horrors of WW I (and Holocaust; WW II).“Neo-orthodoxy” was a theological movement which returned to a more traditional style of theology.Emphasized depth of human sin and need for divine redemption.Remained open to modern science and biblical criticism.“Father of Neo-orthodoxy” was Karl BarthCommentary on Romans,1918.Most influential theologian of 20th century.Helped organize “Confessing Church” movement which opposed Nazism.Karl BarthDietrich Bonhoeffer (another leader in Confessing Church) – Imprisoned by Nazis for plot against Hitler; executed shortly before Allied victory; wrote The Cost of Discipleship.
19 IV. The 20th Century Vatican Council II (1962-65) Ecumenical movement Convened by Pope John XXIII.Opened Catholic church to modern world.Examples of some measures:Declared right of religious freedom.Allowed Mass in vernacular.Encouraged more participation of laity.Encouraged critical Bible study.Declared openness to dialogue with other denominations; etc.Ecumenical movementSeeks cooperation and unity among Christian denominations.World Council of Churches (1948) – sponsors Bible translation (RSV; NRSV); coordination of mission work; dialogue over doctrinal differences; etc.Pope John XXIII
20 IV. The 20th Century Evangelicalism Conservative movement less rigid than Fundamentalism.Theological emphases:Authority of BibleSaving death of ChristPersonal conversion experiencePersonal evangelismEffective use of radio and TV.Most visible advocate is Billy Graham.
21 IV. The 20th CenturyPentecostalism (sometimes called “charismatic movement”)Movement that emphasizes experience of being filled by Holy Spirit (like early church on Pentecost in Acts 2).Manifested in overt signs – tongue-speaking; prophecy; healing; body movements (swaying, hand-lifting, dancing, falling down, etc.).Origin in Azusa Street Revival – Los Angeles (1906).Rapid growth in last quarter of century, esp. in Latin America and other Third-World countries.Appeal: emotional services; racial, ethnic, social, gender inclusiveness.
22 Where in the World Are the Christians? EuropeWhite190050%80%200025%40%