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5 Videotape, Video Media, and Video Recorders © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Illustrate the.

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Presentation on theme: "5 Videotape, Video Media, and Video Recorders © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Illustrate the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 5 Videotape, Video Media, and Video Recorders

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Illustrate the process of cleaning video heads. Identify professional quality videotape formats, as well as other video media types available. Summarize the function of the control track in regulating the playback speed of videotape. Recall the purpose of and process for performing a test record. Explain the role of an RF converter in a television’s use of audio and video signals. Objectives

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Videotape and Recorder Classification Video recorder = DeckDeck Format Width of tape Method of placing signal on tape

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Recording Medium Is currently progressing from many formats of tape to various tapeless media Hard drives Miniature DVDs Full-sized DVDs Flash drives Even newer technology

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Tapeless Advantages Instant access to any point in recording No loss of quality when copying Importing or exporting video to and from computer takes mere seconds

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Videotape Construction Plastic base Adhesive Oxide powder Only place to vary manufacturer cost is to vary quality of adhesive

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Videotape Construction (Cont.) Do not save pennies with cheap tape–it only buys expensive headaches later When oxide falls off tape, empty spot causes dropout on screendropout Discard tape when dropouts start appearing

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Video Heads Found on head drum inside video recorder At least two heads on all VCRs Head drum is tilted to record signal in helical scan, also called slant track helical scan

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Dirty Video Heads Symptom of dirty heads is many white spots on screen Consumer calls white spots snow Professional calls white spots video noisevideo noise When given option, always use professional terms–not consumer terms

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Causes of Dirty Video Heads Smoking near VCR Using poor quality videotape Pets resting on top of VCR Fingerprints on videotape Videotape at end of its useful life

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Cleaning Dirty Heads on VHS and S-VHS Decks Use foam or chamois-tipped swabs dipped in head cleaning solution, denatured alcohol, or wood alcohol DO NOT USE ISOPROPYL OR RUBBING ALCOHOL! It will leave an oily residue Do NOT use commercial head cleaning cassettes

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Cleaning Dirty Heads on VHS and S-VHS Decks (Cont)

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Procedure: Unplug VCR from power and remove cover from deck Gently press on top of drum assembly to keep it from spinning Gently rub swab from side to side on each video head Replace cover and test VCR Cleaning Dirty Heads on VHS and S-VHS Decks (Cont)

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Cleaning Dirty Heads on Digital Video Decks Artifacts appear when heads are dirtyArtifacts Use professional name-brand head cleaning cassettes Follow instructions on head cleaning cassette carefully, otherwise you can damage heads permanently Do not attempt to clean heads manually

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Upward Compatibility Many tapes are upwardly compatible Ability of lower-end tapes to play in upper-end decks but upper-end tapes will not play in lower-end decks

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Videotape Widths on Reels and Cassettes 2” tape used on quadruplex (quad), recorders2” tapequadruplex (quad) 1” tape ½” tape 6mm

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Analog Videotape Formats VHS VHS-C Super VHS (S-VHS), also called Y/CSuper VHS (S-VHS)Y/C Betacam Betacam SP

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Digital Videotape Formats Digital Betacam (Digi-Beta) Beta SX Mini-DV DVCPRO DVCPRO50 DVCPRO100 DVCam Digital S

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Digital Videotape Formats (Cont)

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Other Digital Recording Media DVD P2 Hard drives Solid-state memory

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. VTR Interchange All VHS tapes can be played on all VHS decks as long as recording system is identical This makes mass dubbing cost-effectivedubbing

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Control Track Causes VHS decks to know which speed to run in playback mode SP LP EP When automatic control track is insufficient, tracking lines appear on screen and operator must use tracking control to fixtracking control

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Digital Video Recorder Does not require videotape Can record standard video as well as hi-def Records on: Hard drives Solid-state memory Rapidly becoming professional studio recorder of choice

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inputs and Outputs Connectors on decks for cables to attach Input sends signal into deck from a sourceInput Output takes signal out of deck to elsewhereOutput

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Before Recording Begins Label recording medium with identifying info: Title of program Director Scenes to be recorded Date

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Test Record Record at least one minute Rewind and playback Check audio level and quality Check video level and quality Adjust as necessary and redo test record until it is satisfactory

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Heads and Tails Always shoot head, which includes countdown and slatehead 15 seconds Always shoot tail for at least 10 secondstail

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Audio Level on Video Recorder Analog: keep between –3 dB to +3 dB Digital: Keep near –20 dB

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Radio Frequency Video recorders create pure video and audio Many televisions must receive signal on a “channel” Channel = radio frequency (RF)(RF) Many VCRs have built-in RF converter to do this taskRF converter

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Television Types Receiver Monitor Monitor/receiver Most modern consumer digital television sets are equipped with multiple inputs making them monitor/receivers

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Society of Broadcast Engineers Helps keep all types of broadcast engineers at top level of their knowledge and skills Career Page

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What are possible causes of white spots appearing on screen when playing back VHS tape? Smoking near machine; poor quality tape; old tape; pet resting on top of warm machine leaving dander and hair; fingerprints Review Question

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. How do you get rid of video noise? Clean video heads Review Question

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. You have determined video heads are dirty. How would you go about cleaning them? 1.Unplug VCR, remove cover 2.Gently press on top of drum assembly 3.Using tipped swabs dipped in head cleaning solution–not rubbing alcohol 4.Gently rub swab from side to side on each video head 5.Replace cover and test VCR Review Question

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. List technological advancements developed since the days of VHS and Betacam. Hard drive; miniature DVDs; full-sized DVDs; flash drives; etc. Review Question

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What allows VHS machines to know at what speed to play back tapes? Control track Review Question

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Describe the process of performing a test recording. 1.Record at least one minute 2.Rewind and play back 3.Check audio/video level and quality 4.Adjust as necessary and redo test record until it is satisfactory Review Question

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What do video recorders use to receive audio and visual “channels” from televisions? Radio frequency, or RF, converters Review Question

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What are artifacts? Tiny rectangular distortions that appear on the screen when viewing digital tape that has a corrupted signal Review Question

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 1 tape: A reel format videotape available in three formats: Type A, Type B, and Type C. Type C was the most common format. 1/2 tape: A reel format videotape found only in low-end, industrial equipment. 2 tape: A reel format videotape used on older machines called quadruplex recorders. Glossary

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. artifacts: Tiny, rectangular distortions that appear on the screen in digital video formats when a portion of the digital signal is corrupted. Betacam: A 1/2 format, broadcast- quality videotape. Betacam SP: A 1/2 videotape format that used to be the best format for professional television use, but digital video formats are challenging this format in professional markets. Glossary

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Beta SX: A 1/2 videotape that uses digital MPEG compression. control track: A series of inaudible pulses recorded onto a tape that regulates the speed of the tape in playback. deck: The common term used for a video recorder/player. Glossary

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Digital Betacam (Digi-Beta): A 1/2 videotape with higher quality than Betacam SP and the capability of recording of digital signals instead of analog signals. Digital S: A 1/2 digital videotape format that is broadcast quality. Also known as D-9. Glossary

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. digital video recorder (DVR): A device that records a digital signal directly onto either a hard drive or a solid-state memory module inside or connected to the DVR unit. dropout: A tiny white dot seen on the television screen when the medium has fallen off an analog videotape and the video head passes over an “empty spot” on the tape. Glossary

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. dubbing: The process of copying a video recording. DVCam: A 6mm digital format that is proprietary to Sony Corporation. DVCPRO: A 6mm, metal particle tape used as a professional digital video format. DVCPRO50: A 6mm digital format with even higher quality than DVCPRO. Glossary

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. DVCPRO100: The high definition format of DVCPRO tape. DVD (Digital Video Disc): An optical disc that can store a very large amount of digital video data, as well as text and/or music. head: A 15 second “lead-in” recorded at the beginning of every take. Glossary

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. helical scan: The pattern in which a video signal is placed onto a videotape. The videotape is wrapped around the video head and, because the head is slanted, the video signal is recorded diagonally on the tape. Also called slant track. input: A port or connection on a video device through which a signal enters the device, such as the “audio in” port. Glossary

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. mini-DV: A metal evaporated tape, 6mm digital video format used by many industrial video producers. monitor: A television set that can receive only pure video and audio signals. monitor/receiver: A hybrid television that can receive pure video and audio signals, as well as RF signals. Glossary

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. output: A port or connection on a video device through which the signal leaves the deck and travels to another piece of equipment, such as the “video out”. P2: A static memory card that is proprietary to Panasonic and used in certain high-end cameras. Glossary

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. quadruplex (quad): A very large, older videotape recorder that uses 2 tape. receiver: A television set that can receive only RF signals. RF: Radio frequency signal that is a combination of both audio and video. RF converter: A small module inside the VCR that combines pure video and audio into one radio frequency. Glossary

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Super VHS (S-VHS): A low-end, industrial 1/2 videotape format that is superior to VHS. tail: A 10 second “lead-out” recorded at the end of each scene. Glossary

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. test record: The process of using the video recorder to record audio and video signals before the session taping begins to ensure the equipment is functioning properly and to indicate any necessary adjustments. tracking control: A knob on a professional VCR that is used to manually adjust the tape tracking speed. Glossary

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. VHS (Video Home System): A 1/2 videotape format that emerged as the preferred standard for consumer VCRs. VHS-C: A 1/2 videotape format that is shorter than regular VHS and is, therefore, packaged in a compact cassette. Glossary

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. video heads: The components inside a VCR that lay down the video signal onto a tape when in record mode. When a VCR is in playback mode, the video heads pick up the video signal from a tape. video noise: The white dots seen on a screen if the videotape is blank or if the heads are dirty. Glossary

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. VTR interchange: The ability of a tape that was recorded on one machine to be played back on another machine. Y/C: The professional name for the signal placed onto S-VHS videotape. Glossary


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