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Seminar 1 2011 Fast Track Probiotics limit the severity of post weaning diarrhoea Larissa Beale.

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Presentation on theme: "Seminar 1 2011 Fast Track Probiotics limit the severity of post weaning diarrhoea Larissa Beale."— Presentation transcript:


2 Seminar 1 2011 Fast Track

3 Probiotics limit the severity of post weaning diarrhoea Larissa Beale

4 About me Graduated Bach App. Sci. (1 st class Hons) from Uni QLD Interest is in developing new strategies to help combat disease and improve animal husbandry

5 Background PWD causes significant loss to producers A multi factorial disease with ETEC playing a major role Past prevention regimes relied on antimicrobials

6 Decreased effectiveness of antimicrobial based techniques due to resistance Increased need for alternative management strategies

7 Probiotic design E. coli formula tailor made to be effective against O141, O149 and O157 Screened over 25 000 E. coli sourced from different pig samples Tested for their antagonism, survivability and safety

8 Project aim Test the efficacy of an E. coli probiotic formula to help combat ETEC associated PWD

9 Experimental design 12 gilts and their offspring –6 probiotic supplement and 6 control Betty

10 Flow of water Control giltsProbiotic treated gilts Blocked Door Access Door

11 Experimental design 12 gilts and their offspring –6 probiotic supplement and 6 control Dosage rate of 1x10 9 CFU E. coli probiotic formula (in a dextrose base) Dextrose base only (control/placebo) Given orally via syringe Betty

12 Probiotic or placebo received orally at birth, 5 days of age and the day prior to weaning 60 piglets randomly allocated to challenge group ETEC (5x10 9 CFU) challenge received orally at weaning for 3 consecutive days

13 Blocked Door Access Door Hospital Pen Challenge Room Flow of water

14 Record keeping Individual faecal consistency was recorded daily for 4 days after weaning Scores 1 or 2 were considered as ‘normal’ and 3 – 5 as ‘scouring’ Faecal consistency scores 1 – Dry, pelleted faeces 2 – Moulded faeces 3 – Moist, cow dung appearance 4 – Diarrhoea 5 – Watery diarrhoea

15 Results Record of every faecal consistency score Control animals had fewer scores of 1 and more at 5 Majority probiotic animals had scores of 2 Faecal Score Days post-weaning Scouring Not Scouring

16 All the consistency scores were added and averaged for each animal Average faecal consistency for probiotic supplemented animals was not a scouring level 45% 3%97%55%

17 Commercial significance The E. coli probiotic successfully reduced the severity and duration of PWD Currently being tested under commercial conditions at a number of sites

18 Acknowledgements Co authors: H.J.M Brouwers, B. Turner, D. Jordan, R. Al Jassim and T.A. Chapman Pork CRC, International Animal Health Products EMAI staff and students

19 Seminar 2 2011 Fast Track

20 Effect of dietary nano chromium picolinate on growth carcass characteristics, and insulin sensitivity in pigs Supervisors: Prof. Frank Dunshea, Assoc. Prof. Brian Leury, Dr. Matthew Sabin Tsung-Yu Hung (Alex)

21 B. Animal science-Chinese Culture University (Taiwan) Animal nutrition specialist. Swine feed & nutrition Division –Great Wall Enterprise CO. LTD. (Taiwan) M. Phil (Animal Feed &Nutrition)-National Chiayi University (Taiwan) Research assistant /Laboratory manager- Animal Nutrition Lab. Department of Animal science. National Chiayi University. (Taiwan) PhD (Animal production)-Melbourne University Personal background

22 Benefit of Cr in farm animals Growth performance - ADG ↑ (average daily weight gain ) - FCR ↑ (Feed conversion rate) Carcass trait - P2 backfat ↓ - longissimus muscle ↑ Meat quality - marbling scores ↑ - water holding capacity ↑ Stress

23 Poor absorption of Cr - 0.5 to 3% inorganic form of Cr can be absorbed -< 20% organic form of Cr can be absorbed Why Nano Cr?

24 What is nano? 10 -9 or 1/1,000,000,000. Prolong compound residence time Increase surface area Improve solubility Why Nano size particle can improve the absorption of nutrient

25 Net change (kg/day)P-value Con vs Nano0.03 (n=8)0.02 Con vs Normal0.001 (n=6)0.63 Normal vs Nano0.04 (n=6)<0.01 Net change in ADG Nano-Cr increases ADG (Hung et al. 2010)

26 Net change (feed/gain)P-value Con vs Nano-0.086 (n=8)<0.01 Con vs Normal-0.015 (n=6)0.17 Normal vs Nano-0.005 (n=6)0.73 Net change in FCR Nano-Cr improves FCR (Hung et al. 2010)

27 Net change (cm)P-value Con vs Nano-0.049 (n=7)0.02 Con vs Normal-0.01 (n=5)<0.01 Normal vs Nano-0.01 (n=5)0.57 Net change in backfat Nano-Cr decreases backfat (Hung et al. 2010)

28 31.1% 10.7% Nano Cr improved Cr digestibility (Li & Lien 2010) Nano-Cr Increases digestibility of Cr

29 Cr picolinate 1st stage 2.0 mm grinding bead NanoCr (< 100 nm) 2nd stage 0.3 mm grinding bead Micro Cr (<20 μm) Preparation of nano-Cr Normal Cr (<1mm)

30 SEM image of nano-Cr 50 μ M

31 ab a HF vs. LF (P<O.05) Control vs. Cr (P<0.05) Nano-Cr improve ADG kg

32 P2 backfat Control vs. Cr (P<0.01) mm b ab aa Carcass weight Control vs. Cr (P<0.01) kg b ab a b a Muscle depth Control vs. Cr (P<0.05) Control vs. Cr on HF diet (P<0.05) Nano-Cr decreases P2 backfat and increase carcass weight and muscle depth

33 Control vs. Cr (P<0.05) Nano-Cr improves insulin sensitivity

34 Nano Cr up-regulated adiponectin mRNA expression in adipose tissue

35 Nano-Cr improved Insulin signaling gene expression in muscle

36 Conclusion Dietary nano-CrPic supplementation can increase ADG, carcass weight, and reduce P2 backfat. Dietary nano-CrPic supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity by increasing insulin signaling gene expression.

37 Acknowledgements

38 Seminar 3 2011 Fast Track

39 Determining the lysine requirements of pigs immunised against GnRF Karen Moore WA Dept. of Agriculture & Food

40 Boar taint Entire male production Urine or perspiration odour/flavour Boar taint compounds - androstenone and skatole Significant cause of consumer complaints Sensitivity to boar taint increasing

41 2011 D’Souza et al. 2011

42 Eliminating boar taint Castration is the only effective method – Physical – perceived welfare issues – Immunological (Improvac®) Used by at least 25% of Australian industry Nearly 60 countries worldwide – Brazil, China, USA and Canada

43 Improvac blocks the reproductive hormones Pituitary No LH & FSH Androstenone decreases Skatole decreases Testes X Hypothalamus anti-GnRF GnRF

44 Improvac® - no more boar taint Dunshea et al. (unpublished)

45 (D’Souza et al., 1999) Castration and Eating Quality 0 = dislike extremely; 100 = like extremely

46 Production of immunised males is associated with Deterioration in feed conversion Increased P2 No published work on lysine requirements. It can have a big influence on cost of diets and hence profitability It can have a big impact on growth and carcass quality if it is not correct All other amino acids are supplied as a ratio to lysine But…..

47 Aims To determine the available lysine/MJ digestible energy ratio of immunised males and how this compares with entire males To determine how the lysine requirement changes after the second vaccination

48 Daily gain 60 to 108 kg LW Average: Entires – 1.09 Immuno – 1.20 Moore et al. (unpublished)

49 Feed to gain 60 to 108 kg LW Average: Entires – 2.51 Immuno – 2.58 Moore et al. (unpublished)

50 Feed intake 60 to 108 kg LW Moore et al. (unpublished)

51 Backfat Moore et al. (unpublished)

52 Summary Immunised males vs. entire males Increased daily gain Increased feed intake Increased feed to gain Lower Av Lys:DE requirement Increased backfat Increased carcase weight Lower dressing percentage

53 Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centres Program Feed intake over time Moore et al. (unpublished)

54 Daily gain over time Moore et al. (unpublished)

55 Feed to gain over time Moore et al. (unpublished)

56 What does this mean for you? Boar taint is still an issue – one method to effectively control it is the use of Improvac ® Lysine requirements will be different depending on your situation – these values provide a standard – talk to your nutritionist to determine optimum lysine requirement for your genotype and environment Suggested feeding regime – feed as for entire males until at least 2 weeks after vaccination when the lysine requirement can be decreased

57 Where to next? Investigate physiological and carcase composition changes that occur following the second vaccination of Improvac ® Overall goal: – Identify management strategies that can be easily implemented to minimise the increase in backfat and decrease in feed efficiency associated with the production of pigs immunised against GnRF

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