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Safe TypeScript Aseem Rastogi University of Maryland, College Park

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1 Safe TypeScript Aseem Rastogi University of Maryland, College Park
End of Internship Talk Joint work with: Nikhil Swamy (RiSE, Internship mentor), Cédric Fournet (MSRC), Gavin Bierman (Oracle), Panagiotis Vekris (UCSD)

2 TypeScript Gradually typed superset of JavaScript (www. typescriptlang
TypeScript Gradually typed superset of JavaScript (www.typescriptlang.org) "Strong tools for large applications" "Static checking, symbol-based navigation, statement completion, code refactoring" "TypeScript offers classes, modules, and interfaces to help you build robust components" "Compiled into simple JavaScript" Compared to JavaScript, this is a great leap forward!

3 But Typing JavaScript is Hard ! For all its dynamic idioms
TypeScript (like Dart and Closure) gives up soundness, intentionally Types are uniformly erased when compiling to JavaScript E.g. casts are unchecked Unsound type erasure is beneficial Lightweight codegen (highly readable JavaScript output) Performance identical to plain JavaScript Types don’t get in the way of good programmers But it also has its disadvantages TypeScript components are not robust

4 (Un-)Robustness of TypeScript Components
Type safety violation Client: Client: function client(Iterator<number> it) { it["index"] = true; } function client(it) { it["index"] = true; } Provider: Provider: interface Iterator<A> { next(): A } var x = { state:[..], index:0, next() { return state[index++]; } }; client(x); //client:Iterator<number> => void var x = { state:[..], index:0, next() { return state[index++]; } }; client(x); TypeScript JavaScript TypeScript compiler

5 (Un-)Robustness of TypeScript Components
Abstraction violation Client: Client: function client(Iterator<number> it) { (<any> it).index = -1; } function client(it) { it.index = -1; } Provider: Provider: interface Iterator<A> { next(): A } var x = { state:[..], index:0, next() { return state[index++]; } }; client(x); //client:Iterator<number> => void var x = { state:[..], index:0, next() { return state[index++]; } }; client(x); TypeScript JavaScript TypeScript compiler

6 Safe TypeScript Sound and efficient gradual typing is possible for idiomatic TypeScript Sound typing is beneficial Finds type errors early Found and fixed 478 type errors in TypeScript compiler, 1 functional correctness bug in NavierStokes, a heavily tested Octane benchmark Provably robust components But it also has its cost A runtime performance penalty Ranging from 6% to 3x on 118,000 lines of code in 8 applications (details follow) Need to understand subtle corners of JS semantics and our type system

7 TypeScript type inference
TypeScript Workflow function f(x:any):number { return x.f; } function f(x):number { app.ts tsc app.ts TypeScript type inference TypeScript parsing JavaScript emitting function f(x) { app.js Syntactic errors Static diagnostic basic type errors

8 Safe TypeScript Workflow Fully integrated into TypeScript v0. 9
Safe TypeScript Workflow Fully integrated into TypeScript v0.9.5 as an optional compiler flag function f(x:any):number { return x.f; } function f(x):number { app.ts tsc --safe app.ts TypeScript type inference TypeScript parsing Safe TypeScript type checking & instrumentation return RT.check(RT.Num, RT.read(x, "f")); JavaScript emitting function f(x) { app.js inconsistent subtyping implicit downcast from any variables not in scope unsafe use of this projecting methods as fields Static diagnostics Syntactic errors Static diagnostic basic type errors

9 Highlights of The Type System
Object-oriented, with a mixture of structural and nominal types Nominal types provide a sound model of JavaScript's semantics of classes In contrast: TypeScript is purely structural Types are compiled to provide precise run-time type information (RTTI) Allows the runtime system to enforce invariants with dynamic checks In contrast: RTTI in TypeScript is only what is available in JavaScript Selective type-erasure for performance and robustness The type system ensures that erasure does not compromise safety In contrast: TypeScript uniformly erases all types By example …

10 Nominal Classes and Structural Interfaces
interface PointI { x:number; y:number } class PointC { constructor(public x:number, public y:number) { } function f(p:PointC) { assert(p instanceof PointC); }

11 Nominal Classes and Structural Interfaces
interface PointI { x:number; y:number } class PointC { constructor(public x:number, public y:number) { } TypeScript output: leads to runtime error in f function f(p:PointC) { assert(p instanceof PointC); } Safe TypeScript: Static Type Error {x:number;y:number} is not a subtype of PointC f({x:0, y:0});

12 Nominal Classes and Structural Interfaces
interface PointI { x:number; y:number } class PointC { constructor(public x:number, public y:number) { } function f(p:PointC) { assert(p instanceof PointC); } f(new PointC(0, 0)); Safe TypeScript: OK

13 Nominal Classes and Structural Interfaces
interface PointI { x:number; y:number } class PointC { constructor(public x:number, public y:number) { } function f(p:PointI) { return p.x + p.y; } Safe TypeScript: OK PointC is a subtype of PointI f(new PointC(0, 0));

14 Highlights of The Type System
Object-oriented, with a mixture of structural and nominal types Nominal types provide a sound model of JavaScript's semantics of classes In contrast: TypeScript is purely structural Types are compiled to provide precise run-time type information (RTTI) Allows the runtime system to enforce invariants with dynamic checks In contrast: RTTI in TypeScript is only what is available in JavaScript Selective type-erasure for performance and robustness The type system ensures that erasure does not compromise safety In contrast: TypeScript uniformly erases all types

15 Tag Objects with RTTI to Lock Invariants
function f(p:any) { p.x = "boom"; } TypeScript output: leads to runtime error in g function g(p:PointI) { f(p); assert(typeof p.x === "number"); }

16 Tag Objects with RTTI to Lock Invariants
shallowTag for structural objects function f(p:any) { p.x = "boom"; } function f(p) { … } //coming up ! function g(p:PointI) { f(p); assert(typeof p.x === "number"); } function g(p) { f(shallowTag(p, PointI)); } Safe TypeScript: Adds RTTI to objects to lock their type shallowTag(x,t) = x.tag := combine(x.tag,t); x

17 Instrumentation of any Code
function f(p:any) { p.x = "boom"; } function f(p) { write(p, "x", "boom"); } // fails function g(p:PointI) { f(p); assert(typeof p.x === "number"); } function g(p) { f(shallowTag(p, PointI)); } Safe TypeScript: Enforces type invariants in any code write(o,f,v) = let t = o.rtti; o[f] = check(v, t[f]);

18 Tag Objects with RTTI to Lock Invariants
No tagging for class instances function f(p:any) { p.x = "boom"; } function g(p:PointC) { f(p); assert(typeof p.x === "number"); } function g(p) { f(p); // no tagging } No tagging for class instances Class instances have primitive RTTI (prototype chain)

19 Runtime Checked Downcasts
function f(p:PointI) { assert(typeof p.x === "number"); } TypeScript output: leads to runtime error in f function g(p:any) { f(<PointI> p); } g({x:"boom",y:0});

20 Runtime Checked Downcasts
Check fields invariants for structural types function f(p:PointI) { assert(typeof p.x === "number"); } function f(p) { … } function g(p) { f(check(p, PointI)); } function g(p:any) { f(<PointI> p); } g({x:"boom",y:0}); Safe TypeScript: Checks downcasts at runtime check(o, PointI) = if typeof o.x === “number” && typeof o.y === “number” then o.rtti := PointI; o else die

21 Runtime Checked Downcasts
Simple instanceof check for class instances function f(p:PointC) { … } function f(p) { … } function g(p:any) { f(<PointC> p); } g({x:"boom",y:0}); function g(p) { f(check(p, PointC)); } check(o, PointC) = if o instanceof PointC then o else die Fast instanceof check for class instances

22 Highlights of The Type System
Object-oriented, with a mixture of structural and nominal types Nominal types provide a sound model of JavaScript's semantics of classes In contrast: TypeScript is purely structural Types are compiled to provide precise run-time type information (RTTI) Allows the runtime system to enforce invariants with dynamic checks In contrast: RTTI in TypeScript is only what is available in JavaScript Selective type-erasure for performance and robustness The type system ensures that erasure does not compromise safety In contrast: TypeScript uniformly erases all types

23 Safe TypeScript adds RTTI Tags On-demand
interface 3dPointI extends PointI { z:number; } function f(r:any) { ... } function g(q:PointI) { f(q); function h(p:3dPointI) { g(p); function main(p:3dPointI) { h(p); function f(r) { … } function g(q) { f(shallowTag(q, PointI)); } function h(p) { g(shallowTag(p, {z:number}); // diff tagging } function main(p) { h(p); } // no tagging Safe TypeScript adds minimum RTTI to ensure safety shallowTag(x, t) = x.rtti := combine(x.rtti, t); x

24 Programmer-controlled Type Erasure
A new operator on types: "Erased t" A value of type Erased t is known to be a t statically, and at runtime it may not have RTTI Erased types are erased from the JavaScript output

25 Programmer Controlled Type Erasure
interface PointI extends Erased { x:number; y:number } function f(r) { ... } function g(q) { f(q); } function h(p) { g(p);  static type error Cannot pass erased types to any context interface 3dPointI extends PointI { z:number; } function f(r:any) { ... } function g(q:PointI) { f(q); function h(p:3dPointI) { g(p);  compiles as is No tagging despite loss in precision Recall that previously it was: g(shallowTag(p, {z:number})) Safe TypeScript: Erased types must only be used statically

26 Revisiting Robust Components
Client: Robustness provided by Safe TypeScript type soundness theorem Several useful corollaries: -- RTTI tags are always consistent -- RTTI tags evolve in subtyping hierarchy function client(Iterator<number> it) { it["index"] = true; } //runtime error Provider: interface Iterator<A> { next(): A } var x = { state:[..], index:0, next() { return state[index++]; } }; client(x); //client:Iterator<number> => void Full formalization and proofs in technical report:

27 Revisiting Robust Components Provider’s perspective
Client: function client(Iterator<number> it) { (<any> it).index = -1; } Provider: interface Iterator<A> { next(): A } var x = { state:[..], index:0, next() { return state[index++]; } }; client(x); //client:Iterator<number> => void

28 Revisiting Robust Components Provider’s perspective
Client: function client(Iterator<number> it) { (<any> it).index = -1; } Stronger abstraction using erased types Safe TypeScript provides an abstraction theorem for erased types //static error Provider: interface Iterator<A> extends Erased { next(): A } var x = { state:[..], index:0, next() { return state[index++]; } }; client(x); //client:Iterator<number> => void Full formalization and proofs in technical report:

29 Much more … Arrays (with mutability controls) Dictionaries Inheritance
Overloading Generics with bounded polymorphism Optional fields/arguments/variadic functions Auto-boxing Primitive prototype hierarchy Closed vs. open records Nominal interfaces Enums All these features allow us to handle practical TypeScript developments …

30 Experience with SafeTypeScript Bootstrapping Safe TypeScript compiler (implemented in TypeScript v0.9.5) 90,000 lines of code (80,000 lines of TypeScript compiler) Heavily class based, most of the code is carefully type annotated Static errors 478 in total 98 uses of bi-variant array subtyping 130 uses of covariant method argument subtyping 128 cases of variable scoping issues 52 cases of projecting a method (leading to potential unsound use of this parameter) Runtime errors 26 failed downcasts 5 in our own code ! 15% runtime overhead of type safety

31 Experience with SafeTypeScript Compiling TypeScript v1.1
18,000 lines of code Heavily interface based Static errors 81 in total Mainly variable scoping and array subtyping 3x runtime overhead of type safety High overhead because of more structural types Have not optimized Safe TypeScript runtime for structural types

32 Experience with SafeTypeScript Octane benchmarks
10,000 lines of code Static errors Found 1 variable scoping bug in heavily tested NavierStokes High runtime overhead when no annotations 2.4x (Splay) to 72x (Crypto), Average: 22x Performance recovers once we add type annotations Average overhead: 6.5%

33 Demo ( Examples on Online Playground:
)

34 Limitations and Work in Progress
eval and friends Adversarial typing of unsafe constructs – Swamy et. al. POPL'14 Implementation limitations: Does not support external modules Current implementation is in TypeScript v0.9.5 that has evolved to v1.1 Ongoing discussion about integrating Safe TypeScript in TypeScript v1.1

35 Safe TypeScript Download:
Sound and efficient gradual type system for TypeScript Download: 5a5a0c38cc57/ Submitted POPL'15 paper: Technical report (with full formalization and proofs): Online playground:

36 Structural types distinguish fields from methods
Handling this soundly class Line { constructor(public p1:Point, public p2:Point){} public moveUp() { this.p1.y++; this.p2.y++; } function g(l:{moveUp:() => void}) { var f = l.moveUp; f(); function h(p:Point) { g(new Line(p, p)); Compiles without warnings in TypeScript Classes are convertible with their structure Line <: {moveUp() :void; //method p1:Point; //field p2:Point} //field window.p1 is undefined, so p1.y crashes SafeTypeScript Line does not contain a field called moveUp Only a method called moveUp

37 Structural types distinguish fields from methods
Handling this soundly class Line { constructor(public p1:Point, public p2:Point){} public moveUp() { this.p1.y++; this.p2.y++; } function g(l:{moveUp(): void}) { var f = l.moveUp; f(); function h(p:Point) { g(new Line(p, p)); Compiles without warnings in TypeScript Classes are convertible with their structure Line <: {moveUp() :void; //method p1:Point; //field p2:Point} //field SafeTypeScript Cannot project a method

38 Structural types distinguish fields from methods
Handling this soundly class Line { constructor(public p1:Point, public p2:Point){} public moveUp() { this.p1.y++; this.p2.y++; } function g(l:{moveUp(): void}) { l.moveUp(); function h(p:Point) { g(new Line(p, p)); g({moveUp() { this.p1.y++; }, p1:p, p2:p}); Compiles without warnings in TypeScript Classes are convertible with their structure Line <: {moveUp() :void; //method p1:Point; //field p2:Point} //field SafeTypeScript: Ok! g({moveUp : () => {this.p1.y++;}, p1:p, p2:p}) SafeTypeScript: A function is not a method SafeTypeScript: Object literal with a method

39 Field Addition and Deletion Dynamically typed unless it becomes static
function f(p:PointI) { p["z"] = 0; delete p.z; } function f(p: PointI) { write(p, "z", 0); delete(p, "z"); } SafeTypeScript: Both write and delete succeed at runtime

40 Field Addition and Deletion Dynamically typed unless it becomes static
function g(p:3dPointI) { … } function f(p:PointI) { p["z"] = 0; g(<3dPointI> p); delete p.z; } function g(p:3dPointI) { … } function f(p:PointI) { write(p, "z", 0); g(check(p, 3dPointI)); delete(p, "z"); } SafeTypeScript: write succeeds at runtime SafeTypeScript: check succeeds at runtime SafeTypeScript: delete fails at runtime – violates invariant of g


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