一、研究背景與動機 Gronroos (1997) argues that the marketing mix fails to accurately incorporate the needs and desires of an organization’s customers. places are more than mere inter-spaces of exchange. 2
一、研究背景與動機 Some consumers actively patronize commercial establishments, such as third places To fulfill not only their consumption needs, but also their companionship and emotional support needs (Cheang, 2002; Rosenbaum et al., 2007) 3 Oldenburg (1999, p. 16) defines third places as “public places that host the regular, voluntary, informal and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and work.” Local diners, bars, gyms, arcades, and coffee shops
一、研究背景與動機 Research shows that customers may respond to more than a third place’s physical stimuli; that is, they may also respond to other stimuli present in the place, such as social and natural stimuli. 4 physical stimuli social stimuli natural stimuli Bitner, 1992; Sheery, 1997 Baker et al., 2002 Less explored
一、研究背景與動機 Natural stimuli, such as parks and recreational areas, foster restorative environments. Researchers are beginning to link commercial (Rosenbaum et al., 2009) and not-for-profit (e.g. cancer resource centers; Glover and Parry, 2009) third places with their ability to improve human health. 5
二、研究目的 Develop a conceptual model that highlights how health- oriented service establishments that possess third-place qualities can cultivate “restorative servicescapes” why they affect consumer behavior and health. Synthesizes various streams of literature from services marketing, natural psychology, and cancer and medical research. 6
四、文獻回顧 Social scientists have maintained that third places benefit their patrons’ lives, as well as public health. People may simply relish places where they can easily form supportive relationships with other people in their time of need, outside their residential homes and work places. 8 4.1 Cancer resource centers as third places
四、文獻回顧 Prior research has identified social support as a factor that helps people adjust to cancer (Carmack-Taylor et al., 2007; Guidry et al., 1997; Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010) and has also found that cancer patients tend to prefer support from others who have lived with cancer (Davis et al., 2005). Social supportive resources may reduce their relative mortality risk by 12-25 percent (Pinquart and Duberstein, 2010). 9 4.1 Cancer resource centers as third places
四、文獻回顧 Research reveals that third-place customers may receive three important types of social support to human health – namely, emotional support, companionship, and instrumental support (Rosenbaum et al., 2007). Oncology researchers reveal that cancer patients often crave an escape from locales associated with their disease, including hospitals, medical centers, and even their homes. 10 4.2 Cancer resource centers as home
四、文獻回顧 Cancer patients often respond positively to non-medical treatments, such as art, massage, music, and spiritual and group therapy (Arman et al.,2008). It represents a homelike alternative space in which people have access to social support from others “who are in the same boat”. 11 4.2 Cancer resource centers as home
四、文獻回顧 12 4.3 cancer center’s three-dimensional servicescape Physical dimension Bitner (1992) 、 Zeithaml et al( 2005) P1. Cancer resource center members will perceive the center’s physical servicescape holistically, as a composite of three environmental stimuli, including (a) ambient conditions; (b) space/function, and (c) signs, symbols, and artifacts.
四、文獻回顧 13 4.3 cancer center’s three-dimensional servicescape Social dimension Social stimuli, referring to human stimuli, such as employees and customers, may influence people’s internal responses and Behaviors (Baron et al., 1996; Jones, 1995;Langeard et al., 1981; Tombs and McColl-Kennedy, 2003). Third-place customers often respond to immaterial emotional contagions (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006). Emotional contagion refers to the tendency to grasp and feel the displayed emotions of others who prevail in a locale.
四、文獻回顧 14 4.3 cancer center’s three-dimensional servicescape P2. Cancer resource center members will perceive the center’s social servicescape holistically, as a composite of environmental stimuli, including (a) the center’s employees, (b) other members, and (c) the prevailing emotional contagion. Social dimension
四、文獻回顧 15 4.3 cancer center’s three-dimensional servicescape Natural dimension Fatigue can cause a person to experience stress, depression, lower mental competence, irritability, difficulties with focusing and planning, and increased risk for accidents (Van den Berg et al., 2007). They often report difficulties in coping with and maintaining interpersonal relationships and limitations when returning to former activities (Cimprich and Ronis, 2001).
四、文獻回顧 16 4.3 cancer center’s three-dimensional servicescape Natural dimension The negative symptoms associated with directed attention fatigue can be remedied when people spend time in natural settings, such as parks, beach areas, gardens, and even grassy areas (Hartig et al.,2003). Attention restoration theory (Berto,2005; Kaplan, 1995; Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989).
四、文獻回顧 17 4.3 cancer center’s three-dimensional servicescape The first stimulus, being away, gives people a break from commonplace activities and helps them feel as if they are escaping to a different place. The second stimulus, fascination, refers to a setting’s ability to hold a person’s attention effortlessly. The third stimulus, compatibility, provides people with a sense of belonging or even attachment and, in turn, offers enjoyment (Han, 2007; Kaplan, 1995, 2001). Natural dimension
四、文獻回顧 18 4.3 cancer center’s three-dimensional servicescape P3. Cancer resource center members will perceive a center’s restorative servicescape holistically, as a composite of three environmental stimuli that lead them to sense (a) feelings of being away, (b) fascination, and (c)compatibility. Natural dimension
四、文獻回顧 19 4.4 Cancer center servicescapes and internal responses Home away from home (Glover and Parry, 2009, p. 100). Seek refuge away from their home life and a hospital. Talk their“cancer friends” freely about cancer without feeling guilty about placing additional burdens and stress on family, friends, and co-workers. P4. Perceptions of the cancer center’s physical and restorative servicescapes lead to members categorizing the center as (a) a home and (b) a gathering place.
四、文獻回顧 20 4.4 Cancer center servicescapes and internal responses Members describe that after participating in center activities, or therapeutic landscapes (English et al., 2008 ), such as a healing massage or art therapy, their overall mood improves and they are temporarily free from symptoms associated with depression. P5. Perceptions of the cancer center’s physical and restorative servicescapes evoke emotional responses among its members that (a) improve their mood and (b) lessen their feelings of depression.
四、文獻回顧 21 4.4 Cancer center servicescapes and internal responses Cancer patients can escape feelings associated with social isolation and enter a welcoming environment that supports emotional healing and restoration (Glover and Parry, 2009). By spending time in restorative natural environments after surgery, cancer patients report a higher quality of life (Cimprich,1992). P6. Perceptions of the cancer center’s physical and restorative servicescapes evoke physiological responses among its members that improve their subjective sense of (a) physical health and (b) quality of life.
四、文獻回顧 22 4.5 Cancer center servicescapes and members’ behaviors P7. Perceptions of the cancer center’s physical and restorative servicescapes evoke positive, internal responses among its members that promote (a) center patronage, (b) participation in center activities, (c) social interaction with other center members, and (d) social interaction with center employees (including volunteers). Bitner (1992) speculates that positive internal responses to an organizational servicescape promote customer approach behavior while negative responses promote avoidance.
四、文獻回顧 23 4.6 Remedying fatigue as mediation It is the ability of these locales to help remedy symptoms associated with fatigue. LW has designed an array of support, fitness/exercise/nutritional, educational, and various special events and activities to help its members assuage the harmful effects of fatigue on their health and well-being.
四、文獻回顧 24 4.6 Remedying fatigue as mediation P8. Relief from mental fatigue symptoms, such as lower cognitive functioning, bodily fatigue, reduced energy, and lower productivity, mediates a cancer center member’s perception of a restorative servicescape and center patronage; participation in center activities, classes, and presentations; and social interaction with the cancer center’s other members and employees.
五、結論 Develop a conceptual model that highlights how health- oriented service establishments that possess third-place qualities can cultivate “restorative servicescapes” why they affect consumer behavior and health. Doctors have begun to acknowledge that psychosocial support is as equally important as medical treatment for people living with cancer. 25
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