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FLOWSHEETS Zinc Plant Flowsheet (SOMINCOR) http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/containers/fix270/1377085/000120445907001642/lundintechrep.htm

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Analysis of flowsheets SIMPLE CASE final concentrate final tailing

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Balance of each node input parameters: α,, Input data concentrate C1 semiproduct P1 concentrate C2 α feed concetrate tailing calculated parameteres: , , r, a… – content of a component in feed %, – content of a component in concentrate, %, – content of a component in combined products, %, – content of a component in tailing, % GRADE – yield of a product, % – recovery of a considered component in a product, % r – recovery of other than considered components in another product, % Grade Concentrate *Tail* Selectivity feedconcentratetailingyieldrecovery α νγεεrεra Node #%%% - 11.42115.250.21858.0085.8593.122101.232 215.25029.007.000037.5071.3168.584122.591 30.2190.600.150015.2241.8084.836133.133 * , and r calculated from α,,

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EQUATIONS (%) (-) a = 100 ideal separation, a ~ 1000 no separation

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Flowsheet with balances of nodes (local balances) 1 2 3 product grade,% yield,% recov., % C1 29.00 37.50 71.31 feed tailing T concentrate C1 concentrate C2 concentrate C3 F 1.421 100.0 P2 0.2185 92.00 14.15 P1 15.25 8.00 85.85 C2 7.000 62.50 28.69 C3 0.60 15.22 41.80 T0.150 84.84 58.20

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Upgrading curves for nodes using local balances conclusion: separation is best in node 1 (a=101.30 and worse in nodes 2 and 3, a=~125)

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Best flotation results upgrading curve EQUATIONS for instance for products C1+C2 Product rr r 0.00100.000.00100.00 C129.00 3.00 61.22 97.84 C27.0015.255.008.0024.6385.8695.2893.12 C30.605.9314.0022.005.9191.7785.8879.01 T0.151.4278.00100.008.23100.0020.990.00 F1.42 weighted average

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Global balance of flowsheet

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Options of industrial flowsheet 1 2 3 Feed tailing T final concentrate C f semiproduct P1 semiproduct P2 concentrate C2 concentrate C3 final tailing T f concentrate C1 4

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= 1 2 3 Feed tailing T final concentrate C f semiproduct P1 semiproduct P2 concentrate C2 concentrate C3 final tailing T f concentrate C1 4 5 1 2 3 Feed final concentrate C f semiproduct P1 semiproduct P2 final tailing T f =

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1 2 3 Feed tailing T final concentrate C f semiproduct P1 semiproduct P2 concentrate C2 concentrate C3 final tailing T f concentrate C1 4

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1 2 3 Feed tailing T final concentrate C f semiproduct P1 semiproduct P2 concentrate C2 concentrate C3 final tailing T f concentrate C1 4 5

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1 2 3 Feed tailing T final concentrate C f semiproduct P1 semiproduct P2 concentrate C2 concentrate C3 final tailing T f concentrate C1 4

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Selectivity of separation for different options of composition of final flotation products =

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Selection of optimum point of process common sense optimum point of separation example of point of optimum separation based on economics Final decision: Cf=C1+C2 + something depending on criterion of upgrading optimal point

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Transformation of the Fuerstenau(recovery-recovery or - ) upgrading curve into Halbich (grade-recovery or β- ) upgrading curve the Fuerstenau ( - ) is alfa -insensitive equivalent of the Halbich ( β- ) upgrading curve

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FLOWSHEET WITH A RECYCLE STREAM

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Flowsheet with balance of nodes (local balances) input parameters: α,,

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EQUATIONS (%) (-) a = 100 ideal separation, a ~ 1000 no separation Recycle node (1) Separating nodes

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node 2 r 0,00 100,00 25,000,89 28,40 99,33 0,5799,11100,0071,60100,000,00 0,78 4 r 0,00 100,00 25,0011,76 52,63 90,65 3,0088,24100,0047,37100,000,00 5,59 5 r 0,00 100,00 0,6078,48 83,30 21,55 0,4421,52100,0016,70100,000,00 0,57

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Upgrading curves for nodes using local balances node 5 is not efficient

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Global balance of flowsheet (feed F2 is 100%) Eqs for recycling nodes known parameters: α,,

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Calculations Feed 1: grades are known, G and G are equal to 100% Node 1 Grades are known, local and for F1 are known ( =21.95%) (for C3 is 100- 21.95 =78.05%) or can be calculated from grades of products Calculation of global for F2 Q) How large is for C3 when for F1 is 100%? A) When F1 =100%, C3 =(100/21.95)x 78.05= 350%. Then F2 = F1 + C3 = 100+350=450%

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Calculation of for recycling node (here F2):

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Calculation for (normal) separation nodes

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Graphical representation of separation data (not very useful, recoveries greater than 100%) Grade –recovery curve for Pb, Cu and Zn circuits within the Eureka Concentrator (based on Ch. Greet, Spectrum Series, 2010)

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Some flowsheets can be complex

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The Eureka Mine – An Example of How to Identify and Solve Problems in a Flotation Plant Christopher Greet

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PublicationsPublications : Spectrum SeriesSpectrum Series Flotation Plant Optimisation: A Metallurgical Guide to Identifying and Solving Problems in Flotation Plants Spectrum Series 16 Published in 2010 The Eureka Mine – An Example of How to Identify and Solve Problems in a Flotation Plant Christopher Greet Useful literature

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Homework Create your own flowsheet and calculate local and global balanses as well as plot graphs which will help you to evaluate the plant performance

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