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P2 – Outline the structure of the main tissues of the body

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1 P2 – Outline the structure of the main tissues of the body
Unit 5 – Anatomy and physiology for health and social care P2 – Outline the structure of the main tissues of the body Zahira Mahmood

2 Tissues Tissues are a collection of similar cells carrying out a specific functions. There are four different types of Tissue Epithelial Tissues – layers and linings (the lining of the windpipe) Connective Tissues – Holds structures together and provide support (cartilage and bone) Muscle Tissues – Cells specialised to contract and move parts of the body Nervous Tissues – Cells that can convert stimuli to electrical impulses and conduct those impulses

3 Epithelial Tissues Epithelial tissue covers the whole surface of the body and is specialised to form the covering or lining of all internal and external body surfaces. Endothelium is a Epithelial tissue that occurs on surfaces on the interior of the body. They are also composed of several layers of cells named compound Epithelia , or a single layer named simple Epithelia. The bottom layer of the cells are attached to the basement membrane for support and connection. There are nerve supplies to Epithelia, however, they are supplied with oxygen and nutrients from deeper tissues by diffusion. Diffusion is the passage of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration. .

4 Simple Epithelia Simple Epithelial cells can be squamous, cuboidal, columnar or ciliated. Squamous Epithelial cells are very flat, with each nucleus forming a lump in the centre. They fit closely together and they cannot offer much protection and their function is to allow materials to pass through via diffusion and osmosis. Simple squamous epithelial is found in the walls of: - Lung Alveoli Blood Capillaries Cuboidal Epithelial cells are cubed shaped, with spherical nuclei. They often occur in glandular tissues making secretions. They can be found in: - Kidney Tubules Sweat Ducts Glands like the thyroid gland and breast tissue.

5 Ciliated columnar epithelium
Columnar Epithelial Cells are taller with a slightly oval nuclei. They are occasionally associated with microscopic filaments known as cilia and are then called Ciliated Epithelia. Cilia move in wave like motions and are commonly found associated with goblet cells which hide mucus in the respiratory and alimentary tracts. The mucus traps unwanted particles such as carbon and the cilia transport dirty mucus to the exterior. Columnar cells are found lining the: - Trachea and bronchi - Villi in the small intestine Ciliated columnar epithelium

6 Stratified epithelium
Compound Epithelia The main function of the compound epithelia is to protect deeper structures and multiple layers of cells which obstruct the passage of materials. The tongue and oesophagus are lined by stratified epithelia consisting of layers of squamous, cuboidal or columnar cells which eventually become flattened by pressure from below as they reach the surface. The skin has an outer layer of Epithelium which is similar in structure to the stratified epithelium but with extra layer of flattened dead cells on the outside. This is known as Epidermis. Stratified epithelium

7 Connective Tissues Connective tissues lie beneath the Epithelial Tissues, connecting different parts of the internal structure. They are also widely distributed in the body. The cells that lie in the background material are called the Matrix. The Matrix may be a liquid like in blood, jelly- like areolar tissue, firm as in cartilage or hard as in the bone. The Matrix of the tissue is usually obstructed by the connective tissue cells. The function of these tissues are to: Transport materials Give support Strengthen and protect I will explain the connective tissues of: - Blood Cartilage Bone Areolar tissue Adipose tissue

8 Blood Blood includes straw coloured plasma – The Matrix – in which various types of blood are carried. Plasma is mostly water and carries several substances such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, nutrients such as glucose and amino acids, salts, enzymes and hormones. Cartilage Cartilage is smooth, translucent, firm substance that protects bone ends from friction during movement, and forms the major part of the nose and the external ear flaps called Pinnae. It does not contain blood vessels and is nourished by diffusion from underlying bone.

9 Bone Areolar Tissue Adipose Tissue
Bone is much harder substance than cartilage, however, it can be worn away by friction. Osteocytes – bone cells – are trapped in the hard matrix in concentric rings named Lamellae. The bone is created to bear weight and limb bones are hollow, like girders. The bone is also used to protect weaker tissues such as the Brain, lungs and heart. Areolar Tissue Areolar tissue is the most common tissue in the body. It is sticky, white material that binds muscle groups, blood vessels and nerves together. The matrix is semi-fluid and it contains collagen fibres and elastic fibres obstructed by cells found in this loose connective tissue. Areolar tissue offers support to the tissues it surrounds. Adipose Tissue This is a technical term for fatty tissue. It is a variation of areolar tissue, in which the adipose cells have multiplied to obscure other cells and fibres. It is also common for under the skin and around the organs such as the heart, kidneys and parts of the digestive tract.

10 Muscle Tissues Muscle tissue cells specialised to contract and move parts of the body. It is also capable of responding to stimuli. There are three different types of muscle in the human body: - Striated Non-striated Cardiac Each muscle is created of muscle fibres that are capable of shortening – contracting – and returning to their original state – relaxation. Contraction causes movement of the skeleton, soft tissue, blood or specific material, for example, urine. Muscle has blood and nerve supplies.

11 Striated Muscle Non – Striated Muscle Cardiac Muscle
Striated muscle known as voluntary, skeletal or striped muscle, is attached to the bones of the skeleton. Some facial muscles are attached to the skin. The name ‘ striated’ means striped therefore each individual fibre shows alternate dark and light banding from muscle protein filaments from which it is made. Some fibres are 30 centimetres long and one hundredth of a millimetre wide. Non – Striated Muscle This type of muscle is also called involuntary, smooth or plain muscle. The muscle fibres are spindle – or cigar shaped, with single central nuclei, and dovetail with each other. It is found around hollow internal organs such as the stomach, intestines, iris of the eye and bladder. It is not attached to bones. Cardiac Muscle This type of muscle is found only in the four chambers of the heart. Atria and Ventricles . It can rhythmically contract without receiving any nervous stimuli therefore it differs from other muscle. Under normal healthy circumstances, cardiac muscle is not allowed to contract myogenically.

12 Nervous Tissues Nervous tissue is only found in the nervous system and consists of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. It seeks to create consistency, co-ordination, and communication between different parts of the body whilst receiving stimuli from both external and internal sources. The nervous tissue is made of: Neurons – These are highly specialised nerve cells that transmit nervous impulses. They are only present in the brain and the spinal cord. They have two special properties. Propagation of impulses – the ability to conduct impulses Irritability – the ability to respond to a stimulus Neuroglia – These are connective tissue cells blended with the neurons in the brain and spinal cord that offer support and protection. The four basic types of Neuroglia are Ependymal cells, Microglia, Oligodendroglia and Astrocytes.

13 Muscle Tissues - Heart The heart pumps blood around the body. The muscle tissue around the human heart, like all tissues in the body relies on blood supply to deliver oxygen and nutrients. The human heart has a mass between 250 and 350 grams and is about the size of a fist. It also carries vital materials which help our body function and it removes wastes such as carbon dioxide.

14 Nervous Tissues - Brain
The brain is a Nervous tissue and it controls and regulates the functions of the body. Messages are sent to and from the brain. When a message comes into the brain, the brain tells the body how to react. For instance, if a person touches something hot, the nerves in their skin will shoot a message of pain to their brain as it monitors and regulates the body's actions and reactions.

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