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© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-1 Punto di partenza The past conditional (il condizionale passato) is equivalent to would have talked/gone/made, etc. in English. It is used to talk about hypothetical situations in the past.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-2 Sarei restata un’altra notte, ma l’albergo era al completo. I would have stayed another night, but the hotel was full. Avrei prenotato in anticipo, ma non avevo i soldi. I would have reserved early, but I didn’t have the money.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-3 To form the past conditional tense of a verb, use the present conditional of avere or essere + [past participle]. Use the same auxiliary verb (avere or essere) as you would use with that verb in the passato prossimo.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-4 Sei ancora qui? Io sarei già partita per la festa. You’re still here? I would have left for the party already. Avrebbe letto il romanzo in spiaggia, ma l’aveva già perso. She would have read the novel at the beach, but she had already lost it.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-5 Remember that the past participle of verbs that take essere must agree with the subject in gender and number. Anna, ti saresti messa una giacca o una felpa? Anna, would you have put on a jacket or a sweatshirt? I ragazzi sarebbero stati in vacanza, ma il volo è stato cancellato. The boys would have been on vacation, but the flight was cancelled.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-6 Use the past conditional to talk about what would have happened or what someone would have done under certain conditions. Avrei portato il regalo, ma ho perso i miei bagagli. I would have brought the gift, but I lost my luggage. Sarebbero andati all’estero, ma non avevano il visto. They would have gone abroad, but they didn’t have a visa. Sarebbe stato più facile andare da un agente di viaggio. It would have been easier to go to a travel agent. Avremmo speso meno soldi per l’albergo. We would have spent less money for the hotel.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-7 Pina sarebbe arrivata prima, ma ha perso la chiave della stanza. Pina would have arrived earlier, but she lost the room key. Giulio non avrebbe perso la chiave. Giulio would not have lost the key.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-8 When restating what someone else said (indirect discourse), use the past conditional to express a future action from the perspective of the past. This is unlike English, which uses the present conditional in such situations.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-9 Hai affermato: «Porteranno le carte d’imbarco». You asserted: “They will bring the boarding passes.” Hai affermato che avrebbero portato le carte d’imbarco. You asserted that they would bring the boarding passes. Ugo ha detto: «Arriverò alle tre». Ugo said, “I will arrive at 3:00.” Ugo ha detto che sarebbe arrivato alle tre. Ugo said he would arrive at 3:00. direct discourseindirect discourse
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8B.2-10 1. Vittoria (fare, leggere, partire) ______________________________ 2. io (andare, prepararsi, ricevere) ____________________________ 3. voi (sentire, guardare, credere) ____________________________ 4. tu (uscire, regalare, essere) _______________________________ 5. io e i miei amici (controllare, rimanere, sapere) ________________ 6. tu e Filomena (dormire, votare, passeggiare) __________________ 7. Luca (chiudere, vedere, svegliarsi) __________________________ 8. noi (sperare, diventare, offrire) _____________________________ Indica la forma corretta del condizionale passato di ogni verbo indicato. avrebbe fatto, avrebbe letto, sarebbe partita
Limperfetto The Imperfect Past Tense. When we use limperfetto was/were doing was/were doing Used to do Used to do Time in past tense Time in past tense.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6B.2-1 Punto di partenza Although the passato prossimo and the imperfetto are both past tenses, they have distinct.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.8A.1-1 Punto di partenza Comparatives of equality (comparativi di uguaglianza) are used to indicate that two people,
Reflexive VerbsReflexive Verbs Reflexive verbsReflexive verbs.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6B.1-1 Punto di partenza Youve learned how to use the passato prossimo to express past actions. Now youll learn.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.4A.1-1 Punto di partenza The verbs dovere (to have to/must; to owe), potere (to be able to/can), and volere (to.
5.4 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Sinceramente a me fa un po schifo. Adverbs.
Punto di partenza Adverbs describe how, when, and where actions take place. They modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Unlike adjectives, adverbs.
Punto di partenza In Italian, as in English, a verb is a word denoting an action or a state of being. The subject of a verb is the person or thing that.
Punto di partenza Adjectives are words that describe people, places, and things. In Italian, adjectives are often used with the verb essere to point out.
The trapassato prossimo and the trapassato remoto
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.11A.2-1 Punto di partenza With the exception of the imperative and the conditional, the Italian verb forms you.
7.4 © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Conoscere and sapere Conoscere and sapere both mean to know, but they are used in different contexts.
Punto di partenza A reflexive verb “reflects” the action of the verb back to the subject. The infinitive form of reflexives ends with the reflexive pronoun.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.1B.3-1 Punto di partenza Use the verb essere with numbers to tell time.
Punto di partenza In Lezione 5A, you learned that a direct object answers the question what? or whom? An indirect object identifies to whom or for whom.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.6A.3-1 Punto di partenza Use the adverb ci to mean there or to replace certain prepositional phrases. Use the pronoun.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.3A.3-1 Punto di partenza You are already familiar with Italian verbs that end in -are and -ere. The third class.
Punto di partenza In Lezione 2A, you learned how to form the present tense of -are verbs by attaching different endings to the stem. Conjugate regular.
© and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.4A.2-1 Punto di partenza The verbs dire (to say; to tell), uscire (to go out; to leave), and venire (to come) are.
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