Presentation on theme: "0 OCEAN LITERACY Essential Principles & Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Science PRINCIPLE 2."— Presentation transcript:
0 OCEAN LITERACY Essential Principles & Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Science PRINCIPLE 2
1 REVISION HISTORY DateVersionRevised ByDescription Aug 25, VLOriginal
2 ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLE 2 2 The ocean and life in the ocean shape the features of the Earth.
3 2 | THE OCEAN AND LIFE IN THE OCEAN SHAPE THE FEATURES OF THE EARTH 2(a) Many earth materials and geochemical cycles originate in the ocean. Many of the sedimentary rocks now exposed on land were formed in the ocean. Ocean life laid down the vast volume of siliceous and carbonate rocks. The Ocean Shapes The Earth Many earth materials & geochemical cycles originate in the ocean Many sedimentary rocks now exposed were formed in the ocean Life In The Ocean Shapes The Earth Ocean life laid down siliceous & carbonate rocks (e.g. coral reefs) Oil deep in the sea bed is dead planktonic animal & plant life
4 2 | THE OCEAN AND LIFE IN THE OCEAN SHAPE THE FEATURES OF THE EARTH 2(b) Sea level changes over time have expanded and contracted continental shelves, created and destroyed inland seas, and shaped the surface of land. Sea Level Is not constant but changes over time Expanded and contracted continental shelves Created and destroyed inland seas Shaped the surface of land
5 2 | THE OCEAN AND LIFE IN THE OCEAN SHAPE THE FEATURES OF THE EARTH 2(c) Erosion—the wearing away of rock, soil and other biotic and abiotic earth materials—occurs in coastal areas as wind, waves, and currents in rivers and the ocean move sediments. Erosion Wearing away of rock, soil and other earth materials Occurs in coastal areas or rivers Wind, waves, and currents move sediments
6 2 | THE OCEAN AND LIFE IN THE OCEAN SHAPE THE FEATURES OF THE EARTH 2(d) Sand consists of tiny bits of animals, plants, rocks and minerals. Most beach sand is eroded from land sources and carried to the coast by rivers, but sand is also eroded from coastal sources by surf. Sand is redistributed by waves and coastal currents seasonally. Some Types Of Sand 1. Black sand beaches come from volcanic ground lava. E.g. Hawaii, Costa Rica and St. Lucia. 2. White sand beaches consist of crushed shells and limestone from coral skeletons. Coral reefs are a major source of white sand beaches. White sand beaches are found in Hawaii and on many Caribbean islands such as the Cayman Islands. 3. Green sand beaches are made from olivine crystals. Green sand beaches are quite rare but can be found in Guam and at the southernmost tip of the big island of Hawaii. 4. Pink sand is mostly coral, broken shells and calcium carbonate (limestone) skeletons from marine invertebrates. The pink color comes from marine invertebrates called foraminiferans which have bright pink or red shells. E.g. Bahamas and Bermuda.
7 2 | THE OCEAN AND LIFE IN THE OCEAN SHAPE THE FEATURES OF THE EARTH 2(e) Tectonic activity, sea level changes, and force of waves influence the physical structure and landforms of the coast. Physical Structure & Landforms Of The Coast Influenced By: Tectonic activity under the ocean Sea level changes Wave force – erosion