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GCSE Science: Ideas about Science and Science Explanations.

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1 GCSE Science: Ideas about Science and Science Explanations

2 2 Science explanations ‘Breadth of study’ Ideas about Science ‘How science works’ Equal assessment weighting

3 3 Science Explanations Modules Ideas about Science etc.

4 4 Implications  GCSE Science: equal assessment weighting of Science Explanations and Ideas about Science  Links between modules: – within and across subject areas – identifying links – possibility of over-teaching – implications for rotation teaching

5 5 IaS3 Developing explanations P1 Earth in the Universe B3 Life on Earth Ideas about Science page 91 Activities AP1.5 to AP1.7, plus AP1.17, AP1.23, AP1.36 GCSE Science book pages 66, , Ideas about Science page 203 Activities AB3.1, AB3.13, AB3.14, and AB3.26 to AB 3.28 GCSE Science book pages

6 6 Exemplars of the links between Science Explanations and Ideas about Science  P2 Radiation and life  B1 You and your genes

7 7 P2 Radiation and life Ideas about Science – Distinction between correlation and cause (IaS2) is introduced in Module C1 Air quality, e.g Activity AC1.20 When do hay fever symptoms appear? (the hay fever / ice cream activity). – The big Idea about Science in Module P2 is ‘risks and benefits’, in the context of the electromagnetic spectrum. – See for example Activity AP2.15 ‘A safe place to live?’ Science Explanations – Module P2 introduces the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of photons. – The electromagnetic spectrum is taken up again in module P6 ‘The wave model of radiation’.

8 8 B1 You and your genes Ideas about Science – This module is the first introduction to ethical decision-making – Big idea is outlining basic framework which can be used to discuss ethical decision-making throughout the course – Decision-making throughout the course covers personal, socio- scientific and government policy examples. Science Explanations – Inheritance is treated in terms of genes in B1 ‘You and your genes’ and DNA in the Additional Science module B5 ‘Growth & development’

9 B1 You and your genes SE: variation, fertilization, gene (dominant/recessive), gender, asexual reproduction, cloning (stem cells) P2 Radiation and life IaS6: Making decisions (personal  society) B5 Growth and development SE: cell cycle, mitosis/meiosis protein synthesis, stem cells, meristems, gene switching plant growth C3 Food matters IaS6: Making decisions (personal, cost/benefit analysis, government regulation) C2 Material choices IaS6: Making decisions (cost/benefit analysis) B1 You and your genes IaS6: Making decisions (personal, frameworks) B3 Life on Earth SE: natural selection, mutation, evolution

10 10 Teaching and assessing Ideas about Science  Put the information cards in order of persuasiveness.  Be able to explain reasons for your order.  Suggest other information you might like to have to increase your confidence in ranking a card.

11 11 Teaching the nature of science  If developing a scientifically literate populace,... is to be an aim of science education, then teaching about the nature of science is not an indulgence but an essential act, fundamental to a contemporary science education. [Osborne, J. (2002). In R. Boohan & S. Amos (eds). Aspects of Teaching Secondary Science. p. 237.]

12 12 A view of scientific literacy? Knowledge of Science Explanations Knowledge of Ideas about Science Skills: critical thinking, development of argument …

13 13 Teaching and assessment Assessment of critical thinking, argument …

14 Case study - conclusions Aspect of performance 2468 a comparing opposing evidence and views Information is unselectively reported without taking any clear view about any course of action. Claims for a particular idea, development or course of action are reported without critical comment. Claims and arguments for and against are reported, but with little attempt to compare or evaluate them. Details of opposing views are evaluated and critically compared. b conclusions and recom- mendations A conclusion is stated without reference to supporting evidence. A conclusion is based on evidence for one view only. Some limits or objections to the conclusion are acknowledged. Alternative conclusions are considered, showing awareness that different interpretations of evidence may be possible.

15 Internal Assessment Guidance Blackpool Secondary Science for OCR C21 Science A produced by Blackpool Secondary Science Case study – 20% [24 marks] Data analysis – 13.3% [16 marks] Damian Ainscough, Secondary Science Consultant [please send any ideas for addition/improvement to With thanks to Blackpool Science teachers and in particular Katie Rawcliffe – Bispham High School – an Arts College Mark Sergeant – St Mary’s Catholic College Doreen Chadwick – Montgomery High School – a Language College

16 16 A definition for Ideas about Science?  The kinds of knowledge science produces.  The methods used to get this knowledge and check its validity.  The social processes of science that provide ‘quality assurance’ of its outcomes.  How science influences society and vice versa.

17 creativity & imagination decision making validity correlation scientific community risk evidence variables model factor outcome reliability ethics argument cause observation explanation experimentation data Terminology

18 REAL WORLD THEORY Observation/ Experimentation A view of how science works?

19 REAL WORLD DATAPREDICTION EXPLANATION Observation/ Experimentation Reasoning/ Calculation Agree/Disagree Confidence in explanation increases/decreases A view of how science works? Adapted from Giere, R (1991). Understanding Scientific Reasoning (3 rd ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Negative / Positive evidence evidence

20 REAL WORLD DATAPREDICTION EXPLANATION Observation/ Experimentation Reasoning/ Calculation Agree/Disagree Confidence in explanation increases/decreases creativity & imagination decision making validity correlation scientific community risk Negative / Positive evidence evidence evidence variables model factor outcome reliability ethics argument cause


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