Presentation on theme: "GCSE Science: Ideas about Science and Science Explanations"— Presentation transcript:
1 GCSE Science: Ideas about Science and Science Explanations Ideas about Science are the C21 exemplification of How Science Works
2 Equal assessment weighting Science explanations‘Breadth of study’Ideas about Science‘How science works’This is about the GCSE Science course. For lists of Science Explanations and Ideas about Science see appendices F and G in the GCSE Science specification from OCR. It is particularly important to read the first page of appendix F which gives an overview of the aims of teaching Ideas about Science.
3 Modules Science Explanations Ideas about Science etc.GCSE Science: Science explanations and ideas about science are the fundamentals. They underpin scientific literacy. The modules provide the contexts. The selected contexts are, to some extent arbitrary. A different set of modules could – at least in principle – be used to teach the same science explanations and ideas about science.Science Explanations and Ideas about Science are translated into classroom modules. Ideas about science are met more than once during the course. They are introduced in one module and later applied in another. They may be met in a Chemistry module first time, then a Biology module next – issues for departmental communication.
4 ImplicationsGCSE Science: equal assessment weighting of Science Explanations and Ideas about ScienceLinks between modules:within and across subject areasidentifying linkspossibility of over-teachingimplications for rotation teaching
5 IaS3 Developing explanations P1 Earth in the UniverseB3 Life on EarthIdeas about Science page 91ActivitiesAP1.5 to AP1.7, plusAP1.17, AP1.23, AP1.36GCSE Science book pages 66, 68-69, 80-81Ideas about Science page 203ActivitiesAB3.1, AB3.13, AB3.14,and AB3.26 to AB 3.28GCSE Science book pagesIdeas about Science (IaS)Here are some examples of how they relate to each other in different modules.This slides illustrates links between module P1 Earth in the Universe and module B3 Life on Earth.It would be useful to have GCSE Science books, and P1 and B3 module maps available, if only to make sense of these reference numbers.Staff could be asked to spending 5-10 minutes discussing similarities in the way that P1 and B3 treat ideas about how explanations are developed.
6 Exemplars of the links between Science Explanations and Ideas about Science P2 Radiation and lifeB1 You and your genesStaff could look at links between Science Explanations and Ideas about Science in either the Physics module P2 Radiation and life or the Biology module B1 You and your genes. See the next slides
7 P2 Radiation and life Ideas about Science Science Explanations Distinction between correlation and cause (IaS2) is introduced in Module C1 Air quality, e.g Activity AC1.20 When do hay fever symptoms appear? (the hay fever / ice cream activity).The big Idea about Science in Module P2 is ‘risks and benefits’, in the context of the electromagnetic spectrum.See for example Activity AP2.15 ‘A safe place to live?’Science ExplanationsModule P2 introduces the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of photons.The electromagnetic spectrum is taken up again in module P6 ‘The wave model of radiation’.Ideas about Science and Science Explanations in P2 Radiation and life.Staff could discuss:Ideas about ScienceHow is the idea of correlation used in module P2?Suggest a few of their own examples of weighing risks of some activity against its benefits.Why is it important to discuss ways of reducing risks?Science explanationsHow can the treatments of the electromagnetic spectrum in modules P2 and P6 be related to one another?Staff will need copies of:• Activity AP2.15 ‘A safe place to live’ with its Guidance notes.P2 module map.GCSE Science & GCSE Additional Science specifications from OCR
8 B1 You and your genes Ideas about Science Science Explanations This module is the first introduction to ethical decision-makingBig idea is outlining basic framework which can be used to discuss ethical decision-making throughout the courseDecision-making throughout the course covers personal, socio-scientific and government policy examples.Science ExplanationsInheritance is treated in terms of genes in B1 ‘You and your genes’ and DNA in the Additional Science module B5 ‘Growth & development’The relationship between Ideas about Science and Science Explanations in B1 You and your genes.The relationship between the Science Explanations in the GCSE Science course and Additional Science course.Here are some questions to help structure staff exploration of module B1.Ideas about ScienceAt what level does module B1 engage?Suggest a few of their own examples of ethical decisions which could be used as illustration for students.What are the challenges in exploring ethical issues with students?Science ExplanationsWhat is bridge between treatment of inheritance in modules B1 and B5?Staff will need copies of:Activities AB1.15 ‘Ethics’ and AB1.16 ‘Decision-making’ with their Guidance notes.B1module map.•GCSE Science & GCSE Additional Science specifications from OCR
9 IaS6: Making decisions (personal, cost/benefit analysis, C3 Food mattersIaS6: Making decisions (personal, cost/benefit analysis,government regulation)C2 Material choicesIaS6: Making decisions(cost/benefit analysis)P2 Radiation and lifeIaS6: Making decisions(personal society)B5 Growth and developmentSE: cell cycle, mitosis/meiosisprotein synthesis, stem cells,meristems, gene switchingplant growthB1 You and your genesIaS6: Making decisions(personal, frameworks)Summary of Science Explanation and Ideas about Science links starting from B1 You and your genesB1 You and your genesSE: variation, fertilization,gene (dominant/recessive),gender, asexual reproduction,cloning (stem cells)B3 Life on EarthSE: natural selection, mutation,evolution
10 Teaching and assessing Ideas about Science Put the information cards in order of persuasiveness.Be able to explain reasons for your order.Suggest other information you might like to have to increase your confidence in ranking a card.Print item E12 ‘Mobile phone cards’. These are ‘information cards’. Cut out the cards and distribute to those present.Reflect on reasons for the ranking in order of persuasiveness by those present. When did those present learn what they drew upon to make choices, e.g. peer review, sample size selection? Probably during their adult life. Make the point that these ideas are part of the GCSE Science course and that they must be taught.
11 Teaching the nature of science If developing a scientifically literate populace, is to be an aim of science education, then teaching about the nature of science is not an indulgence but an essential act, fundamental to a contemporary science education.[Osborne, J. (2002). In R. Boohan & S. Amos (eds).Aspects of Teaching Secondary Science. p. 237.]Ideas about Science need to be explicitly taught.
12 A view of scientific literacy? KnowledgeofScience ExplanationsKnowledgeofIdeas about ScienceIdeas about Science (How Science Works) are not ‘skills’. This is a separate body of knowledge which students must learn to understand, which (together with Science Explanations) underpins skills which are assessed.Teaching and assessment of Ideas About Science are closely linked, but there is a clear distinction.Good practice - knowledge of both elements of scientific literacy course contribute to development of related skills.Skills are: handling data, finding information about different viewpoints, weighing up evidence and argument, drawing own conclusions, presenting ideas appropriately to a given audience.This has implications for when during course Case Study is best tackled. Skills need to be developed before they are assessed (through a Case Study and Data Analysis)Skills: critical thinking,development of argument …
13 Teaching and assessment Poor practice - over-emphasis on science content at expense of Ideas about Science (How Science Works), thus skills are assessed without students having had opportunity to develop them to full potential.Assessment ofcritical thinking, argument …
14 Case study - conclusions Aspect of performance2468a comparing opposing evidence and viewsInformation is unselectively reported without taking any clear view about any course of action.Claims for a particular idea, development or course of action are reported without critical comment.Claims and arguments for and against are reported, but with little attempt to compare or evaluate them.Details of opposing views are evaluated and critically compared.b conclusions and recom-mendationsA conclusion is stated without reference to supporting evidence.A conclusion is based on evidence for one view only.Some limits or objections to the conclusion are acknowledged.Alternative conclusions are considered, showing awareness that different interpretations of evidence may be possible.Example of Case Study assessment criteria ,drawing on Knowledge and Understanding of the Ideas about Science.
15 Blackpool Secondary Science Internal Assessment GuidanceBlackpool Secondary Sciencefor OCR C21 Science A produced by Blackpool Secondary ScienceCase study – 20% [24 marks]Data analysis – 13.3% [16 marks]Blackpool internal assessment guidance provides more detailed breakdown of where Ideas about Science (IaS) are developed in the C21 modules. See item F3 in this pack.Damian Ainscough, Secondary Science Consultant[please send any ideas for addition/improvement to ]With thanks to Blackpool Science teachers and in particularKatie Rawcliffe – Bispham High School – an Arts CollegeMark Sergeant – St Mary’s Catholic CollegeDoreen Chadwick – Montgomery High School – a Language College
16 A definition for Ideas about Science? The kinds of knowledge science produces.The methods used to get this knowledge and check its validity.The social processes of science that provide ‘quality assurance’ of its outcomes.How science influences society and vice versa.A possible departmental definition of Ideas about Science (How Science Works).
17 creativity & imagination Terminologyevidencecorrelationargumentoutcomecauseexperimentationobservationfactorcreativity & imaginationexplanationdataSpecifications use large amount of terminology.riskethicsreliabilitymodelscientific communityvaliditydecision makingvariables
18 A view of how science works? REAL WORLDObservation/ ExperimentationSome of the Ideas about Science in C21 GCSE Science are about 'how science works', in the sense that they explain how reliable knowledge of the physical world develops.THEORY
19 Confidence in explanation increases/decreases A view of how science works?Confidence in explanation increases/decreasesREAL WORLDEXPLANATIONObservation/ ExperimentationNegative / Positive evidence evidenceReasoning/ CalculationAlternative models such as this provides more realistic model for how scientific knowledge develops, and better illustrates the creative nature of the scientific process.DATAPREDICTIONAgree/DisagreeAdapted from Giere, R (1991). Understanding Scientific Reasoning (3rd ed.).Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
20 creativity & imagination argument modelevidencecorrelationcausecreativity & imaginationargumentConfidence in explanation increases/decreasesREAL WORLDEXPLANATIONObservation/ ExperimentationNegative / Positive evidence evidenceReasoning/ Calculationriskoutcomescientific communityProviding a framework for departments to develop their own agreed basis for teaching Ideas about Science (How Science Works).Without such a framework, it is difficult for departments to teach HSW together effectively.factorDATAPREDICTIONreliabilityAgree/Disagreedecision makingvalidityvariablesethics