# 11/04/2017 11/04/2017 AQA 2011 Physics Unit 2 This PowerPoint supports sections P2.5 and P2.6 of the 2011 AQA Physics Unit 2 module W Richards.

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11/04/2017 11/04/2017 AQA 2011 Physics Unit 2 This PowerPoint supports sections P2.5 and P2.6 of the 2011 AQA Physics Unit 2 module W Richards

11/04/2017 11/04/2017 P2.5.1 – Atomic Structure

The structure of the atom
11/04/2017 11/04/2017 ELECTRON – negative, mass nearly nothing The nucleus is around 10,000 times smaller then the atom! PROTON – positive, same mass as neutron (“1”) NEUTRON – neutral, same mass as proton (“1”) Atoms always have the same number of protons and electrons so they are neutral overall. They can gain or lose electrons to form ions.

Structure of the atom 11/04/2017 11/04/2017 A hundred years ago people thought that the atom looked like a “plum pudding” – a sphere of positive charge with negatively charged electrons spread through it… Ernest Rutherford, British scientist: I did an experiment (with my colleagues Geiger and Marsden) that proved this idea was wrong. I called it the “Scattering Experiment”

The Rutherford Scattering Experiment
11/04/2017 11/04/2017 Alpha particles (positive charge, part of helium atom) Thin gold foil Most particles passed through, 1/8000 were deflected by more than 900 Conclusion – atom is made up of a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons orbiting in a “cloud”.

The structure of the atom
11/04/2017 11/04/2017 Particle Relative Mass Relative Charge Proton 1 +1 Neutron Electron 1/2000 (i.e. 0) -1 MASS NUMBER = number of protons + number of neutrons He 2 4 SYMBOL PROTON NUMBER = number of protons (obviously)

Mass and atomic number revision
11/04/2017 11/04/2017 How many protons, neutrons and electrons? 1 11 16 H B O 1 5 8 23 35 238 Na Cl U 11 17 92

Isotopes 11/04/2017 11/04/2017 An isotope is an atom with a different number of neutrons: Notice that the mass number is different. How many neutrons does each isotope have? O 8 16 O 8 17 O 8 18 Each isotope has 8 protons – if it didn’t then it just wouldn’t be oxygen any more. A “radioisotope” is simply an isotope that is radioactive – e.g. carbon 14, which is used in carbon dating.

11/04/2017 11/04/2017 P2.5.2 – Atoms and Radiation

11/04/2017 Some substances are classed as “radioactive” – this means that they are unstable and continuously give out radiation at random intervals: Radiation The nucleus is more stable after emitting some radiation – this is called “radioactive decay”. This process is NOT affected by temperature or other physical conditions.

Ionisation 11/04/2017 Radiation is dangerous because it “ionises” atoms – in other words, it turns them into ions by “knocking off” electrons: Alpha radiation is the most ionising (basically, because it’s the biggest). Ionisation causes cells in living tissue to mutate, usually causing cancer.

11/04/2017 11/04/2017 13% are man-made Radon gas Food Cosmic rays Gamma rays Medical Nuclear power

11/04/2017 In 1986 an explosion occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Here is a “radiation map” showing the background radiation immediately after the event: Other “risky” areas could be mining underground, being in a plane, working in an x-ray department etc

Types of radiation 11/04/2017 11/04/2017 1) Alpha () – an atom decays into a new atom and emits an alpha particle (2 protons and 2 ______ – the nucleus of a ______ atom) Unstable nucleus New nucleus Alpha particle 2) Beta () – an atom decays into a new atom by changing a neutron into a _______ and electron. The fast moving, high energy electron is called a _____ particle. Beta particle New nucleus Unstable nucleus 3) Gamma – after  or  decay surplus ______ is sometimes emitted. This is called gamma radiation and has a very high ______ with short wavelength. The atom is not changed. Words – frequency, proton, energy, neutrons, helium, beta Unstable nucleus New nucleus Gamma radiation

Changes in Mass and Proton Number
11/04/2017 Alpha decay: Am 241 95 Np α + 237 4 93 2 Beta decay: Sr 90 38 Y β + 90 39 -1

Sheet of paper (or 6cm of air will do)
Blocking Radiation 11/04/2017 Each type of radiation can be blocked by different materials: Sheet of paper (or 6cm of air will do) Few mm of aluminium Few cm of lead

Summary Property Alpha Beta Gamma Charge Mass Penetration ability
11/04/2017 Property Alpha Beta Gamma Charge Mass Penetration ability Range in air What is it? Ionising ability

Deflection by Electric Fields
11/04/2017 + 2 protons, 2 neutrons, therefore charge = +2 Alpha and beta particles have a charge: 1 electron, therefore charge = -1 - Because of this charge, they will be deflected by electric fields: + - + - 1) Why did they move in opposite directions? 2) Which particle had the more curved path and why?

Deflection by Magnetic Fields
11/04/2017 Recall: + 2 protons, 2 neutrons, therefore charge = +2 1 electron, therefore charge = -1 - Because of this charge, they will also be deflected by magnetic fields: + - 1) Why did they move in opposite directions? 2) Which particle had the more curved path and why? Region of magnetic field

Uses of radioactivity 1 Sterilising medical instruments
11/04/2017 Sterilising medical instruments Gamma rays can be used to kill and sterilise germs without the need for heating. The same technique can be used to kill microbes in food so that it lasts longer.

Uses of radioactivity 2 - Tracers
11/04/2017 A tracer is a small amount of radioactive material used to detect things, e.g. a leak in a pipe: Gamma source The radiation from the radioactive source is picked up above the ground, enabling the leak in the pipe to be detected. Tracers can also be used in medicine to detect tumours: For medicinal tracers, you would probably use a beta source with a short half life – why?

Uses of radioactivity 3 – Smoke Detectors
11/04/2017 Smoke detectors Alpha emitter +ve electrode -ve electrode Alarm Ionised air particles If smoke enters here a current no longer flows

Uses of Radioactivity 4 - Treating Cancer
11/04/2017 High energy gamma radiation can be used to kill cancerous cells. However, care must be taken in order to enure that the gamma radiation does not affect normal tissue as well. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat thyroid cancer. Iodine is needed by the thyroid so it naturally collects there. Radioactive iodine will then give out beta radiation and kill cancerous cells.

11/04/2017 Radiation will ionise atoms in living cells – this can damage them and cause cancer or leukaemia. Alpha Beta Gamma OUTSIDE the body  and  are more dangerous as  radiation is blocked by the skin. INSIDE the body an  source causes the most damage because it is the most ionising.

Half life 11/04/2017 The decay of radioisotopes can be used to measure the material’s age. The HALF-LIFE of an atom is the time taken for HALF of the radioisotopes in a sample to decay… = radioisotope = new atom formed After 2 half lives another half have decayed (12 altogether) After 3 half lives another 2 have decayed (14 altogether) After 1 half life half have decayed (that’s 8) At start there are 16 radioisotopes

11/04/2017 Count 1 half life 1 half life 1 half life Time

Dating materials using half-lives
11/04/2017 Question: Uranium decays into lead. The half life of uranium is 4,000,000,000 years. A sample of radioactive rock contains 7 times as much lead as it does uranium. Calculate the age of the sample. Answer: The sample was originally completely uranium… 1 half life later… 1 half life later… 1 half life later… 8 4 8 2 8 1 8 …of the sample was uranium Now only 4/8 of the uranium remains – the other 4/8 is lead Now only 2/8 of uranium remains – the other 6/8 is lead Now only 1/8 of uranium remains – the other 7/8 is lead So it must have taken 3 half lives for the sample to decay until only 1/8 remained (which means that there is 7 times as much lead). Each half life is 4,000,000,000 years so the sample is 12,000,000,000 years old.

An exam question… 11/04/2017 Potassium decays into argon. The half life of potassium is 1.3 billion years. A sample of rock from Mars is found to contain three argon atoms for every atom of potassium. How old is the rock? (3 marks) The rock must be 2 half lives old – 2.6 billion years

11/04/2017 11/04/2017 P2.6.1 – Nuclear Fission

Nuclear fission More neutrons Neutron Uranium or plutonium nucleus
11/04/2017 11/04/2017 More neutrons Neutron Uranium or plutonium nucleus Unstable nucleus New nuclei (e.g. barium and krypton)

Chain reactions 11/04/2017 11/04/2017 Each fission reaction releases neutrons that are used in further reactions.

Nuclear power stations
11/04/2017 Nuclear power stations use the energy from each reaction to heat water and use the steam to drive turbines:

11/04/2017 11/04/2017 P2.6.2 – Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Fusion in stars
11/04/2017 11/04/2017 Proton Neutron Nuclear fusion happens in stars but it’s not possible to use it in power stations yet as it needs temperatures of around 10,000,000OC

11/04/2017 The Life Cycle of a Star

Stage 1: Nebulae A nebulae is a collection of dust, gas and rock.
11/04/2017 A nebulae is a collection of dust, gas and rock. Some examples of nebulae…

11/04/2017 Dark nebula

11/04/2017 Emission nebula

11/04/2017 Reflection nebula

(This nebula is smaller and will only form a planet)
11/04/2017 Planetary nebula (This nebula is smaller and will only form a planet)

Stage 2: Protostar Gravity will slowly pull these particles together…
11/04/2017 Gravity will slowly pull these particles together… As they move inwards their gravitational potential energy is converted into heat and a PROTOSTAR is formed

Words – heavier, balanced, hydrogen, nuclear, temperatures
Stage 3: Main Sequence 11/04/2017 In a main sequence star the forces of attraction pulling the particles inwards are _________ by forces acting outwards due to the huge __________ inside the star. Stars are basically ________ reactors that use _______ as a fuel. During its main sequence a star will release energy by converting hydrogen and helium (light elements) into _________ elements and this is why the universe now contains a number of heavier elements. Our sun is an example of a main sequence star – it’s in the middle of a 10 billion year life span Words – heavier, balanced, hydrogen, nuclear, temperatures

Stage 4: Red Giant 11/04/2017 Eventually the hydrogen and helium will run out. When this happens the star will become colder and redder and start to swell… If the star is relatively small (like our sun) the star will become a RED GIANT If the star is big (at least 4 times the size of our sun) it will become a RED SUPERGIANT

Stage 5: The Death 11/04/2017 What happens at this point depends on the size of the star… 1) For SMALL stars the red giant will collapse under its own gravity and form a very dense white dwarf: Red giant White dwarf Black dwarf

This explosion is called a SUPERNOVA
2) If the star was a RED SUPERGIANT it will shrink and then EXPLODE, releasing massive amounts of energy, dust and gas. 11/04/2017 Before After This explosion is called a SUPERNOVA

If the star is big enough it could become a BLACK HOLE instead.
11/04/2017 The dust and gas on the outside of the supernova are thrown away by the explosion and the remaining core turns into a NEUTRON STAR. If the star is big enough it could become a BLACK HOLE instead.

Stage 6: Second generation stars
11/04/2017 The dust and gas thrown out by a supernova can be used to form a new star… Our sun is believed to be a “______ ______ star” – this is because it contains some __________ elements along with hydrogen and ________. These heavier elements would have been the products of a previous star that have been thrown out by a ________. These heavier elements are also found on planets, indicating that they might have been made from remains of previous _______ as well. Words – helium, heavier, second generation, stars, supernova

The Life Cycle of a Star summary
11/04/2017 SMALL stars Protostar BIG stars Main sequence Red giant Red super giant White dwarf Supernova Black dwarf Neutron star Black hole Basically, it all depends on the size of the star!

11/04/2017 This slideshow has been made freely available on the TES Resources website. More Science PowerPoints like this can be found at the website This site contains slideshows that cover the 2011 AQA, EdExcel, OCR Gateway and OCR 21st Century courses (with more material being added every year) and A Level Physics and KS3 material. Some slideshows are free, others require a small subscription fee to be taken out (currently only £50 for a year). Further details can be found at Education Using PowerPoint.

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