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Applications of P2 in the Coastal Zone: Case Studies Michael Asakawa November 16, 2000 ESM 595: Seminar in Pollution Prevention Opportunities and Limitations.

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Presentation on theme: "Applications of P2 in the Coastal Zone: Case Studies Michael Asakawa November 16, 2000 ESM 595: Seminar in Pollution Prevention Opportunities and Limitations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Applications of P2 in the Coastal Zone: Case Studies Michael Asakawa November 16, 2000 ESM 595: Seminar in Pollution Prevention Opportunities and Limitations in a Complex Physical and Political Environment

2 A Place of Extremities  High population density  4 billion within 80 km of the coast  Land-sea-air interactions  Unique biological and economic resources  Complex political regime  Diffuse and multiple jurisdictions over a given issue/industry/resource

3 Notable (Federal) Laws  Normal pollution laws apply  CWA and Pollution Prevention Act of 1990  Ocean-specific acts  Characterized by “end-of-the-pipe” bans & restrictions  Coastal Zone Management Act  Federal-State funding partnership  1990 amendments: non-point pollution control program

4 P2 in the Marina Industry: Broward County, Florida

5 Summerfield Boat Works Storage, fueling, service, and repair.

6 Environmental Impacts  Hull stripping and painting  Paint composition: Metal-based w/ anti- foulants  Hull blasting: Abrasive grit and paint chips  Run-off  Hazardous material disposal  Painting: Emissions of VOCs  Storing and handling waste liquids

7 Marinas and Broward County  40,000 boat registrations  16,610 marine service jobs  $245 million in direct earnings  Est. $789 million in direct & indirect revenue

8 Regulatory History  1980s: Broward County Environmental Quality Control Board  Command-and-control approach  Erratic enforcement  Great ambiguity with the regulations  Sour relationship between the Board and the marina industry

9 New Attitude: DNRP  New agency: Dept. of Natural Resource Protection (DNRP)  Contacted owners, operators, and the regional trade association (MIASF)  Held regular meetings to develop compliance guidelines  Cooperative and non-confrontational

10 BMPs for Marinas  Streamlined and consolidated regulations into a workable document  Primary objectives of the BMPs are:  Excludes facilities with <10 boat slips “[T]o develop a pollution prevention and best management practice for marine facilities operating in Broward County which facilitates compliance with applicable environmental regulations, minimizes wastes, and fosters a pollution prevention attitude within [the] industry.”

11 Examples  Advising tenants of “no sewage discharge” rule; having pump-out facility at marinas with live-aboards  Leak-proof (!) containers and storage areas located on impervious surfaces  No discharge of paint/petroleum wastes  Use of biodegradable soaps for washing  Re-use of waste gasoline whenever possible

12 A Hull Washing Solution  Power wash filtration system  Washed into drain where it is physically/chemically treated  $46,415  Closed-loop recycling system  Oxidizes pollutants – re-usable water  $30,000, and 24,000 gallons/yr conserved

13 Alternate Blasting Media Source: Example: Plastic pellets can be recycled times; only a couple pounds of waste paint for a 50-ft vessel.

14 Grit Recovery System

15 Handling Pesticides and VOCs  Alternate anti-fouling agents  Silicone-based paints (slippery)  Cayenne-based product (hot!)  Alternate paints  Water-based or low VOC paints  But less durable  Alternate spray technique: HVLP  Greater control w/ less excess spray  50-60% paint applied (as opposed to % wasted)

16 Broward’s BMPs: A General Success  Positives  Easy-to-follow document  Developed through cooperation  Communication and education revealed economic solutions  Improved public image  Negatives  Not entirely P2’s “source reductions”  Small operation exemption  Minor surcharge often required to meet compliance

17 Waste Reduction in the Cruise Line Industry

18 The Issue of Marine Waste  A floating city  Avg. vessel: 1400 passengers, 600 crew members  kg of waste per day per person  Large vessel: a ton of garbage per day  Avg. cruise lasts about six days  Industry produces 13,347 tons annually

19 Impacts of Disposed Garbage  Largely aesthetic impact in beaches  Some specific health threats  Cuts from glass or wire  Divers becoming entangled in rope  Ecological impacts  Plastic entangles marine wildlife  Damage to reefs; opportunities to alter community structure  Occasional hazardous issues (100s of gallons/wk)

20 International Law: Annex V  IMO’s Annex V of MARPOL  Includes domestic, operational, and cargo-related waste  Determines location of discharges including:  No discharge within 3 miles of the shore  Zero release of plastics at sea  Harsher requirements for Special Areas: Only ground food wastes  U.S. signed Annex V into law with Marine Plastic Research and Control Act (MPPRCA) of 1987  Includes penalties for non-compliance

21 Sources of Wastes Note: Only food wastes can be discharged in Special Areas

22 Shades of Source Reductions  Most notable impact upon plastics  Individual plastic packets of food or bathroom amenities  larger re-usable containers, or biodegradable materials  Plastic silverware  Durable serving pieces  1/3 reduction in plastic waste  Other materials: Aluminum  Soda cans have been replaced by soda fountains  Reduction of 2 million cans per year

23 Recycling and Storage  30% of waste is recyclable  Ships must store their waste until they get to a port with the appropriate handling facilities  A series of shredders, compactors, and crushers is required, as well as a sanitary storage area  High volume, low density waste gets to % of its original size

24 Treatment and Discharge  Bottom of the P2 hierarchy  Most common method: incineration  Changing regulatory situation could alter its present use  Technology seems to be adapting to catch ash and re-use heat

25 Mixed Messages  Industry says P2 is the way …  A lot discussion about P2  Role of environmental officers and crew education  Self-imposed zero-discharge rules for solid waste  … but there are recent violations  Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.: $18 million  Holland America and RCCL: $8.5 million

26 Stumbling Points For P2  Perceived lack of enforcement  APHIS and Coast Guard considered ineffective  Consumer awareness is the best oversight  Deficiency of foreign port facilities  Slowly being addressed through World Bank projects  P2 practices highly conflicts with the product sold: luxury!

27 P2 Lessons Learned From The Marina and Cruise Line Industries

28 Lessons Learned  A meeting of minds between parties  A spirit of cooperation  Jurisdictional agreements  Continual communication allows P2 to persist  Doesn’t have to be done in a voluntary format

29 Lessons Learned  Perceptions do seem to be key  A greener image  Means of enforcement must be clear  Helps to see economic benefits  The “spirit” of pollution prevention cannot conflict with that of the product being sold

30 Suggested References  National Pollution Prevention Center: /coastal.html /coastal.html  Broward and the Marina Industry    The Cruise Line Industry  


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