Presentation on theme: "Applications of P2 in the Coastal Zone: Case Studies Michael Asakawa November 16, 2000 ESM 595: Seminar in Pollution Prevention Opportunities and Limitations."— Presentation transcript:
Applications of P2 in the Coastal Zone: Case Studies Michael Asakawa November 16, 2000 ESM 595: Seminar in Pollution Prevention Opportunities and Limitations in a Complex Physical and Political Environment
A Place of Extremities High population density 4 billion within 80 km of the coast Land-sea-air interactions Unique biological and economic resources Complex political regime Diffuse and multiple jurisdictions over a given issue/industry/resource
Notable (Federal) Laws Normal pollution laws apply CWA and Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 Ocean-specific acts Characterized by “end-of-the-pipe” bans & restrictions Coastal Zone Management Act Federal-State funding partnership 1990 amendments: non-point pollution control program
P2 in the Marina Industry: Broward County, Florida
Summerfield Boat Works Storage, fueling, service, and repair.
Environmental Impacts Hull stripping and painting Paint composition: Metal-based w/ anti- foulants Hull blasting: Abrasive grit and paint chips Run-off Hazardous material disposal Painting: Emissions of VOCs Storing and handling waste liquids
Marinas and Broward County 40,000 boat registrations 16,610 marine service jobs $245 million in direct earnings Est. $789 million in direct & indirect revenue
Regulatory History 1980s: Broward County Environmental Quality Control Board Command-and-control approach Erratic enforcement Great ambiguity with the regulations Sour relationship between the Board and the marina industry
New Attitude: DNRP New agency: Dept. of Natural Resource Protection (DNRP) Contacted owners, operators, and the regional trade association (MIASF) Held regular meetings to develop compliance guidelines Cooperative and non-confrontational
BMPs for Marinas Streamlined and consolidated regulations into a workable document Primary objectives of the BMPs are: Excludes facilities with <10 boat slips “[T]o develop a pollution prevention and best management practice for marine facilities operating in Broward County which facilitates compliance with applicable environmental regulations, minimizes wastes, and fosters a pollution prevention attitude within [the] industry.”
Examples Advising tenants of “no sewage discharge” rule; having pump-out facility at marinas with live-aboards Leak-proof (!) containers and storage areas located on impervious surfaces No discharge of paint/petroleum wastes Use of biodegradable soaps for washing Re-use of waste gasoline whenever possible
A Hull Washing Solution Power wash filtration system Washed into drain where it is physically/chemically treated $46,415 Closed-loop recycling system Oxidizes pollutants – re-usable water $30,000, and 24,000 gallons/yr conserved
Alternate Blasting Media Source: http://www.sandmasters.com/ Example: Plastic pellets can be recycled 10-12 times; only a couple pounds of waste paint for a 50-ft vessel.
Handling Pesticides and VOCs Alternate anti-fouling agents Silicone-based paints (slippery) Cayenne-based product (hot!) Alternate paints Water-based or low VOC paints But less durable Alternate spray technique: HVLP Greater control w/ less excess spray 50-60% paint applied (as opposed to 70- 85% wasted)
Broward’s BMPs: A General Success Positives Easy-to-follow document Developed through cooperation Communication and education revealed economic solutions Improved public image Negatives Not entirely P2’s “source reductions” Small operation exemption Minor surcharge often required to meet compliance
The Issue of Marine Waste A floating city Avg. vessel: 1400 passengers, 600 crew members 0.32-3.5 kg of waste per day per person Large vessel: a ton of garbage per day Avg. cruise lasts about six days Industry produces 13,347 tons annually
Impacts of Disposed Garbage Largely aesthetic impact in beaches Some specific health threats Cuts from glass or wire Divers becoming entangled in rope Ecological impacts Plastic entangles marine wildlife Damage to reefs; opportunities to alter community structure Occasional hazardous issues (100s of gallons/wk)
International Law: Annex V IMO’s Annex V of MARPOL Includes domestic, operational, and cargo-related waste Determines location of discharges including: No discharge within 3 miles of the shore Zero release of plastics at sea Harsher requirements for Special Areas: Only ground food wastes U.S. signed Annex V into law with Marine Plastic Research and Control Act (MPPRCA) of 1987 Includes penalties for non-compliance
Sources of Wastes Note: Only food wastes can be discharged in Special Areas
Shades of Source Reductions Most notable impact upon plastics Individual plastic packets of food or bathroom amenities larger re-usable containers, or biodegradable materials Plastic silverware Durable serving pieces 1/3 reduction in plastic waste Other materials: Aluminum Soda cans have been replaced by soda fountains Reduction of 2 million cans per year
Recycling and Storage 30% of waste is recyclable Ships must store their waste until they get to a port with the appropriate handling facilities A series of shredders, compactors, and crushers is required, as well as a sanitary storage area High volume, low density waste gets to 10- 25% of its original size
Treatment and Discharge Bottom of the P2 hierarchy Most common method: incineration Changing regulatory situation could alter its present use Technology seems to be adapting to catch ash and re-use heat
Mixed Messages Industry says P2 is the way … A lot discussion about P2 Role of environmental officers and crew education Self-imposed zero-discharge rules for solid waste … but there are recent violations Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.: $18 million Holland America and RCCL: $8.5 million
Stumbling Points For P2 Perceived lack of enforcement APHIS and Coast Guard considered ineffective Consumer awareness is the best oversight Deficiency of foreign port facilities Slowly being addressed through World Bank projects P2 practices highly conflicts with the product sold: luxury!
P2 Lessons Learned From The Marina and Cruise Line Industries
Lessons Learned A meeting of minds between parties A spirit of cooperation Jurisdictional agreements Continual communication allows P2 to persist Doesn’t have to be done in a voluntary format
Lessons Learned Perceptions do seem to be key A greener image Means of enforcement must be clear Helps to see economic benefits The “spirit” of pollution prevention cannot conflict with that of the product being sold
Suggested References National Pollution Prevention Center: http://www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia /coastal.html http://www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia /coastal.html Broward and the Marina Industry http://www.co.broward.fl.us/ppi00400.htm http://www.co.broward.fl.us/ppi00400.htm http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/shipyard/oregon/rt_rept.html http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/shipyard/oregon/rt_rept.html The Cruise Line Industry http://www.nap.edu/books/0309051371/html/140.html http://www.nap.edu/books/0309051371/html/140.html http://www.princess.com/about/policy2.html http://www.princess.com/about/policy2.html
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.