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Fall 2003 Professor Charles A. Gross Electrical and Computer Engineering VOX 334.844.1812 FAX 334.844.1809 gross@eng.auburn.edu ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS Restricted permission to use this copyrighted material for personal education is granted to all students officially enrolled in Busi/Engr 3510 in the 2003 Fall Semester at Auburn University. Any other use is strictly prohibited.

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 2 Perspectives Engineering is... the application of science, mathematics, and technology to the design, fabrication, and use of practical devices and systems. Electrical Engineering is... that part of engineering which utilizes electrical and magnetic phenomena to achieve the engineering mission.

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 3 Two Basic Applications... Information Processing ("Electronic") TV, radio, computers, telephony, etc Energy Processing ("Electrical") Lighting, heating, motors, generators, etc

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 4 Contemporary ECE Circuits and Systems Electronics (micro-integrated circuits) Digital Logic Circuits; Boolean Algebra Control Microprocessors; Computers Electromagnetic Fields Communications Power and Energy

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 5 An Example… AMTRAK has solicited bids for the design of a high speed rail (HSR) system from New York to Boston. This is to be the first step in a massive overhaul of the entire US rail system. Specifications include: operation at 300 km/hr in shakedown phase; upgraded to 500 km/hr when fully commissioned. Freight trains are to eventually replace all tractor-trailor vehicles on the interstate highway system. Freight charges will fully fund all system operating expenses. Passenger trains will provide full business communication and entertainment accommodations. Passenger charges will fully fund all system expansion. Circuits and Systems Electronics (micro-integrated circuits) Digital Logic Circuits; Boolean Algebra Control Microprocessors; Computers Electromagnetic Fields Communications Power and Energy

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 6 ECE Design Problems Circuits and Systems Provide a mathematical simulation of the overall system dynamic performance, including starting, stopping, and emergency conditions. The mechanical performance must be integrated with the electrical performance of the drive system. Electronics Select, specify, and/or design sensors and associated A/D converters that monitor critical system variables, including position, velocity, acceleration, 3-axis vibration, cabin temperature, drive temperature, status of safety subsystems, etc.

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 7 ECE Design Problems Control Design an anti-collision system with forward looking radar, to prevent overtaking any obstructions on the RoW. Microprocessors; Computers Design an on-board computer network, featuring passenger stations that can accommodate full internet access, as well as radio and TV access, plus sensor data channels. Electromagnetic Fields Design two antenna systems, one providing a high fidelity communication satellite link to the internet, and a second ground-based backup system.

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 8 ECE Design Problems Communications Design an on-board communication system to accommodate 30 digital data channels, with 16 bit resolution, and a refresh rate of 1 Hz, and two voice channels, with 8-bit resolution, and bandwidth of 3.4 kHz. Power and Energy Design an electromagnetic propulsion system featuring MaGLev suspension and linear induction motors. The power source is to be on the stationary track.

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 9 Recall Basic Applications... Information Processing ("Electronic") TV, radio, computers, telephony, etc Energy Processing ("Electrical") Lighting, heating, motors, generators, etc

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 10 Two ways to represent information Analog Form Digital Form

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 11 Digital is better because…. The signal processing hardware is simpler. Information can be encoded into digital form to any desired accuracy. Digital storage media is simpler and cheaper, and can be replicated with zero error. The recovery of digital information in the presence of noise is simpler. Anything you can do to a number, you can do to a digital signal. Hence there is almost no limit to what is possible in digital signal processing. Consider "Jurassic Park".

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 12 Some Basic Digital Signal Processing Concepts All information can be represented as a number. All numbers can be represented in binary form. Example: "10" = 1x2 3 + 0x2 2 + 1x2 1 + 0x2 0 = (1010) 2 Binary "0" and "1" can be represented by two levels of voltage in an electric circuit. Therefore "10" is: 5 V (Binary "1") 0 V (Binary "0")

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 13 Lincoln's Gettysburg Address "Forescore and seven years ago…" ASCII eight bit Code for the letter "F": ASCII Character "70"… 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 272 words, with an average of 5 letters per word, plus a space: 8 x (5+1) x 272 = 13,056 bits. At a transmission rate of 100 Mbits/s: Time to transmit = Example: "10" = 1x2 3 + 0x2 2 + 1x2 1 + 0x2 0 = (1010) 2 Binary "0" and "1" can be represented by two levels of voltage in an electric circuit.: 5 V (Binary "1") 0 V (Binary "0")

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 14 The Electronic Miracle How is it possible to deal with this much detail so fast? Millions of components (the Pentium 4 computer chip has over 5 million transistors) Extremely small size (dimensions measured in microns) Extremely low component power (nanowatts) Extreme reliability. If a component is properly manufactured, installed, and operated within its limits, there is NO known failure mechanism. Extremely small cost. Once upon a time, a single transistor might cost 50 cents. Hence, a Pentium 4 would cost 2.5 M$. Today, a P4 costs about 0.0002 M$.

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 15 Recall Two Basic Applications... Information Processing ("Electronic") TV, radio, computers, telephony, etc Energy Processing ("Electrical") Lighting, heating, motors, generators, etc

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 16 Electrical POWER Engineering is... that part of electrical engineering which deals with the generation, transformation, transmission, and utilization of bulk electrical energy. It is characterized by high voltage, current, and power levels.

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 17 The Hydraulic-Electric Analogy... Charge (Q, in coulomb, C) "the fluid", "electricity", a fundamental property of the electron. Current (I, in C/second or ampere, A) " the flow", flow rate of charge Voltage (V, in J/C or volt, V) "the pressure", flow rate of charge Voltage Rise Current Pressure Rise (Pump) Flow

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 18 Power... Power (P, in J/s, or watt, W) Flow rate of energy from A to B P = V I + Voltage ( V ) - Current ( I ) Network A Network B

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Fall 2003 EE Fundamentals © C. A. Gross 19 Summary…. Electrical Engineering focuses two general areas of application: Information Processing ("Electronic") Energy Processing Electronics has a major impact on modern society. Consider life without television, radio, computers, telephones, fax machines, etc. Electrical power applications include lighting, heating, transportation, as well supplying the energy for electronic devices. We will consider electrical power in our next lesson.

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