Presentation on theme: "Where are we up to? Measuring Social Inclusion Peter Huxley PhD King’s College London Institute of Psychiatry Social Care Workforce Research Unit."— Presentation transcript:
Where are we up to? Measuring Social Inclusion Peter Huxley PhD King’s College London Institute of Psychiatry Social Care Workforce Research Unit
Measuring Social Inclusion What is social inclusion? Social inclusion can be measured within life domains Social inclusion can be measured subjectively Social inclusion can be measured objectively (independently verifiable)
Measuring Social Inclusion Social inclusion can be defined in terms of the success of one or more of the following four systems of 'integration': the democratic and legal system which promotes civic integration; the labour market which promotes economic integration; the welfare state system promoting social integration; and the family and community system, which promotes interpersonal integration.
Measuring Social Inclusion “One’s sense of belonging in society depends on all four systems. Civic integration means being an equal citizen in a democratic system. Economic integration means having a job, having a valued economic function, being able to pay your way. Social integration means being able to avail oneself of the social services provided by the state. Interpersonal integration means having family and friends, neighbours and social networks to provide care and companionship and moral support when these are needed. All four systems are therefore important. In a way the four systems are complementary: when one or two are weak the others need to be strong. And the worst off are those for whom all systems have failed” (Commins, 1993, p4).
Measuring Social Inclusion Social inclusion – “the extent to which people are able to participate fully in the institutions of society” – by choice Quality of life domains - choice Work – open employment Housing – independent living, suitable accommodation Finances – high income, maximum benefit Family relationships – level of contact Social relationships – choice of friends Leisure activity – community participation Safety – not at risk Physical and mental health – access to care, met need
Measuring Social Inclusion Social inclusion and access to services Empowerment (self-esteem, mastery, information and consultation) Participation in design and review of services delivered to self and others Users employed in the service
Mean gross monthly income by levels of financial well-being
Figure 2: GHQ mean scores by levels of financial well- being (1 = Terrible, 7= Delighted)
Measuring Social Inclusion The group who had housing improvements (cf those who had not) had higher subjective well-being after 22 months in:- living situation (p<0.001) finances (p<0.01) physical health (p<.001) and in overall well-being (p<0.001)
Individual QoL Profile: 3
Individual changes showing the effect of intervention
Measuring Social Inclusion Why use objective social indicators? [Objective - independently verifiable] Demonstrate inclusion Improvement over time Valued social goals Compare with the general population Assess service performance Support funding arguments
Measuring Social Inclusion Issues in the use of social indicators Cultural diversity Language Locality Gender and age Phraseology issues Disability issues Coding issues Don’t necessarily map onto individual goals
Measuring Social Inclusion Social contact Visits with friends, family or neighbours Mental health problems – 80% No mental health problems – 87% (Baum et al 2000) Visits with friends last week Mental health problems – 71% No mental health problems – 78% (ESRC 2001)
Measuring Social Inclusion Social contact no-one to turn to for help - 33% have no close friend - 4 X national average no close friend - 36% (Turton 2002; Huxley and Thornicroft 2001)
Measuring Social Inclusion People with severe illness or long term unemployment spend about 60% of their time alone People with severe illness spend only1% of their waking time in contact with paid helpers 50% of waking hours (ex eating etc) watching TV 2.5 times (more than the LTU) people with severe illness want to do things alone (24%) (Turton 2002)
Figure 1: Experience of crimes of violence *British Crime Survey
Measuring Social Inclusion Employment employment level of psychiatric patient populations rarely reaches more than 10% when working they work fewer hours (Self-reported mental health problems in the LFS - total weekly 25; ONS PMS – 28; compared to 38 average) at a lower hourly rate (Self-reported mental health problems in the LFS – Hourly rate £6.60: ONS PMS <£4; compared to £7.30 average) (Meltzer et al, 1995; Evans and Huxley, 2000; Labour Force Survey 2004).
Measuring Social Inclusion Employment rates RegionHighestLowest North EastAlnwick (78%)Easington (57%) North WestRossendale (87%)Manchester (60%) London-Newham (52%) E MidlandsMelton (89%)Nottingham (60%) WalesFlintshire (78%)Port Talbot (62%)
Measuring Social Inclusion Job related training in the last 4 weeks National figure = 16% RegionHighestLowest North East Wear Valley (24%)Berwick u T (10%) North West S Lakeland (22%)Warrington (10%) London Greenwich (23%)Islington (8%) Wales Cardiff (20%)Monmouth (13%)
Measuring Social Inclusion Achieving NVQ2 or equivalent National figure = 70% Region HighestLowest North East Chester-le Steet (81%) Easington (59%) North West Ribble Valley (87%)Knowlsey (60%) London - Barking & Dag ( 59%) Wales Ceredigion (73%) Blaenau Gwent (47%)
Measuring Social Inclusion In ‘adult learning’ National figure = 76% England St Albans (91%)Easington (60%) Wales Powys (74%)Blaenau Gwent (50%)
Measuring Social Inclusion (In the past three years) have you attended any courses or received any instruction or tuition in driving, in playing a musical instrument, in an art or craft, in a sport or in any practical skill? (include all courses and periods of instruction or tuition, however short) (In the past three years) have you attended any evening classes? (In the past three years) have you deliberately tried to improve your knowledge about anything, taught yourself
Measuring Social Inclusion (In the past three years) have you been on any taught courses designed to help you develop skills that you might use in a job? (include all courses however short) (In the past three years) have you carried out any learning which has involved working on your own package of materials provided by an employer, college, commercial organisation or other training provider?
Measuring Social Inclusion 1 degree level qualification including, foundation degree, graduate membership of a professional institute or PGCE, or higher 2 diploma in higher education 3 HNC/HND 4 ONC/OND 5 BTEC, BEC or TEC 6 SCOTVEC, SCOTEC or SCOTBEC 7 teaching qualification (excluding PGCE) 8 nursing or other medical qualification 9 other higher education qualification below degree level 10 A-level/Vocational A Level or equivalent 12 NVQ/SVQ What is your highest level of full NVQ/SVQ? (level 1 – 5; don’t know) 13 GNVQ/GSVQ Is your highest GNVQ/GSVQ at advanced, intermediate, foundation, don’t know 14 AS-level 17 SCE standard 18 GCSE/Vocational GCSE 20 RSA 21 City & Guilds 22 YT Certificate 23 any other professional / vocational qualification / foreign qualifications 26 National Qualifications (Scotland) 27 Don’t Know
Measuring Social Inclusion Participation Political parties Trade unions (including student unions) Environmental groups Parent-teacher association or school association Tenants' or residents' group or neighbourhood watch Education, arts, music or singing group (including evening classes) Religious group or church organisation Charity, voluntary or community group Group for elderly or older people (eg lunch club) Youth group (eg scouts, guides, youth club) Women's institute or Townswomen's Guild or Women's group Social club (including working men's club, Rotary club) Sports club, gym, exercise or dance group Other group or organisation
Measuring Social Inclusion Participation: 100 service users compared to the local population 80feel leisure opportunities are restricted (cf 64) 83 want a more active social life (cf 62) 47 want to participate more fully in family activities (cf 28) 56 not a member of community groups ( cf 47) Satisfaction with leisure activity 3.7 (cf 4.3) (p<0.001)
Measuring Social Inclusion Service users in South Manchester compared to the local population 5% employed compared to….. 61% Average working week 24 hours compared to.. 38 hours Average monthly income £755 compared to….£369 53% seen a friend in the last week compared to…. 80% 57% have a close friend compared to ……95% 16% contact with relatives less than monthly….3%
Measuring Social Inclusion Conclusions Subjective measures Objective measures Comprehensive inclusion Domain specific inclusion Individual goals and valued roles Local comparisons Questions and codes Ease of access Disaggregation Interrogation
Measuring Social Inclusion Sources General Household Survey GHS Social Capital Module British Crime Survey Home Office Citizenship Survey Labour Force Survey British Social Attitudes Survey Health Survey for England Psychiatric Morbidity Survey National Adult Learning Survey Census
Measuring Social Inclusion The Question Bank The UK Data Archive