Presentation on theme: "Badawi A. Tantawi INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT IN RICE FIELDS EGYPT"— Presentation transcript:
1Badawi A. Tantawi INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT IN RICE FIELDS EGYPT Rice Research Program, field Crops Research Institute,Agricultural Research Center, Giza, 12619,EGYPT
2Table (1): Actual consumptive use (Eta) and water requrment of the rice and its component as will as potantial evapotranspiration in mm /day as calculated by different methods.ETpEta(E+T)W.RmmC.UPmm/dayTE mm/dayPeriod(day)PanBlaney & CriddlePenman4.8220.127.116.11.216.216.014.944.182.726.946.144.783.752.507.778.045.843.942.51524.61489.49340.80234.3658.80209.79249.24175.20122.1425.1011.667.755.523.623.372.953.542.921.460.784.824.502.481.73July (27 day)Aug.(31day)Sep.(30 day)Oct. (31 day)Nov. (10 day)508.1658.9662.4781.4781.47866.59Total(129 day)The varity used Giza E = EvapoTranspiration (mm/day), T = Transpiration (mm/day),P= Percolation (mm/day), C.U = Consumptive Use (mm), and W.R = Water Requirment (mm).Total amount of evapotranspiration calculated by the different methods from transplanting to harvesting.
3Table(2):Average monthely water consumptive use valued (cm), actual evapotranspiration ETa, potential evapotranspirtion ETp and rice coefficient valus Kc.Irrigation every 8 daysIrrigation every 4 daysMonthKcETp (mm/day)ETa (mm/day)C.U(cm)0.518.104.22.16822.214.171.124.54.288.988.305.758.5528.4525.006.880.641.401.301.434.8510.439.436.509.7332.3528.357.80June (20 days)July (31days)Aug. (31 days)Sept. (12 days)The varity used Giza C.U = Consumptive Use (mm), ETa =actual evaporationtranspiratio (mm/day), ETp=potential evaporationtranspiratio (mm/day), and Kc = rice coefficientThe values were measured after transplanting up to harvesting process.
4Table(3) :Some water relations for some rice varieties as affected by irrigation treatments. WUEkg/m3Watersaved%Totalwater use(m3/ha)IrrigationtreatmentsVariety( duration)0.640.840.83-26.687.48Continuous floodingContinuous saturationIrrigation every 6 daysSakha 101(135 days)0.630.800.5824.366.739935.6Sakha 102(120 days)0.510.770.4834.327.81Giza 171(155 days)WUE = water use efficiency
5Table (4): Effect of irrigation treatments on grain yield of some rice varieties. meanGiza 176Giza 175Giza 181Giza 171Treatments11.06.37.46.86.75.09.08.126.96.36.199.89.38.78.04.79.412.07.07.79.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.210.2Irrigation every 6 days (IE 6 D)Irrigation every 12 daysIE 6 D shifting to 12 days for 36 days during tilleringIE 6 D shifting to 18 days for 36 days during tilleringIE 6 D shifting to 12 days for 36 days during PIIE 6 D shifting to 18 days for 36 days during PIIE 6 D shifting to 12 days for 36 days during floweringIE 6 D shifting to 18 days for 36 days during floweringContinuous flooding (chek)1.10.8L.S.D 5%PI = panicle initiation
6Table(5):Effect of irrigation withholding at different Productivity times of Sakha 102 rice variety Yield t/haTreatments6.92 e6.91 e7.85 bc7.79 bcd7.76 bcd7.49 cd7.77 bcd8.21 ab8.01 ab8.38 a7.33 de8.00 ab12 days withholding, 2 weeks AT12 days withholding, 3 weeks AT12 days withholding, 4 weeks AT12 days withholding, 5 weeks AT12 days withholding, 6 weeks AT12 days withholding, 7 weeks AT12 days withholding, 8 weeks AT12 days withholding, 9 weeks AT12 days withholding,10 weeks ATcontinuous floodingirrigation every 6 daysalternate 4 days on + 6 days offAT = After transplanting
7Table (6): Yield reduction and some water relations under different irrigation regimes Total water used m3 /haWater saved %Yield reduction %Irrigation intervals16200134961175610239-16.727.436.74.231.040.0Irrigation every 3 daysIrrigation every 6 daysIrrigation every 9 daysIrrigation every 12 days
8Water use efficiency (WUE) Table(7):Water used, water saved and water use efficiency of some rice varieties as affected by water regimeWater RelationsTreatmentsWater use efficiency (WUE)Water saved %Water used m3/ha*0.680.510.720.66-Continuous Flooding:Giza 182Egyptian JasmineSakha 103Sakha 1040.64Mean0.880.650.8625.6923.9018.96Continuous Saturation:0.8123.560.690.530.740.677.808.708.25Irrigation every 6 days:8.140.770.480.7023.2114.0617.67Irrigation every 9 days:19.54Including the amount of water used before applying treatments ( through nursesries and land preparation)RRTC (2001).
9Organic manure rates t/ha Table(8):water use, water saved % and water use efficiency kg/m3 as affected by different irrigation intervals and organic manure of Sakha 101 rice variety.MeanOrganic manure rates t/haIrrigationIntervalscharacters12841327811888980012900115008900131151162094001335012000137501240011100Cont. flooding6 days9 daysWaterused m34.515.525.86.018.035.04.015.029.03.013.020.0-10.019.0saved %0.820.860.800.950.960.940.840.910.780.830.760.710.730.64Water use efficiency(WUE) kg/ m3
10Table (9) Effect of cut of irrigation dates on grain yield of some rice cultivarsGrain yield (T/ha)Treatments8.997.958.470.21Rice cultivars ( V ) :SakhaSakhaSakhaL.S.D %6.887.939.139.930.19Cut of irrigation dates (C):At complete heading (CH)1 week after CH.2 weeks after CH.3 weeks after CH.L.S.D %Source : RRTC(2002 &2003)
11At complete heading (CH) Table(10) Effect of the interaction between cut of irrigation dates treatments and cultivars on grain yield.SakhaSakhaSakhaTreatments7.127.939.139.936.357.638.329.507.188.409.9710.40At complete heading (CH)1 week after CH2 weeks after CH3 weeks after CH0.25L.S.D %
12Table(11)water use efficiency (WUE) kg /m3 of Giza 177 and Sakha 102 rice varieties as affected by land preparation and planting methodsSakha 102Giza 177Treatments0.5050.5190.4850.5440.5120.4930.4550.520Land preparation:Disk + LevelingChisel + Disk + LevelingChisel + LevelingMold + Disk + Leveling0.5060.5930.4600.5400.5220.4650.5720.4840.5580.433Planting methods:DrillingDibblingBroadcastinigManual TransplantingMech. Transplanting
13Table(12):Total water requirement and water use efficiency as affected by land preparation and irrigation interval.Water used efficiencyTotal waterusedTreatmentSakha101Giza1770.5070.4060.3720.4150.4680.4870.4010.3200.4230.3730.3610.2510.3940.4040.3320.2787182741390796500855678237180661563946572797560927987689663335818Land Preparation:Chisel plough (2 passes) + wet levelingChisel plough (1 pass) + dry levelingMoldboard plough + disk + dry levelingZero tillageIrrigation interval:Every 3 daysEvery 6 daysEvery 9 daysEvery 12 days
14Irrigation treatments Table (13):some of water relations for Giza 178 and Sakha 102 rice varities as affected by irrigation regimes and different planting methods.WUE kg /m3Water saved %Total water use m3/haIrrigation treatmentsPlantingmethodmeanSakha 102Giza 1780.690.700.680.630.710.620.670.64-7.0611.1917.376.9911.0816.047.1211.3018.70I1I2I3I4Maual transplanting0.600.560.610.580.530.596.129.0114.747.5512.1016.66Broadcasting0.660.656.7612.4416.436.8711.2715.376.6413.6017.52Mech. Drilling0.556.7911.9515.686.5511.4114.857.0312.4616.50DibblingI1= 4days on + 6 days off, I2= 4days on + 8 days off, I3= 4days on + 10 days off, I4= 4days on + 12 days off
15Irrigation regimes ( I ) : Cont. flooding I1 Cont. saturation I2 Table (14): Grain yield (t/ha) as influenced by irrigation treatments and different planting methods.Grain yield (t / ha)Treatments9.859.5220.127.116.11Irrigation regimes ( I ) :Cont. flooding I1Cont. saturation I26- day off I38- day off I4L.S.D %9.288.619.169.70Planting methods (P):Broadcasting P1Drilling P2Mech. Transplanting P3Transplanting P4L.S.D %
16Water used before treatments m3/ha Table (15A): Some of water relations of Sakha 104 rice cultivar as affected by irrigation treatments and methods of planting .Water saved %Total water used 1000 m3/haPlanting methodsMeanP4P3P2P1-24.299.7218.8824.168.4017.3723.9212.2320.7023.679.6018.1025.418.6619.341495911322135091212515016113881375512407145991110712812115771438910984130091178615833118091446012771Cont.floodingCont.saturation6- day off8- day off4353342036035967Water used before treatments m3/haP1=Broadcasting, P2= Drilling, P3= Mech. Transplanting, P4 = Transplanting.
17Table (15 B): Grain yield (t/ha) as influenced by irrigation treatments and different planting methods.WUE Kg /m3Yield reduction %PlantingMeanP4P3P2P1methods0.660.850.680.700.890.720.670.860.710.820.650.630.81-3.116.9117.063.155.3521.101.445.8913.653.538.2419.594.338.1513.88Cont. floodingCont. saturation6- day8- day0.750.740.69P1=Broadcasting, P2= Drilling, P3= Mech. Transplanting, P4 = Transplanting.
18Table (16): Weed dry weight as influenced by regime, row spacing, and number of seedling in manually transplanted rice.Weed dry weight (g/m2)*Water regime4-days on +12- days off6- days offContinuousfloodingSeedlingno/hillSpacing(cm)288 c167 d14 b310x20241 de129 ef0.0 b6224 e100 f9220 dc227 c17 b20x20295 c183 d12 b261 d156 de7 b389 e328 a56 a331 b263 b28 ab218 c15 b* Means followed by a common are not significantly at the 5% level by DMRI
19(Hreebicides kg a.i/ha) Table 17 Dry weight of weeds and grain yield of transplanted rice (Sakha 101 cv) as influenced by conventional weed control treatmentsMBCRYield(t/ha)Weeds(g/m2)Treatments(Hreebicides kg a.i/ha)A. Improved weed control (10x20 cm)1- Continuous flooding for 15 days:289.1338- Butachlor (1.1)6.34169- Weedy check2- Continuous flooding for 15 days:329.970.06.83142B. Conventional weed control (20x20 cm)1- flooding every 6 days:258.2375- Hand weeding twice198.9764- Thiobencarb (2.4)228.8759- Butachlor (2.4)4.51373
20CONCLUSIONIn order to increase the efficiency of the irrigation water in rice fields the following alternatives should be usedSubstituting long duration varieties with short duration varieties in all rice growing areas.Convince farmers to use the laser technique and dry leveling in land preparation.Use the optimum plant density with the specific rice varieties.Use the drought tolerance varieties such as Giza 178 at the end of canals.Withholding irrigation water for short time at medium tillering stage and during late grain filling stage.Improving the irrigation and drainage system to minimize water losses.Extensive public awareness campaign on the importance of the water and the possible methods for saving.Other water resources have to be developed such as ground water particularly for the reclaimed areas.