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Presentation on theme: "Witschi Electronic Basic course Watches – Measuring technology and troubleshooting www.witschi.com Start >>"— Presentation transcript:

1 Witschi Electronic Basic course Watches – Measuring technology and troubleshooting Start >>

2 Welcome to...

3 Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Contents Exit 

4 Introduction About us Witschi Electronic AG develops, manufactures and sells Pioneering test and measurement technology for: Watch production Watch service Testing devices for automotive industry, medical industry and instrument manufacturing HomeBack

5 This basic course is intended to optimize our customers’ and the users’ knowledge of the Witschi devices and their operating skills in this field. Introduction Aim of this course..End.. HomeBack

6 Contents  Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

7 Mechanical Watches Home

8 Mechanical Watches Main components of mechanical watches and their characteristics Mainspring / barrel Gear train / motion work Regulating system Escapement (escape wheel, pallet fork and impulse pin) Automatic winding mechanism (only with automatic watches) Winding shaft / crown BackHome

9 Mechanical Watches Measuring signals Amplitude measurement The amplitude of the balance wheel is determined from the velocity of the ellipse, passing through the lift angle of the escapement. (high velocity = large amplitude and vice versa). Typical values: watch horizontal: (approx.) ° watch vertical: (approx.) 240° at 0/h + 10s/d Rate measurement The rate of the watch is based on a difference measurement between a highly accurate thermally stabilised quartz time base, e.g. in the Wicometre Professional and the actual rate of the watch. Typical values: Normal watch (approx.) s/d Chronometer (approx.) s/d BackHome

10 Mechanical Watches Measuring signals Beat error Millisecond variations of both beats ("tick" and "tock" of unequal duration). Typical values: ms General graphical display The general display generated by the Wicometre Professional is the result of all technical factors mentioned above during a certain time span. It indicates very accurately the technical state of the watch and it's faults, if any. Splitting the escapement noise into its three main components gives a great deal of information about miscellaneous fault sources in the escapement and regulating parts (balance wheel / spiral system). Beat noise BackHome

11 Mechanical Watches Functions of the Wicometre Professional Rotary knob and buttons Display of results and parameters BackHome

12 Mechanical Watches The parameters of the Wicometre Professional According to list (Witschi document) or individual GRAPH – SCOPE 3 1 to 10 mm/ms Individual 10 to 90° Individual 2 to 240 s MAN, SEL, FRQ Individual settings Automatic detection Graph 2 52° 20 s Aut (Automatic) Universal setting Selected beat number Operating mode Resolution / diagramm Lift Angle Measuring time in s Beat number selection Operation Beats per Hour Graph. Resol Lift Angle Meas Time Parameter Test Mode Beat Mode BackHome

13 Mechanical Watches The parameters of the Wicometre Professional ModeSymbolOperation Beat Mode MAN Manual selection: In this position, the parameter "BEATS PER HOUR" can be set to less frequently used beat numbers, which cannot be determined automatically, according to a list pre-programmed in the system. SEL Individual selection: In this position, the parameter "BEATS PER HOUR" can be set to any beat number from 1 to in steps of 1 by pressing or in steps of 100 by pressing both buttons. FRQ Determines the instantaneous frequency: This function allows testing of watches with an unknown beat number. The instantaneous beat number displayed corresponds to a rate = 0 s/24h. BackHome

14 Mechanical Watches The parameters of the Wicometre Professional ModeSymbolFunktion Test Mode GRAPHNormal operating mode with graphical diagram and display of numerical results. PRIN XX If a printer is connected to the WICOMETRE PROFESSIONAL, the numerical results for the rate, the beat error and the amplitude are printed at the end of the preset measuring time. The next measurement starts automatically at the completion of the freeze delay. LAB -PC Similar to PRIN XX. However, the output results are passed to a PC through the serial interface RS 232 C. SCOPE 1 Oscillogram representing a single beat noise (tick) SCOPE 2 Oscillogram representing two beat noises ( tick-tock ) SCOPE 3 Oscillogram representing four beat noises (2x tick-tock) BackHome

15 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical diagram Amplification adjustment of the equipment: 1 standard adjustment. If the diagram appereance is disturbed, the signal amplification can be reduced or increased by means of the rotating knob. 1 Watch movement in good condition. Rate : +1 up to +15 s/d Amplitude: H.: approx ° V.: ° Beat error: ca. 0.0 up to 0.5 ms. BackHome

16 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical diagram Watch movement in good condition. Beat error: too large (approx. 3 mm/ms) Correction: adjust beat error only and readjust the rate. A + 90 s/dB - 90 s/d Watch movement in good condition. Movement A: large gain Movement B: large loss Correction: readjustment of the rate, approx. +2 up to +15 s/d BackHome

17 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Movement A Pos CU Movement A Pos. CD + 40 s/d- 90 s/d Watch movement with large rate variations between the various vertical positions. Correction: center, poise balance or exchange the complete regulation system. Movement A Pos HU Movement A Pos. CD + 10 s/d- 10 s/d Watch movement with small rate variations between the horizontal and vertical positions (isochronism). Correction: Check distance between the curb pins: vertical – (loss): reduce distance vertical + (gain): increase distance BackHome

18 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Watch movement with irregular rate and defects. Usually the amplitude is insufficient. Correction: overhaul. Watch movement with large, but regular rate variations: = technical defect in the gear train. Correction: overhaul + possible exchange of some gear-train parts. BackHome

19 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Balance wheel "knocks" with interruptions (occasionally). Usually too high amplitude (+330°) + double "tick-tock" in loud speaker. Correction: exchange mainspring, pallet fork and/or escape wheel. Balance wheel "knocks" continuously. Usually the amplitude is too high (+330°) + double- "tick-tock" in loud speaker. Correction: exchange the mainspring, pallet fork and/or escape wheel. BackHome

20 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Entry pallet of the pallet fork does not lock correctly, or is dirty. Correction: clean the pallet fork and escape wheel, or exchange the pallet fork. Excentric escape wheel. Correction: exchange the escape wheel. 15 – 21 teeth = 1 turn of the escape wheel BackHome

21 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Balance spring touches. In this case usually the balance spring touches the curb pins or the stud. (Scratching noises in loud speaker). Correction: center balance spring / adjust Slow recovery of the balance wheel amplitude after changing position. Bearings for balance wheel and gear train are badly or not lubricated. Correction: clean and lubricate, possibly overhaul. BackHome

22 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart 0.0 to 0.5 ms220 to 270°250 to 330°-5 to + 15 s/dChrono- graph 0.0 to 0.5 ms220 to 270°250 to 330°-2 to + 6 s/dChrono- meter 0.0 to 0.5 ms220 to 270°250 to 330°-5 to + 25 s/dLady's watch 0.0 to 0.5 ms220 to 270°250 to 330°-5 to + 15 s/dGent's watch Beat errorAmplitude V.*Amplitude H.*Rate in s/d Watchtype * Amplitude values when movement is fully wound. (Amplitude values after 24 h: decrease of approx. -10% to -15% is o.k.) Good standard values BackHome

23 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Between noises A and C, the balance wheel rotates by what is called the lift angle Image of the beat - normal pallet operation the impulse pin touches the pallet fork the entry pallet freeing itself from the escape wheel the escape wheel is dropping on to the exit pallet BackHome

24 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Escapement locking too smallEscapement locking too large BackHome

25 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, the graphical scope function Unlocking resistance too highAdditional friction BackHome

26 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Dart touching the roller Not enough clearance between the horns and the impulse pin BackHome

27 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Low amplitude Too much clearance between balance pivot and jewel hole BackHome

28 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Impulse pin touching the fork horn Rough balance pivot or insufficient clearance BackHome

29 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Balance wheel touching balance spring..End.. A tooth of the escape wheel drops directly on to the impulse plane (No locking function) BackHome

30 Contents  Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

31 Quartz Watches Home

32 Gear train and motion work Stepping motor Quartz resonator Quartz Watches Main components of autoquartz and quartz watches and their characteristics Battery Integrated Circuit ( IC ) BackHome

33 Quartz Watches Measuring signals All rate measurements with quartz watches are based on the acquisition of the following signals: Back Analogue or analogue/digital quartz watches Quartz frequency Acoustic or capacitive Stepping motor Inductive (magnetic) Digital – quartz watches Quartz frequency Acoustic Working frequency of the digital display: Capacitive on the watch glass Frequency: 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 Hz. Sat :34:42 Home

34 Quartz Watches Measuring signals Quartz oscillator The measurement of the quartz frequency (nominal: 32'768 Hz) occurs over the acoustic or the capacitive (by opened watches) sensor. For the rate adjustment 2 different methods are usually used: IC / Oscillator Quartz Trim. A: Adjusted quartz oscillator frequency. Adjustment with a trimmer (out dated) or fixed capacitor "fix cap". The true rate can either be obtained via acoustical / capacitive measurements of the quartz frequency or magnetically via the motor pulses. IC /mit EEPROM Quartz B: The quartz oscillator frequency is not adjustable. The programmable IC is digitally adjusted (inhibition). A programmable number of oscillator pulses is inhibited once per minute (for some IC's every 20s, 30s or every 2, 4 and 8 minutes) during frequency division, i.e. they are not transferred to the next divider stage. By using this method the quartz oscillator runs fast, approx s/d. The true rate can only be measured via the motor pulse with a measuring time of => 60 s BackHome

35 Quartz Watches Measuring signals Motor pulse The motor pulses (pulse period 1s, 5s, 10s, 20s, 30s or 1 min.) are picked up inductively over the magnetic sensor. The stepping motor is driven from the IC’s driver stage with pulses like: Back A: fixed pulses with constant or variable pulse width. IC Motor or for new systems B: chopped pulses with constant pulse width, but chopped pulses which are continuously adapted to the watch movement’s condition for a lower current consumption. IC Motor Home

36 Quartz Watches Functions of the Q Test 6000 Displays Signal sensors Connections and buttons BackHome

37 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with built in, functioning battery Short test of the quartz and IC operation (test of the quartz signal) 1 Place the watch on the "acoustic " microphone 2 POS: Testmode Rate: Quartz 32 KHz Test ok if: 3 Signal "quartz" lights up in display "RATE". 4 Rate (quartz frequency) of the watch on Display RATE : approx to approx. + 6 s/d = ok Quartz + IC Test BackHome

38 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with built in, functioning battery Test of the magnetic motor pulse 1 Place the watch on the "magnetic/capacitive" microphone 2 POS: Testmode Rate : stepp. motor Test ok if: 3 Signal "motor" in display "RATE" lights up (pulse) Motor Test BackHome

39 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with built in, functioning battery Rate measurement Back Test of the rate accuracy 1 Place the watch on the "magnetic / capacitive" microphone 2 POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. motor 3 POS: Set the parameter meas. time on 60 s with the rotary knob. 4 POS: Press Start test: 5 Result after 60 s in RATE normal values: (approx.) to s/d or -2 to + 15 s/m Home

40 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery 1 POS: Testmode Module: Battery test 2 Test currents Nominal: 2  A = current consumption Low Drain: 750  A = peak Motor High Drain: 15 mA = peak Backlight 1 2 Battery tests BackHome

41 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Minimal values SystemV min. nominal V min. low drain V min. high drain Silveroxide low drain Silveroxide high drain Lithium low drain Lithium high drain BackHome

42 Coil insulation: B 1 POS: Testmode Module: resistance 2 1st test probe to a coil connection 2nd test probe to the plate Normal values: approx. 700 kOhm to X MOhm Movement insulation: C 1 POS: Testmode Module: resistance 2 1st test probe to - pole of the battery 2nd test probe to the plate Normal values: approx. 700 kOhm - X MOhm Coil resistance: A 1 POS: Testmode Module: resistance 2 Test probes to coil connections Normal values: approx. 1 to 3 kOhm 1 2 A Coil resistance / Insulation test CB Back Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Home

43 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery 4 POS: Testmode Module: consumption µA 5 connect minus test probe with RT/T test point on movement’s module. 6 Reduce current voltage with rotary knob until gear train stops. 1 Place the watch on the mirror table and connect both 2 battery connectors to Module Supply by means of the movable contact picks. 3 POS: Parameter: Supply voltage - Set start at 1.55 or 3.00 Volt with the rotary knob <= 1.15 V2 dial trains <= 1.3 V3 dial trains Normal values Starting voltage BackHome

44 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Rate and consumption measurement Back 1 Place the watch on the mirror table 2 Connect battery connectors to Module Supply. Set the following parameters with the rotary knob: 3 POS: Parameter: Supply voltage - Voltage on 1.55 or 3.00 volts 4 POS: Parameter: meas. time rate Set measuring time to 60 s Home

45 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Rate and consumption measurement Back 5 POS: Parameter meas. time cons. Set measuring time to 60 s 6 POS: Testmode Module: on consumption µA 7 Start test: Measurement countdown can be observed on: POS countdown meas. time and countdown cons can be observed Result shown on displays: Rate (Rate) and Module (cons.) Home

46 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Pulse generator The simulation of the watch’s IC by the pulse generator is carried out with a non-chopped pulse of variable length. Back 3.9ms 5.8ms 7.8 ms The watch’s IC is replaced by the pulse generator Q Test Home

47 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Place the watch on the mirror table 2 Connect the coil connections on the Module Supply. Set the following parameters with the rotary knob: 3 POS: Testmode module: Puls generator 4 POS: Testmode Module: Supply voltage Voltage at 1.35  or 2.80  volts in display Parameter) 5 POS: Parameter: Pulse width Start with pulse length 2.9 ms and increase pulse length until the watch runs. 5.8 – 6.8 ms4.8 – 5.8 ms ms adequategoodvery good Normal motor pulse length values Back Pulse generator Home

48 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 IC programming and accelerated rate test ( real rate ) Place the watch on the mirror table 2 Connect battery connectors to Module Supply. Set the following parameters with the rotary knob: 3 POS: Parameter: Supply voltage - Voltage on 1.55 Volt 4 POS: Parameter: special program - Setting P1 - P4 according to IC Typ 5 POS: Testmode Rate: quartz 32 kHz Back Settings Home

49 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 IC programming and accelerated rate test ( real rate ) Tests Accelerated rate test POS: Test control: start test - Press briefly. The real rate of the watch is briefly shown. IC programming POS: Test control: simultaneously press keys start test and print result for 2-3 sec. The IC is reprogrammed. BackHome

50 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 IC programming and accelerated rate test ( real rate ) Special Programm / programmed IC types P1 Philips Series PCA 1400 P2 Philips Series 1460 / 1480 / 1600 P3 MEM H1138/ H1140/ H1238/ H1338/ H1538 P4 MEM H1221/ H5222SPL Note Rate: Must appear in display RATE after accelerated test and after programming. If not: select another programming program (P1-P4). Back IC Typen Home

51 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Back Tests and settingsTest sequence Battery not ok Battery ok Remove and test the battery Battery test POS: Testmode module: battery test Caution: Always check the movement for corrosion and the insulation of the battery case! Situation: watch stopped Home

52 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Battery not ok Battery ok Remove and test the battery Battery test POS: Testmode module: battery test Caution: Always check the movement for corrosion and the insulation of the battery case! Situation: watch stopped Values ok Test of the coil resistance and of the insulation values: POS: Testmode Module: resistance Test of the coil resistance coil and movement insulation, without external power supply and without battery Values not ok Back Tests and settingsTest sequence Home

53 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Test of the coil resistance and of the insulation values: POS: Testmode Module: resistance Replace the electronic module Values not ok Values ok Test of the quartz and IC operation: POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. Motor POS: Testmode module: cons.  A POS: Parameter: supply voltage 1.55V V - Winding stem - POS: Reset Test of quartz and IC - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors Values not ok Values ok Test of the coil resistance coil and movement insulation, without external power supply and without battery BackHome

54 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Values ok Test of the quartz and IC operation: POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. Motor POS: Testmode module: cons.  A POS: Parameter: supply voltage 1.55V V - Winding stem - POS: Reset Test of quartz and IC - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors Values not ok Test of the stepping motor: - Winding stem - POS: Neutral POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. Motor POS: Testmode module: cons.  A POS: Parameter: supply voltage 1.55V V meas.time rate  60 s meas.time cons.  4 s POS: test control: start test Test of the stepping motor - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors Back Replace the electronic module Home

55 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Test of the stepping motor: - Winding stem - POS: Neutral POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. Motor POS: Testmode module: cons.  A POS: Parameter: supply voltage 1.55V V meas.time rate  60 s meas.time cons.  4 s POS: test control: start test Test of the stepping motor - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors Test of the starting voltage - Same test as stepping motor; - battery test tip with RT/T measuring point of the movement Start with: POS: supply voltage V Voltage reduced until the movement stops Test of the lower starting voltage - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors, and the negative test probe with RT/T Values ok -new battery -close watch Values not ok BackHome

56 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Important mechanical tests: - steel particles block the rotor/gear train - particles between crown and case block the reset mechanism - hands touch the inside face of the glass - hands have no axial freedom - Calendar mechanism Mechanical test Test of the starting voltage - Same test as stepping motor; - battery test tip with RT/T measuring point of the movement Start with: POS: supply voltage V Voltage reduced until the movement stops Values ok -new battery -close watch Test of the lower starting voltage - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors - minus battery test tips to the test point RT/T of the movement Values not ok Back..End.. Home

57 Contents  Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

58 Water-Resistance Home

59 Water-resistance Water-resistance standard ISO 2281 Basic standards for ordinary watches The basic standards for all definitions, test methods, min. / max. values, tolerances, etc. are contained in the three standards ISO 2281 / DIN 8310 and NIHS The test procedures described in DIN 8310 and NIHS are, to a large extent, similar, national versions of the international standard ISO 2281 The label "water-resistant". The label of wristwatches which meets the minimal requirements of this standard must only contain a single expression in each language: In german: wasserdicht / in french : étanche / in english : waterresistant BackHome

60 Water-resistance Water-resistance standard ISO 2281 Practical aspects of the label "water-resistant". Watches which are designated as water-resistant must be resistant to sweat, water drops, rain, etc. and to immersion into water: - at a depth of 10 cm (excess pressure of 0.01 bar) for 1 hour and … - at a depth of 20 meter (excess pressure of 2.0 bar) for 1 min. Minimal requirements ( standard converted to air pressure measurements ) A watch fulfils these requirements if: - the air penetration into the watch - under an excess air pressure of 2 bar - for a 1 minute test - does not exceed 50  g ( microgram ) BackHome

61 Water-Resistance Test methods Volume comparison measurement Measurement principle: The following values are determined by performing a calibration cycle: Measurement 1: Entire volume of the test chambers without watches Measurement 2: - Volume of the watches Result: = Remaining free space in the chambers During the work cycle, the ALC 7000 monitors the variation in the calibrated remaining free space and determines on this basis whether the watches are water-resistant or not. Field of application: Ideal for industrial applications and series production ( unsuitable for service applications ) BackHome

62 Water-Resistance Test methods Deformation measurement Measurement principle: A given pressure or vacuum is created in a measuring chamber. The external geometry of the watch undergoes a deformation due to the elasticity of the case materials. The sensory part of the system then tracks the reversal of the deformation of the watchcase’s parts during the whole measurement process and, based on it, determines if the watch does or does not correspond to the given tolerances for water-resistance. Field of applications: Industry: small and medium series Services: Repair shop and und retail business BackHome

63 Water-Resistance Test methods Condensation test Back Measurement principle: The watch, first tested under pressure underwater, is then brought to a temperature of 40 to 45 degree on a heating plate for approx. 30 min. One then pours a drop of warm water ( degree ) onto the watch-glass. Water condenses on the inside face of the glass if the watch is not water-resistant. Field of applications: Manufacturing and laboratory Home

64 Water-Resistance Test methods Deformation measurement Back Pressure build-upMeasuring time Reversal deformation (- value) Accebtable measuring results: Lady‘s watch max. -2.5% watch ok Gent‘s watch (Norm) =/< 1% watch ok 0- Deformation: i.e. very hard material. watch ok Further + deformation during test cycle: = high elasticity of materials. Measuring result: + 0,1%- + x% - watch ok. Stab.time Pressure process ALC 2000 Deformation of the watch Home

65 Water-Resistance Test methods Deformation measurement Back Stab.time Vacuum build-up Measuring time Deformation of the watch Vacuum process ALC 2000 Reversal deformation (- value) Accebtable measuring results: Lady‘s watch max. -2.5% watch ok Gent‘s watch (Norm) =/< 1% watch ok 0- Deformation: i.e. very hard material. watch ok Further + deformation during test cycle: = high elasticity of materials. Measuring result: + 0,1%- + x % - watch ok. Home

66 Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Witschi ALC 2000 parameters / operations / valuesISO parameters Test of water resistance under vacuum: The partial vacuum test is primarily designed for detecting small leaks and faulty assembly of case parts. The negative test pressure  corresponds to the normal strain on the watch (showering, swimming, etc.). ALC 2000 parameter : from to bar Measurement under vacuum No ISO standard Back Test of water resistance under pressure: ( Test of the design of the watchcase’s parts ) according to data from the watch manufacturer. ALC 2000 parameter : from to +10 bar Positive pressure measurement ISO standard: 2 bar Home

67 Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Witschi ALC 2000 parameters / operations / valuesISO parameters The sealing limit of 50 micrograms of air penetration per minute given by the ISO standard approximately corresponds to a 1% reversal of the case deformation. The ISO standard does not take into account the size of the case. ALC 2000 parameter for the “tight” limit: Case mm: 1% (default value) Case > 35 mm: 0.5% (pocket-watches) Case < 20 mm: % (lady’s watches) Sealing (tight) limit - ISO standard: 50 micrograms of air penetration per minute. Without taking into account the size of the watch case BackHome

68 Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Witschi ALC 2000 parameters / operations / valuesISO parameters ALC 2000 parameter / Measuring times: variable from 10 to 300 sec. + automatic measuring time. Witschi recommends using the variables "Auto Measuring time". Optimisation of the measuring time in dependence on the deformation Measuring time - ISO standard : 1 min. The deformation factor can vary much according to the case material and geometry (e.g. carbide or curved case). This is why the ALC 2000 provides 2 sensor setting : Standard: for all "normal" cases with flat glass. Hard: for all carbide and curved cases. Case material and watch shape taken into account - No ISO standard BackHome

69 Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Witschi’s ALC 2000 has been designed to be a highly accurate, professional test system. The adjustable parameters have been given a great flexibility, allowing checking practically all makes of watches with the utmost reliability. The parameterization offered by Witschi’s ALC 2000 is significantly more specific and tailored to the type of watch than the minimal requirements from the ISO 2281 standard. BackHome

70 Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 back to the main menu or to the standard measurement program PO parameter selection entering the desired values + and - Test 2 good (green), bad (red) or undetermined (yellow) Test 1 good (green), bad (red) or undetermined (yellow) becomes yellow when the watch is correctly placed on the sensor BackHome

71 Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Basic settings Enter in Program: Keep the button pressed In and switch the unit on by means of the I / 0 switch. Wait until the display Change language appears. Entering client label A – Z / a-z Next character with with escape Language: Select the language with the arrow keys with with escape Display of the numerical results: yes / no with with escape Back Compressor Type : with / without reservoir with with escape Home

72 Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Measurement program Selection of existing measuring programs 0 = fix / variable P1 Save parameters ? P1 Parameters saved  P1 Case analysis Push P1 Tight limit P1 Measuring time Switch on unit : I / 0 Editing new program ( ) Push P1 Test with (1/2) pressures P1 Lower pressure P1 Higher pressure Push BackHome

73 Water-Resistance Main reasons for a faulty water-resistance Advantages of the test with excess pressure and partial vacuum Faulty water-resistance due to inaccurate assembly and a to weak press-fit of components. (seat of the glass and back gasket). Such cases of faulty water- resistance can only be detected with low test pressure, especially with partial vacuum. The stress on the parts is very different according to whether the test is performed under positive pressure or partial vacuum. Faulty water resistance due to parts of the case and gaskets being deformed in the course of an excess pressure test. This faulty water-resistance only appears in excess pressure tests. Faulty water-resistance due to bad manufacturing (out of truth in the round or in the flat) of the case and of other components. There can be 3 main reasons for a faulty water-resistance: BackHome

74 Water-Resistance Main reasons for a faulty water-resistance Advantages of the test with excess pressure and partial vacuum Main reasons / faulty water-resistance - defect, old and dirty seals (crown / back / glass) - porous and old glasses with fissures (Acryl) - defective crowns - wrong glasses In a test with excess pressure, the parts are held or even squeezed together by the pressure. BackHome

75 Water-Resistance Main reasons for a faulty water-resistance Advantages of the test with excess pressure and partial vacuum In a test with partial vacuum, the components are only held together by their own friction and by their correct dimensions (snug fit) Back..End.. Main reasons / faulty water-resistance - wrong seals, e.g. too thin (crown / back / glass) - poorly assembled glasses or seals for crowns bottoms and battery containers -tube for crown not round Home

76 Contents  Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

77 Witschi measuring tips Home

78 Witschi measuring tips Mechanical Watches Before measuring on -Watch Expert -Wicometre Professional -Chronoscope M1 ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Same as for dateCrown in "0" (inside) position The rate of the watch becomes stabile and the test system displays a regular diagram Wind the watch (turn the crown 10 to 15 times) and let it run from 5 to10 minutes The date change can cause a bias the current rate. The hands should not be in the position just before midnight ( i.e. date changing ) Mechanical watches are generally antimagnetic, yet check it out. Magnetised watches display a diagram similar to that of a very dirty movement. Demagnetise the watch (if possible) with a demagnetising device. BackHome

79 Witschi measuring tips Mechanical Watches Measuring procedure wound watch Shortcut; the stabilisation time between the individual vertical positions is shorter, than between horizontal and vertical positions. Start the rate measurement in a vertical position Crown pos. 6h, 9h, 12h, possibly 3h and then horizontal Dial up and dial down. The measuring results for each position become more precise and regular. For normal measuring values see chapter: "Analysis and error detection with the diagram". Allow a stabilisation time of approx sec. between each single position before starting measurement (approx. 10 to 20 sec. per pos.) Back ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Home

80 Witschi measuring tips Mechanical Watches Check the correct function of the watch. After measuring Check the date change and the power reserve of the watch Check the winding mechanism of automatic watches with a simulator Check the watch for 24 hours. Back ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Home

81 Witschi measuring tips Quartz Watches Visually inspect the watch for cleanliness, especially the rotor and the mechanical parts. Removing any foreign bodies and particles sometimes solves the problem very quickly. Check the battery voltage under load (Nominal, Low Drain, possibly High Drain). The battery can still show good values with an ordinary multimeter (without load resistance), although it indicates almost dead if measured with a load. Clean the battery contacts, Particularly the minus (-) pole under the battery. Dirty/oxidized contacts alter if not hinder measurements, even if the best testing device is being used. Test the position of the watch crown. Pos. must be 0 (inside) When the hand setting stem of almost any quartz Watches is pulled, the power saving function “reset“, i.e. motor pulses, is on. Back Before measuring on: - NT Handy - Q Test Analyzer Q2 ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Home

82 Suggestions for measuring Quartz Watches Measuring procedure Start the rate measurement after checking both the battery with the acoustic microphone and the function of the quartz/IC. The battery, as well as the Quartz/IC unit, drive the stepping motor. Getting no signal means that the quartz or IC is faulty! A) Analogue quartz watches Place the watch on the magnetic sensor (inductive) and check that motor pulses are present. No pulse means a faulty coil. If pulses are ok but the hands do not move, check the motor, the gear train and the motion work. B) Digital quartz watches -Place the digital watch with the display downwards on the capacitive sensor (pos. LCD). Then check the rate. No signal and nothing on the display: replace the module Back ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Home

83 Suggestions for measuring Quartz Watches After measuring Check the date change in the watch. Test for more than 24 hours Test of the mechanical date function Test the function of the hands. (they could touch the glass). Check the hands function in “dial down“ pos. Test for more than 1 hour. Back ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Home

84 Suggestions for measuring Water-Resistance Before measuring Test the material of the watch case and glass for visible damage and dirt on the case and glass. Watches with a faulty (cracked) glass should not be tested. The watch to be measured must be clean. Pay particular care and attention to position screwed-in crowns. Crown position: 0 (internal position) or screwed in. Fluctuation of the temperature during the measurement may falsify the measuring results. Do not keep the watch in your hand too long. When being tested, the watch must have the same ambient temperature as the device. Back ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Home

85 Suggestions for measuring Water-Resistance Remove any synthetic dust-proof adhesive from case back and/or from the glass Foils alter the results due to the air trapped inside Before measuring When testing, follow the suggestions of the manufacturer. 2bar-3bar-5bar-10bar 20-xbar. Notice the information concerning water-resistance (test pressure) from the manufacturer. Back ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Home

86 Suggestions for measuring Water-Resistance Measuring time is optimisedWhen possible use the automatic measuring time Choose a programme suitable for the watch (see list by Witschi). Measuring procedure Placing the watch on the measuring sensor: A) watches with a flat glass: dial upwards B) watches with a strongly curved glass: (cambered case) dial downwards. If possible test the watch through: A) depression (vacuum) and B) an pressure Measurements based on negative pressure = very fast location of small leakages (gaskets, etc.) Measurements based on excess pressure indicate the state of the case. Back ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Home

87 Suggestions for measuring Water-Resistance After measuring Repeating the measure- ments in case of bad results If a measurement gives a negative result (not ok) it is advisable not to immediately perform immediately a second measurement of the watch. Advice: pull the crown into the external position and, after 10 to 20 seconds, return it to the internal position. NOT OK Quality assurancePrint the measuring protocol. Back..End.. ExplanationProcedure Measuring sequence Home

88 Contents Exit Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical

89 Home


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