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Watches – Measuring technology and troubleshooting

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1 Watches – Measuring technology and troubleshooting
Witschi Electronic Basic course Watches – Measuring technology and troubleshooting Start >>

2 Welcome to...

3  Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance
Contents Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

4 Introduction About us Back Home Witschi Electronic AG develops, manufactures and sells Pioneering test and measurement technology for: Watch production Watch service Testing devices for automotive industry, medical industry and instrument manufacturing

5 Introduction Aim of this course Back Home This basic course is intended to optimize our customers’ and the users’ knowledge of the Witschi devices and their operating skills in this field. ..End..

6 Introduction  Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance
Contents Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

7 Mechanical Watches Home Home

8 Main components of mechanical watches and their characteristics
Back Home Automatic winding mechanism (only with automatic watches) Winding shaft / crown Mainspring / barrel Gear train / motion work Escapement (escape wheel, pallet fork and impulse pin) Regulating system

9 Amplitude measurement
Mechanical Watches Measuring signals Back Home + 10s/d Rate measurement The rate of the watch is based on a difference measurement between a highly accurate thermally stabilised quartz time base, e.g. in the Wicometre Professional and the actual rate of the watch. Typical values: Normal watch (approx.) s/d Chronometer (approx.) s/d Amplitude measurement The amplitude of the balance wheel is determined from the velocity of the ellipse, passing through the lift angle of the escapement. (high velocity = large amplitude and vice versa). Typical values: watch horizontal: (approx.) ° watch vertical: (approx.) 240° at 0/h

10 General graphical display
Mechanical Watches Measuring signals Back Home Beat error Millisecond variations of both beats ("tick" and "tock" of unequal duration). Typical values: ms Splitting the escapement noise into its three main components gives a great deal of information about miscellaneous fault sources in the escapement and regulating parts (balance wheel / spiral system). Beat noise General graphical display The general display generated by the Wicometre Professional is the result of all technical factors mentioned above during a certain time span. It indicates very accurately the technical state of the watch and it's faults, if any.

11 Display of results and parameters Rotary knob and buttons
Mechanical Watches Functions of the Wicometre Professional Back Home Display of results and parameters Rotary knob and buttons

12 The parameters of the Wicometre Professional
Mechanical Watches The parameters of the Wicometre Professional Back Home According to list (Witschi document) or individual GRAPH – SCOPE 3 1 to 10 mm/ms Individual 10 to 90° Individual 2 to 240 s MAN, SEL, FRQ Individual settings Automatic detection Graph 2 52° 20 s Aut (Automatic) Universal setting Selected beat number Operating mode Resolution / diagramm Lift Angle Measuring time in s Beat number selection Operation Beats per Hour Graph. Resol Meas Time Parameter Test Mode Beat Mode

13 Mode Symbol Operation Beat Mode MAN SEL FRQ
Mechanical Watches The parameters of the Wicometre Professional Back Home Mode Symbol Operation Beat Mode MAN Manual selection: In this position, the parameter "BEATS PER HOUR" can be set to less frequently used beat numbers, which cannot be determined automatically, according to a list pre-programmed in the system. SEL Individual selection: In this position, the parameter "BEATS PER HOUR" can be set to any beat number from 1 to in steps of 1 by pressing or in steps of 100 by pressing both buttons. FRQ Determines the instantaneous frequency: This function allows testing of watches with an unknown beat number. The instantaneous beat number displayed corresponds to a rate = 0 s/24h.

14 Mode Symbol Funktion Test Mode GRAPH PRIN XX SCOPE 1 SCOPE 2 SCOPE 3
Mechanical Watches The parameters of the Wicometre Professional Back Home Mode Symbol Funktion  Test Mode GRAPH Normal operating mode with graphical diagram and display of numerical results. PRIN XX If a printer is connected to the WICOMETRE PROFESSIONAL, the numerical results for the rate, the beat error and the amplitude are printed at the end of the preset measuring time. The next measurement starts automatically at the completion of the freeze delay. LAB -PC Similar to PRIN XX. However, the output results are passed to a PC through the serial interface RS 232 C. SCOPE 1 Oscillogram representing a single beat noise (tick) SCOPE 2 Oscillogram representing two beat noises ( tick-tock ) SCOPE 3 Oscillogram representing four beat noises (2x tick-tock)

15 Analysis and error detection with a graphical diagram
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical diagram Back Home Amplification adjustment of the equipment: 1 standard adjustment. If the diagram appereance is disturbed, the signal amplification can be reduced or increased by means of the rotating knob. 1 Watch movement in good condition. Rate : up to +15 s/d Amplitude: H.: approx ° V.: ° Beat error: ca. 0.0 up to 0.5 ms.

16 Analysis and error detection with a graphical diagram
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical diagram Back Home Watch movement in good condition. Beat error: too large (approx. 3 mm/ms) Correction: adjust beat error only and readjust the rate. A + 90 s/d B - 90 s/d Watch movement in good condition. Movement A: large gain Movement B: large loss Correction: readjustment of the rate, approx. +2 up to +15 s/d

17 Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Back Home Movement A Pos CU Movement A Pos. CD + 40 s/d - 90 s/d Watch movement with large rate variations between the various vertical positions. Correction: center, poise balance or exchange the complete regulation system. Movement A Pos HU Movement A Pos. CD + 10 s/d - 10 s/d Watch movement with small rate variations between the horizontal and vertical positions (isochronism). Correction: Check distance between the curb pins: vertical – (loss): reduce distance vertical + (gain): increase distance

18 Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Back Home Watch movement with large, but regular rate variations: = technical defect in the gear train. Correction: overhaul + possible exchange of some gear-train parts. Watch movement with irregular rate and defects. Usually the amplitude is insufficient. Correction: overhaul.

19 Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Back Home Balance wheel "knocks" with interruptions (occasionally). Usually too high amplitude (+330°) + double "tick-tock" in loud speaker. Correction: exchange mainspring, pallet fork and/or escape wheel. Balance wheel "knocks" continuously. Usually the amplitude is too high (+330°) + double- "tick-tock" in loud speaker. Correction: exchange the mainspring, pallet fork and/or escape wheel.

20 Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Back Home Excentric escape wheel. Correction: exchange the escape wheel. 15 – 21 teeth = 1 turn of the escape wheel Entry pallet of the pallet fork does not lock correctly, or is dirty. Correction: clean the pallet fork and escape wheel, or exchange the pallet fork.

21 Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Back Home Balance spring touches. In this case usually the balance spring touches the curb pins or the stud. (Scratching noises in loud speaker). Correction: center balance spring / adjust Slow recovery of the balance wheel amplitude after changing position. Bearings for balance wheel and gear train are badly or not lubricated. Correction: clean and lubricate, possibly overhaul.

22 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection with a graphical chart Back Home 0.0 to 0.5 ms 220 to 270° 250 to 330° -5 to + 15 s/d Chrono-graph -2 to + 6 s/d Chrono-meter -5 to + 25 s/d Lady's watch Gent's watch Beat error Amplitude V.* Amplitude H.* Rate in s/d Watchtype * Amplitude values when movement is fully wound. (Amplitude values after 24 h: decrease of approx. -10% to -15% is o.k.) Good standard values

23 Image of the beat - normal pallet operation
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Back Home Image of the beat - normal pallet operation the impulse pin touches the pallet fork the entry pallet freeing itself from the escape wheel the escape wheel is dropping on to the exit pallet Between noises A and C, the balance wheel rotates by what is called the lift angle

24 Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Back Home Escapement locking too small Escapement locking too large

25 Unlocking resistance too high
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, the graphical scope function Back Home Unlocking resistance too high Additional friction

26 Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Back Home Not enough clearance between the horns and the impulse pin Dart touching the roller

27 Too much clearance between balance pivot and jewel hole
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Back Home Too much clearance between balance pivot and jewel hole Low amplitude

28 Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function
Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Back Home Impulse pin touching the fork horn Rough balance pivot or insufficient clearance

29 Mechanical Watches Analysis and error detection, using the graphical scope function Back Home A tooth of the escape wheel drops directly on to the impulse plane (No locking function) Balance wheel touching balance spring ..End..

30 Introduction Mechanical Watches  Quartz Watches Water-resistance
Contents Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

31 Quartz Watches Home

32 Integrated Circuit ( IC )
Quartz Watches Main components of autoquartz and quartz watches and their characteristics Back Home Battery Quartz resonator Integrated Circuit ( IC ) Stepping motor Gear train and motion work

33 Quartz Watches Measuring signals Back Home All rate measurements with quartz watches are based on the acquisition of the following signals: Analogue or analogue/digital quartz watches Digital – quartz watches Quartz frequency Acoustic Working frequency of the digital display: Capacitive on the watch glass Frequency: 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 Hz. Sat 10:34:42 Quartz frequency Acoustic or capacitive Stepping motor Inductive (magnetic)

34 For the rate adjustment 2 different methods are usually used:
Quartz Watches Measuring signals Quartz oscillator Back Home The measurement of the quartz frequency (nominal: 32'768 Hz) occurs over the acoustic or the capacitive (by opened watches) sensor. For the rate adjustment 2 different methods are usually used: IC / Oscillator Quartz Trim. A: Adjusted quartz oscillator frequency. Adjustment with a trimmer (out dated) or fixed capacitor "fix cap". The true rate can either be obtained via acoustical / capacitive measurements of the quartz frequency or magnetically via the motor pulses. IC /mit EEPROM Quartz B: The quartz oscillator frequency is not adjustable. The programmable IC is digitally adjusted (inhibition). A programmable number of oscillator pulses is inhibited once per minute (for some IC's every 20s, 30s or every 2, 4 and 8 minutes) during frequency division, i.e. they are not transferred to the next divider stage. By using this method the quartz oscillator runs fast, approx s/d. The true rate can only be measured via the motor pulse with a measuring time of => 60 s

35 A: fixed pulses with constant or variable pulse width. IC Motor
Quartz Watches Measuring signals Motor pulse Back Home The motor pulses (pulse period 1s, 5s, 10s, 20s, 30s or 1 min.) are picked up inductively over the magnetic sensor. The stepping motor is driven from the IC’s driver stage with pulses like: A: fixed pulses with constant or variable pulse width. IC Motor or for new systems B: chopped pulses with constant pulse width, but chopped pulses which are continuously adapted to the watch movement’s condition for a lower current consumption. IC Motor

36 Connections and buttons
Quartz Watches Functions of the Q Test 6000 Back Home Signal sensors Displays Connections and buttons

37 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with built in, functioning battery Back Home Quartz + IC Test 1 2 Short test of the quartz and IC operation (test of the quartz signal) 1 Place the watch on the "acoustic " microphone 2 POS: Testmode Rate: Quartz 32 KHz Test ok if: 3 Signal "quartz" lights up in display "RATE". 4 Rate (quartz frequency) of the watch on Display RATE : approx to approx. + 6 s/d = ok

38 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with built in, functioning battery Back Home Motor Test Test of the magnetic motor pulse 1 Place the watch on the "magnetic/capacitive" microphone 2 POS: Testmode Rate : stepp. motor Test ok if: 3 Signal "motor" in display "RATE" lights up (pulse) 1 3 2

39 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with built in, functioning battery Back Home Rate measurement Test of the rate accuracy 1 Place the watch on the "magnetic / capacitive" microphone 2 POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. motor 3 POS: Set the parameter meas. time on 60 s with the rotary knob. 4 POS: Press Start test: 5 Result after 60 s in RATE normal values: (approx.) to s/d or to s/m 1 2 3 4 5

40 Battery tests 2 1 Operating the Q Test 6000
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Back Home Battery tests 1 POS: Testmode Module: Battery test 2 Test currents Nominal: A = current consumption Low Drain: 750 A = peak Motor High Drain: 15 mA = peak Backlight 1 2

41 Silveroxide high drain 1.25
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Back Home Minimal values System V min. nominal V min. low drain V min. high drain Silveroxide low drain 1.55 1.45 ---- Silveroxide high drain 1.25 Lithium low drain 3.00 2.85 Lithium high drain 2.60

42 A B C Operating the Q Test 6000
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Back Home Coil resistance / Insulation test Coil resistance: A 1 POS: Testmode Module: resistance 2 Test probes to coil connections Normal values: approx. 1 to 3 kOhm 1 2 Coil insulation: B 1 POS: Testmode Module: resistance 2 1st test probe to a coil connection 2nd test probe to the plate Normal values: approx. 700 kOhm to X MOhm Movement insulation: C 1 POS: Testmode Module: resistance 2 1st test probe to - pole of the battery 2nd test probe to the plate Normal values: approx. 700 kOhm - X MOhm A B C

43 Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Back Home Starting voltage 4 POS: Testmode Module: consumption µA 5 connect minus test probe with RT/T test point on movement’s module. 6 Reduce current voltage with rotary knob until gear train stops. 1 Place the watch on the mirror table and connect both 2 battery connectors to Module Supply by means of the movable contact picks. 3 POS: Parameter: Supply voltage - Set start at 1.55 or 3.00 Volt with the rotary knob 1 2 3 4 5 6 <= 1.15 V 2 dial trains <= V 3 dial trains Normal values

44 Tests with external supply / without battery
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Back Home Rate and consumption measurement 1 Place the watch on the mirror table 2 Connect battery connectors to Module Supply. Set the following parameters with the rotary knob: 3 POS: Parameter: Supply voltage - Voltage on 1.55 or 3.00 volts 4 POS: Parameter: meas. time rate Set measuring time to 60 s 1 2 3 4

45 Tests with external supply / without battery
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Back Home Rate and consumption measurement 5 POS: Parameter meas. time cons. Set measuring time to 60 s 6 POS: Testmode Module: on consumption µA 7 Start test: Measurement countdown can be observed on: POS countdown meas. time and countdown cons can be observed Result shown on displays: Rate (Rate) and Module (cons.) 6 7 5 1 2 3 4

46 Tests with external supply / without battery Pulse generator
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Pulse generator Back Home The watch’s IC is replaced by the pulse generator Q Test 6000. The simulation of the watch’s IC by the pulse generator is carried out with a non-chopped pulse of variable length. 3.9ms ms ms

47 Normal motor pulse length values
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Tests with external supply / without battery Back Home Pulse generator 1 2 3 4 5 1 Place the watch on the mirror table 2 Connect the coil connections on the Module Supply. Set the following parameters with the rotary knob: 3 POS: Testmode module: Puls generator 4 POS: Testmode Module: Supply voltage Voltage at 1.35  or 2.80  volts in display Parameter) 5 POS: Parameter: Pulse width Start with pulse length 2.9 ms and increase pulse length until the watch runs. 5.8 – 6.8 ms 4.8 – 5.8 ms ms adequate good very good Normal motor pulse length values

48 IC programming and accelerated rate test ( real rate )
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 IC programming and accelerated rate test ( real rate ) Back Home Settings 1 2 3 4 5 1 Place the watch on the mirror table 2 Connect battery connectors to Module Supply. Set the following parameters with the rotary knob: 3 POS: Parameter: Supply voltage Voltage on 1.55 Volt 4 POS: Parameter: special program Setting P1 - P4 according to IC Typ 5 POS: Testmode Rate: quartz 32 kHz

49 IC programming and accelerated rate test ( real rate ) Tests
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 IC programming and accelerated rate test ( real rate ) Tests Back Home 6 6 Accelerated rate test POS: Test control: start test Press briefly. The real rate of the watch is briefly shown. IC programming POS: Test control: simultaneously press keys start test and print result for 2-3 sec. The IC is reprogrammed. 1 2 3 4 5

50 IC programming and accelerated rate test ( real rate )
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 IC programming and accelerated rate test ( real rate ) Back Home IC Typen Special Programm / programmed IC types P1 Philips Series PCA 1400 P2 Philips Series 1460 / 1480 / 1600 P3 MEM H1138/ H1140/ H1238/ H1338/ H1538 P4 MEM H1221/ H5222SPL Note Rate: Must appear in display RATE after accelerated test and after programming. If not: select another programming program (P1-P4).

51 Tests and settings Test sequence
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Back Home Tests and settings Test sequence Battery not ok Battery ok Remove and test the battery Battery test POS: Testmode module: battery test Caution: Always check the movement for corrosion and the insulation of the battery case! Situation: watch stopped

52 Tests and settings Test sequence
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Back Home Tests and settings Test sequence Battery not ok Battery ok Remove and test the battery Battery test POS: Testmode module: battery test Caution: Always check the movement for corrosion and the insulation of the battery case! Situation: watch stopped Test of the coil resistance coil and movement insulation, without external power supply and without battery Test of the coil resistance and of the insulation values: POS: Testmode Module: resistance Values ok Values not ok

53 Systematic troubleshooting
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Back Home Test of the coil resistance coil and movement insulation, without external power supply and without battery Test of the coil resistance and of the insulation values: POS: Testmode Module: resistance Values ok Values not ok Test of quartz and IC - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors Test of the quartz and IC operation: POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. Motor POS: Testmode module: cons. A POS: Parameter: supply voltage 1.55V V Winding stem - POS: Reset Replace the electronic module Values ok Values not ok

54 Systematic troubleshooting
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Back Home Test of the quartz and IC operation: POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. Motor POS: Testmode module: cons. A POS: Parameter: supply voltage 1.55V V Winding stem - POS: Reset Test of quartz and IC - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors Replace the electronic module Values ok Values not ok Test of the stepping motor: - Winding stem - POS: Neutral POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. Motor POS: Testmode module: cons. A POS: Parameter: supply voltage 1.55V V meas.time rate  60 s meas.time cons. 4 s POS: test control: start test Test of the stepping motor - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors

55 Test of the lower starting voltage
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Back Home Test of the stepping motor: - Winding stem - POS: Neutral POS: Testmode Rate: stepp. Motor POS: Testmode module: cons. A POS: Parameter: supply voltage 1.55V V meas.time rate  60 s meas.time cons. 4 s POS: test control: start test Test of the stepping motor - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors Test of the lower starting voltage - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors, and the negative test probe with RT/T Test of the starting voltage - Same test as stepping motor; - battery test tip with RT/T measuring point of the movement Start with: POS: supply voltage V Voltage reduced until the movement stops Values not ok Values ok -new battery -close watch

56 Important mechanical tests:
Quartz Watches Operating the Q Test 6000 Systematic troubleshooting Back Home Test of the starting voltage - Same test as stepping motor; - battery test tip with RT/T measuring point of the movement Start with: POS: supply voltage V Voltage reduced until the movement stops Test of the lower starting voltage - place watch on the mirror support, connect external power supply module supply to the battery connectors - minus battery test tips to the test point RT/T of the movement Values ok -new battery -close watch Values not ok Important mechanical tests: - steel particles block the rotor/gear train - particles between crown and case block the reset mechanism - hands touch the inside face of the glass - hands have no axial freedom - Calendar mechanism Mechanical test ..End..

57 Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches  Water-resistance
Contents Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

58 Water-Resistance Home

59 Water-resistance standard ISO 2281
Back Home Basic standards for ordinary watches The basic standards for all definitions, test methods, min. / max. values, tolerances, etc. are contained in the three standards ISO 2281 / DIN 8310 and NIHS The test procedures described in DIN 8310 and NIHS are, to a large extent, similar, national versions of the international standard ISO 2281 The label "water-resistant". The label of wristwatches which meets the minimal requirements of this standard must only contain a single expression in each language: In german: wasserdicht / in french : étanche / in english : waterresistant

60 Water-resistance standard ISO 2281
Back Home Practical aspects of the label "water-resistant". Watches which are designated as water-resistant must be resistant to sweat, water drops, rain, etc. and to immersion into water: - at a depth of 10 cm (excess pressure of 0.01 bar) for 1 hour and … - at a depth of 20 meter (excess pressure of 2.0 bar) for 1 min. Minimal requirements ( standard converted to air pressure measurements ) A watch fulfils these requirements if: - the air penetration into the watch - under an excess air pressure of 2 bar - for a 1 minute test - does not exceed 50 g ( microgram )

61 Volume comparison measurement
Water-Resistance Test methods Volume comparison measurement Back Home Measurement principle: The following values are determined by performing a calibration cycle: Measurement 1: Entire volume of the test chambers without watches Measurement 2: - Volume of the watches Result: = Remaining free space in the chambers During the work cycle, the ALC 7000 monitors the variation in the calibrated remaining free space and determines on this basis whether the watches are water-resistant or not. Field of application: Ideal for industrial applications and series production ( unsuitable for service applications )

62 Deformation measurement
Water-Resistance Test methods Deformation measurement Back Home Measurement principle: A given pressure or vacuum is created in a measuring chamber. The external geometry of the watch undergoes a deformation due to the elasticity of the case materials. The sensory part of the system then tracks the reversal of the deformation of the watchcase’s parts during the whole measurement process and, based on it, determines if the watch does or does not correspond to the given tolerances for water-resistance. Field of applications: Industry: small and medium series Services: Repair shop and und retail business

63 Measurement principle:
Water-Resistance Test methods Condensation test Back Home Measurement principle: The watch, first tested under pressure underwater, is then brought to a temperature of 40 to 45 degree on a heating plate for approx. 30 min. One then pours a drop of warm water ( degree ) onto the watch-glass. Water condenses on the inside face of the glass if the watch is not water-resistant. Field of applications: Manufacturing and laboratory

64 Deformation measurement
Water-Resistance Test methods Deformation measurement Back Home Pressure build-up Stab.time Measuring time Pressure process ALC 2000 Deformation of the watch Reversal deformation (- value) Accebtable measuring results: Lady‘s watch max % watch ok Gent‘s watch (Norm) =/< 1% watch ok 0- Deformation: i.e. very hard material. watch ok Further + deformation during test cycle: = high elasticity of materials. Measuring result: + 0,1%- + x% - watch ok.

65 Deformation measurement
Water-Resistance Test methods Deformation measurement Back Home Stab.time Vacuum build-up Measuring time Deformation of the watch Vacuum process ALC 2000 Reversal deformation (- value) Accebtable measuring results: Lady‘s watch max % watch ok Gent‘s watch (Norm) =/< 1% watch ok 0- Deformation: i.e. very hard material. watch ok Further + deformation during test cycle: = high elasticity of materials. Measuring result: + 0,1%- + x % - watch ok.

66 Witschi ALC 2000 parameters / operations / values
Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Back Home ISO parameters Witschi ALC 2000 parameters / operations / values Test of water resistance under pressure: ( Test of the design of the watchcase’s parts ) according to data from the watch manufacturer. ALC 2000 parameter : from to +10 bar Positive pressure measurement ISO standard: 2 bar Test of water resistance under vacuum: The partial vacuum test is primarily designed for detecting small leaks and faulty assembly of case parts. The negative test pressure  corresponds to the normal strain on the watch (showering, swimming, etc.). ALC 2000 parameter : from to bar Measurement under vacuum No ISO standard

67 Witschi ALC 2000 parameters / operations / values
Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Back Home ISO parameters Witschi ALC 2000 parameters / operations / values The sealing limit of 50 micrograms of air penetration per minute given by the ISO standard approximately corresponds to a 1% reversal of the case deformation. The ISO standard does not take into account the size of the case. ALC 2000 parameter for the “tight” limit: Case mm: 1% (default value) Case > 35 mm: 0.5% (pocket-watches) Case < 20 mm: % (lady’s watches) Sealing (tight) limit - ISO standard: 50 micrograms of air penetration per minute. Without taking into account the size of the watch case

68 Case material and watch shape taken into account
Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Back Home ISO parameters Witschi ALC 2000 parameters / operations / values ALC 2000 parameter / Measuring times: variable from 10 to 300 sec. + automatic measuring time. Witschi recommends using the variables "Auto Measuring time". Optimisation of the measuring time in dependence on the deformation Measuring time  - ISO standard : 1 min. The deformation factor can vary much according to the case material and geometry (e.g. carbide or curved case). This is why the ALC 2000 provides 2 sensor setting : Standard: for all "normal" cases with flat glass. Hard: for all carbide and curved cases. Case material and watch shape taken into account  - No ISO standard

69 Water-Resistance Operating the ALC 2000 Back Home Witschi’s ALC 2000 has been designed to be a highly accurate, professional test system. The adjustable parameters have been given a great flexibility, allowing checking practically all makes of watches with the utmost reliability. The parameterization offered by Witschi’s ALC 2000 is significantly more specific and tailored to the type of watch than the minimal requirements from the ISO 2281 standard.

70 Operating the ALC 2000 Water-Resistance Back Home
Test 1 good (green), bad (red) or undetermined (yellow) Test 2 good (green), bad (red) or undetermined (yellow) becomes yellow when the watch is correctly placed on the sensor entering the desired values + and - back to the main menu or to the standard measurement program PO parameter selection

71 Operating the ALC 2000 Basic settings Water-Resistance Back Home
Enter in Program: Keep the button pressed In and switch the unit on by means of the I / 0 switch. Wait until the display Change language appears. Language: Select the language with the arrow keys with with escape Compressor Type : with / without reservoir with with escape Entering client label A – Z / a-z Next character with with escape Display of the numerical results: yes / no with with escape

72 Operating the ALC 2000 Measurement program Water-Resistance Back Home
Selection of existing measuring programs 0 = fix / variable P1 Measuring time Switch on unit : I / 0 Editing new program ( ) Push P1 Test with (1/2) pressures P1 Lower pressure P1 Higher pressure P1 Tight limit Push P1 Case analysis Push P1 Save parameters ? Push P1 Parameters saved  Push

73 Main reasons for a faulty water-resistance
Advantages of the test with excess pressure and partial vacuum Back Home There can be 3 main reasons for a faulty water-resistance: Faulty water-resistance due to bad manufacturing (out of truth in the round or in the flat) of the case and of other components. Faulty water resistance due to parts of the case and gaskets being deformed in the course of an excess pressure test. This faulty water-resistance only appears in excess pressure tests. Faulty water-resistance due to inaccurate assembly and a to weak press-fit of components. (seat of the glass and back gasket). Such cases of faulty water- resistance can only be detected with low test pressure, especially with partial vacuum. The stress on the parts is very different according to whether the test is performed under positive pressure or partial vacuum.

74 Main reasons for a faulty water-resistance
Advantages of the test with excess pressure and partial vacuum Back Home In a test with excess pressure, the parts are held or even squeezed together by the pressure. Main reasons / faulty water-resistance - defect, old and dirty seals (crown / back / glass) - porous and old glasses with fissures (Acryl) - defective crowns - wrong glasses

75 ..End.. Main reasons for a faulty water-resistance
Advantages of the test with excess pressure and partial vacuum Back Home In a test with partial vacuum, the components are only held together by their own friction and by their correct dimensions (snug fit) Main reasons / faulty water-resistance - wrong seals, e.g. too thin (crown / back / glass) - poorly assembled glasses or seals for crowns bottoms and battery containers -tube for crown not round ..End..

76 Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance 
Contents Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

77 Witschi measuring tips
Home

78 Mechanical Watches Witschi measuring tips Back Home Measuring sequence
Procedure Explanation Before measuring on -Watch Expert -Wicometre Professional -Chronoscope M1 The rate of the watch becomes stabile and the test system displays a regular diagram Wind the watch (turn the crown 10 to 15 times) and let it run from 5 to10 minutes The date change can cause a bias the current rate. The hands should not be in the position just before midnight ( i.e. date changing ) Same as for date Crown in "0" (inside) position Mechanical watches are generally antimagnetic, yet check it out. Magnetised watches display a diagram similar to that of a very dirty movement. Demagnetise the watch (if possible) with a demagnetising device.

79 Mechanical Watches Witschi measuring tips Back Home Measuring sequence
Procedure Explanation Measuring procedure wound watch Shortcut; the stabilisation time between the individual vertical positions is shorter, than between horizontal and vertical positions. Start the rate measurement in a vertical position Crown pos. 6h, 9h, 12h, possibly 3h and then horizontal Dial up and dial down. The measuring results for each position become more precise and regular. For normal measuring values see chapter: "Analysis and error detection with the diagram". Allow a stabilisation time of approx. 10-15 sec. between each single position before starting measurement (approx. 10 to 20 sec. per pos.)

80 Mechanical Watches Witschi measuring tips Back Home Measuring sequence
Procedure Explanation After measuring Check the correct function of the watch. Check the date change and the power reserve of the watch Check the winding mechanism of automatic watches with a simulator Check the watch for 24 hours.

81 Quartz Watches Witschi measuring tips Back Home Before measuring on:
- NT Handy - Q Test 6000 - Analyzer Q2 Explanation Procedure Measuring sequence Visually inspect the watch for cleanliness, especially the rotor and the mechanical parts. Removing any foreign bodies and particles sometimes solves the problem very quickly. Check the battery voltage under load (Nominal, Low Drain, possibly High Drain). The battery can still show good values with an ordinary multimeter (without load resistance), although it indicates almost dead if measured with a load. Clean the battery contacts, Particularly the minus (-) pole under the battery. Dirty/oxidized contacts alter if not hinder measurements, even if the best testing device is being used. Test the position of the watch crown. Pos. must be 0 (inside) When the hand setting stem of almost any quartz Watches is pulled, the power saving function “reset“, i.e. motor pulses, is on.

82 Quartz Watches Suggestions for measuring Back Home Measuring sequence
Procedure Explanation Measuring procedure Start the rate measurement after checking both the battery with the acoustic microphone and the function of the quartz/IC. The battery, as well as the Quartz/IC unit, drive the stepping motor. Getting no signal means that the quartz or IC is faulty! A) Analogue quartz watches Place the watch on the magnetic sensor (inductive) and check that motor pulses are present. No pulse means a faulty coil. If pulses are ok but the hands do not move, check the motor, the gear train and the motion work. B) Digital quartz watches -Place the digital watch with the display downwards on the capacitive sensor (pos. LCD). Then check the rate. No signal and nothing on the display: replace the module

83 Quartz Watches Suggestions for measuring Back Home Measuring sequence
Procedure Explanation After measuring Check the date change in the watch. Test for more than 24 hours Test of the mechanical date function. 24 25 Test the function of the hands. (they could touch the glass). Check the hands function in “dial down“ pos. Test for more than 1 hour.

84 Water-Resistance Suggestions for measuring Back Home
Measuring sequence Procedure Explanation Before measuring Test the material of the watch case and glass for visible damage and dirt on the case and glass. Watches with a faulty (cracked) glass should not be tested. The watch to be measured must be clean. Pay particular care and attention to position screwed-in crowns. Crown position: 0 (internal position) or screwed in. Fluctuation of the temperature during the measurement may falsify the measuring results. Do not keep the watch in your hand too long. When being tested, the watch must have the same ambient temperature as the device.

85 Water-Resistance Suggestions for measuring Back Home
Measuring sequence Procedure Explanation Before measuring Remove any synthetic dust-proof adhesive from case back and/or from the glass Foils alter the results due to the air trapped inside When testing, follow the suggestions of the manufacturer. 2bar-3bar-5bar-10bar 20-xbar. Notice the information concerning water-resistance (test pressure) from the manufacturer.

86 Choose a programme suitable for the watch (see list by Witschi).
Suggestions for measuring Water-Resistance Back Home Measuring sequence Procedure Explanation Choose a programme suitable for the watch (see list by Witschi). Measuring procedure If possible test the watch through: A) depression (vacuum) and B) an pressure Measurements based on negative pressure = very fast location of small leakages (gaskets, etc.) Measurements based on excess pressure indicate the state of the case. Measuring time is optimised When possible use the automatic measuring time Placing the watch on the measuring sensor: A) watches with a flat glass: dial upwards B) watches with a strongly curved glass: (cambered case) dial downwards.

87 Repeating the measure-ments in case of bad results
Suggestions for measuring Water-Resistance Back Home Measuring sequence Procedure Explanation Repeating the measure-ments in case of bad results If a measurement gives a negative result (not ok) it is advisable not to immediately perform immediately a second measurement of the watch. Advice: pull the crown into the external position and, after 10 to 20 seconds, return it to the internal position. NOT OK After measuring Quality assurance Print the measuring protocol. ..End..

88 Exit Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance
Contents Introduction Mechanical Watches Quartz Watches Water-resistance Helpful and practical Exit

89 Home


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