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CS 450: COMPUTER GRAPHICS FILLING POLYGONS SPRING 2015 DR. MICHAEL J. REALE

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DRAWING POLYGONS IN OPENGL

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OPENGL POLYGONS There are 4 primitive types associated with polygons in OpenGL: GL_POLYGON GL_TRIANGLES GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP GL_TRIANGLE_FAN In ALL cases: Vertices MUST be specified in COUNTERCLOCKWISE order! If less than 3 vertices given nothing drawn Deprecated/Legacy: GL_QUADS, GL_QUAD_STRIP

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GL_POLYGON In legacy: glBegin(GL_POLYGON); glVertex2iv(p1); glVertex2iv(p2); glVertex2iv(p3); glVertex2iv(p4); glVertex2iv(p5); glVertex2iv(p6); glEnd(); Draws a polygon out of all vertices If not convex, no guarantee it will be filled properly

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GL_TRIANGLES We’re going to reorder the vertices a bit… In legacy: glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES); glVertex2iv(p1); glVertex2iv(p2); glVertex2iv(p6); glVertex2iv(p3); glVertex2iv(p4); glVertex2iv(p5); glEnd(); Draws a separate triangle every 3 vertices Any remaining vertices ignored For N (distinct) vertices N/3 triangles

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GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP Again, we’re going to reorder the vertices a bit… In legacy: glBegin(GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP); glVertex2iv(p1); glVertex2iv(p2); glVertex2iv(p6); glVertex2iv(p3); glVertex2iv(p5); glVertex2iv(p4); glEnd(); Draws triangle with first 3 vertices For each new vertex draw triangle with new vertex + last 2 vertices For N (distinct) vertices (N – 2) triangles

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GL_TRIANGLE_FAN Yet again, we’re going to reorder the vertices a bit… In legacy: glBegin(GL_TRIANGLE_FAN); glVertex2iv(p1); glVertex2iv(p2); glVertex2iv(p3); glVertex2iv(p4); glVertex2iv(p5); glVertex2iv(p6); glEnd(); Draws triangle with first 3 vertices All triangles share first vertex For each new vertex draw triangle with new vertex + first vertex + last vertex For N (distinct) vertices (N – 2) triangles

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INSIDE-OUTSIDE TESTS

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INTRODUCTION If we’re dealing with a more complex object (e.g., a self-intersecting polygon, for instance), how do we know what’s inside and outside the polygon? Two common approaches: Odd-Even Rule Nonzero Winding-Number Rule

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A COUPLE OF NOTES We’re assuming these polygons are in the XY plane (e.g., after screen mapping) Also, both approaches involve drawing a line: Starting at some point P in a region we want to check Ending somewhere well outside the polygon …and checking what we cross with that line

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ODD-EVEN RULE Also called odd-parity or even-odd rule Draw line from position P inside region to distant point Count how many edges we cross

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ODD-EVEN RULE Can use to check other kinds of regions E.g., area between two concentric circles

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NONZERO WINDING-NUMBER RULE Count number of times boundary of object “winds” around a particular point in the clockwise direction Again, draw line from position P inside region to distant point Start “winding number” W at 0 If interest with segment that crosses the line going from: Right-to-left (counterclockwise) add 1 to W Left-to-right (clockwise) subtract 1 from W Check value of W when done: If W == 0 EXTERIOR If W != 0 INTERIOR

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NONZERO WINDING-NUMBER RULE To check the direction of the edge relative to the line from P: Make vectors for each edge (in the correct winding order) vector E i Make vector from P to distant point vector U Two options: Use cross product: If ( U x E i ) = +z axis right-to-left add 1 to winding number If ( U x E i ) = –z axis left-to-right subtract 1 from winding number Use dot product: Get vector V that is 1) perpendicular to U, and 2) goes right-to-left ( -u y, u x ) If ( V · E i ) > 0 right-to-left add 1 to winding number Otherwise left-to-right subtract 1 from winding number

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ODD-EVEN VS. NONZERO WINDING- NUMBER For simple objects (polygons that don’t self-intersect, circles, etc.), both approaches give same result However, more complex objects may give different results Usually, nonzero winding-number rule classifies some regions as interior that odd-even says is exterior Odd-Even RuleNonzero Winding-Number Rule

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INSIDE-OUTSIDE PROBLEM Caveat: need to check we don’t cross endpoints (vertices) Otherwise, ambiguous

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CURVED PATHS? For curved paths, need to computer intersection points with underlying curve For nonzero winding-number also have to get tangent vectors

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VARIATIONS OF NONZERO WINDING- NUMBER RULE Can be used to define Boolean operations (i.e., sets) Positive W only, both counterclockwise union of A and B W > 1, both counterclockwise intersection of A and B Positive W only, B clockwise A - B

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POLYGON FILLING ALGORITHMS

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INTRODUCTION Two basic ways to fill in a polygon: Scan-line approach For each scan line the polygon touches, check which pixels on scan line are within polygon boundaries Flood-fill or Boundary fill approaches Start at interior pixel “paint” outwards until we hit boundaries

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GENERAL SCAN-LINE POLYGON FILLING ALGORITHM

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BASIC IDEA General scan-line polygon filling algorithm Find intersection points of polygon with scan lines Sort intersections from left to right For each scan line Fill in interior pixels along scan line Determine interior pixels using odd-even rule Polygons easiest to fill edges are linear equations intersecting with y = constant

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PROBLEM: CROSSING VERTICES What happens if we cross a vertex? In some cases, want to “count” it once, but in others you want it to count twice…

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SOLUTION TO CROSSING VERTICES Look at y coordinates of previous vertex, middle vertex (the one we’re intersection), and the next vertex If y values monotonically increase or decrease edges on opposition sides of scan line count vertex as one Otherwise edges on same side of scan line vertex is a local max/min count vertex twice

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IMPLEMENTATION CROSSING VERTEX SOLUTION Go through all edges, winding around polygon Check if any set of vertices v k-1, v k, and v k+1 have y values that monotonically increase/decrease Option 1: if yes, short one of the edges Inherently assumes that polygon is a set of lines, each with their own vertices So, if you do nothing, crossing a vertex really crossing two vertices already counts as two Option 2: if not, separate into two vertices Inherently assumes that edges already share vertices So, if you do nothing, crossing a vertex counts as one Min/max vertices become two vertices with same location

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COMPUTING INTERSECTIONS Similar to DDA and Bresenham, we can compute the intersection points of each edge with each scan line by adding some value to x and y as we move along: Given that the slope is a fraction of integers, we can instead have a counter w Every time we increment y, we add Δx to w If (w >= Δy) subtract Δy from w, and increment/decrement x Basically same as keeping track of integer and fractional parts

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IMPLEMENTING SCAN-LINE FILLING To do this efficiently, we need to know which edges we need to work with for each scanline Thus, we will have two lists: Sorted edge table Create this before we start fill Active edge table Create and update this as we fill the polygon

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SORTED EDGE TABLE List for each scanline in window/screen array of lists scanList[] Each list should be sorted by the x values (smallest to largest) For each edge E in the polygon Determine/compute the following: Smallest y value (ymin) and corresponding x value Largest y value Inverse of slope (or Δx and Δy) Insert edge E into SORTED scanList[ymin] I.e., when the edge starts Only need to add non-horizontal edges Also, if you’re going to shorten any edges, this is a good time to do so

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SORTED EDGE TABLE: EXAMPLE

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ACTIVE EDGE TABLE List also sorted by x values (left to right) For each scanline y: Add corresponding list from sorted edge table to active list I.e., add any new edges Again, must add new edges so that the active list is still sorted by x! Fill in appropriate areas along scanline using active list for x coordinate boundaries I.e., odd-even rule Remove any edges that are complete I.e., y = ymax for that edge Update x values for next iteration I.e., add inverse slope Resort edges by x values

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