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 When? 5 th of December  How can I prepare for it? Solve lots of problems.  Why should I spent six hours on a Saturday? Because it is fun and challenging.

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Presentation on theme: " When? 5 th of December  How can I prepare for it? Solve lots of problems.  Why should I spent six hours on a Saturday? Because it is fun and challenging."— Presentation transcript:

1  When? 5 th of December  How can I prepare for it? Solve lots of problems.  Why should I spent six hours on a Saturday? Because it is fun and challenging.

2  Try small cases and search for pattern  Draw a figure  Formulate an equivalent problem  Modify the problem  Choose effective notation  Work backwards  Argue by contradiction  Divide into cases  Generalize ………

3 P1 P2P3 P4 P5 P6P7 P8 1. r

4 P1 P2P3 P4 P5 P6P7 P8 1. r [P1P3P5P7]=5and r=√(5/2) a b r²=a²/4+b²/4 and ab=4 b= √2 a= 2√2 Area of the octagon=[P2P4P6P8]+2[P4P5P6]+2[P2P3P4] The answer is 3 √5.

5 y=ax² x²+(y-1)²=1 2. Assume a>1/2. -((2a-1)/a²)^1/2((2a-1)/a²)^1/2 Use arclegth formula, and some crazy algebraic trick to conclude that the answer is YES!!!

6 3.Basketball star Shanille O’Keal’s team statistician keeps track of the number, S(n), of successful free throws she made in her first N attempts of the season. Early in season, S(N) was less than 80% of N, but by the end of the season, S(N) was more than 80% of N. Was there necessarily a moment in between when S(N) was exactly 80% of N? Answer: Yes! Suppose otherwise. Then there exists an N such that S(N) 80% Let m be the number of throws she made in the first N attempts, then m/N 4/5 This implies 5m <4N<5m+1 CONTRADICTION!!!

7 4. Alan and Barbara play a game in which they take turns filling entries of an initially empty 2008x2008 array. Alan plays first. At each turn, a player chooses a real number and places it in a vacant entry. The game ends when all the entries are filled. Alan wins if the determinant of the resulting matrix is nonzero; Barbara wins if it is zero. Which player has a winning strategy? Answer: Barbara wins using the following strategies: Pair each entry of the first row with the entry directly below it in the second row. If Alan ever writes a number in of the first two rows, Barbara writes the same number in the other entry in the pair. If he writes somewhere else Barbara repeats her strategy. At the end the resulting matrix will have two identical rows, so its determinant will be zero. OR Whenever Alan writes a number x, Barbara writes –x in some entry in the same row. At the end all the rows will add up to zero, so the determinant will be 0.

8 5. Answer:

9 6. Let f be a nonconstant polynomial with positive integer coefficients. Prove that if n is a positive integer, then f(n) divides f(f(n)+1) if and only if n=1. Answer: Write If n=1, then this implies that f(f(n)+1) is divisible by f(n). Otherwise, 0

10 7. Answer: 2499 In general, the highest power of p in n! is given by the finite sum 8. Answer: Let’s look at all the numbers up to contributes 1 to the sum that we can add later. Now each digit will take values from 0 to 9, including the first one since we represent 1 as So each digit will contribute 1+2+…+9 to the sum and there are 9 digits. Hence we compute the following =

11 9. Answer:1/5 A B A A A B B B A+B

12 10. Answer: This is the sequence of numbers that are starting with the letter “t”. You can say it, I know you hate me.

13 11. Answer: Work backwards.

14 12. Answer:

15 O 13. Show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the Dyck n-paths with no return of even length and the Dyck (n-1)-paths. Show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the Dyck n-paths with no return of even length and the Dyck (n-1)-paths.

16 It is easy to see that a cake in the shape of a cylinder can be cut into eight identical pieces with 4 straight cuts. Can this be done with only three straight cuts? Surprise Question:

17 It is easy to see that a cake in the shape of a cylinder can be cut into eight identical pieces with 4 straight cuts. Can this be done with only three straight cuts? PICTURES ALWAYS HELP!

18 What is a better way than pictures ?

19 What about a torus (doughnut)? What is the most number of pieces into which a solid torus can be cut by three straight cuts? Or more generally by n cuts? (Note: Rearranging the pieces are not allowed.) Bonus Question: While you enjoy your cake…..

20 Here is the answer:


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