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Distributed Database Systems Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi.

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1 Distributed Database Systems Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

2 Definitions: Distributed Database : is a collection of multiple logically interrelated databases distributed over a computer network. Distributed database management systems (DDBMS): The software that permits the management of DDBS and makes the distribution transparent to the users. Distributed database system (DDBS) = DDB + D–DBMS The two important terms in this definitions are: -Logically interrelated. (The Application) -Distributed over a network. Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

3 1.The development of computer network promotes de-centralization 2.In a company, the database organization might reflect the organizational structure, which is distributed into units. Each unit maintains its own database 3.Sharing of data can be achieved by developing a distributed database system which: Makes data accessible by all units Stores data close to where it is most frequently used Motivation for Distributed Database Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

4 DDBMS Advantages: Data are located near “greatest demand” site Faster data access Faster data processing Growth facilitation Improved communications Reduced operating costs User-friendly interface Less danger of a single-point failure Processor independence Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

5 DDBMS Disadvantages Complexity of management and control Security Lack of standards Increased storage requirements Greater difficulty in managing the data environment Increased training cost Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

6 The concept of DDB: A DDBS is not a collection of files that can be individually stored at each node of computer network. To form a DDBS, files should not only be logically related, but there should be structure among the files, and access should be via a common interface. Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

7 Distributed Database Management Systems Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi


9 Distributed Query If these table is stored in one place then we can “for example” using the following query to get the name and the salary of the employee who works more than 12 months. SELECTENAME, SAL FROMEMP, ASG, PAY WHEREASG. DUR >12 ANDEMP.ENO=ASG.ENO ANDPAY.TITLE=EMP.TITLE But if these table are distributed over deferent site then the execution of this query needs allot of process to be done, DDMS do this process and let the end user feel like database’s only user (transparence) Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

10 The concepts of DDB is to fragment the data and store each fragment on its site. Data may be replicated on different site (replication) DDBMS hide these details from the user and makes the distribution transparent to the users. Distributed Database Transparency Features Distribution transparency Transaction transparency Failure transparency Performance transparency Heterogeneity transparency Distributed Database Transparency Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

11 Distributed DB Design Top-down approach: have a database how to split and allocate to individual sites Two issues in top-down design Fragmentation Allocation Multi-databases (or bottom-up): combine existing databases how to deal with heterogeneity & autonomy Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

12 Fragmentation Horizontal Primary depends on local attributes R Derived depends on foreign relation Vertical R Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

13 Example Employee relation E (#,name,loc,sal,…) 40% of queries: 40% of queries: Qa: select * Qb: select * from E where loc=Sa where loc=Sb and… and... Motivation: Two sites: Sa, Sb Qa   Qb SaSb Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

14 # Name Loc Sal 5 7 8 Sa10 SallySb25 TomSa15 Joe 5 8 Sa10 TomSa15 Joe7Sb25Sally.. F = {F 1,F 2 } At Sa At Sb E F 1 =  loc=Sa (E)F 2 =  loc=Sb (E)  primary horizontal fragmentation Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

15 Loc=S A  sal < 10 Loc=S A  sal  10 Loc=S B  sal < 10 Loc=S B  sal  10 F1F1 F3F3 F2F2 Q a : Select … loc = S A... Q b : Select … loc = S B... Prefer F 2 to F 1 and F 3 Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

16 Horizontal Fragmentation : Peer to peer relationship – brothers Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

17 Vertical fragmentation E1E1 E E2E2 Example: R[T]  R 1 [T 1 ], R 2 [T 2 ],…, R n [T n ] T i  T  Just like normalization of relations Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

18 Vertical Fragmentation example PROJ 1 :information about project budgets PROJ 2 :information about project names and locations PNOBUDGET P1150000 P3250000 P2135000 P4310000 P5500000 PNOPNAMELOC P1InstrumentationMontreal P3CAD/CAMNew York P2Database Develop.New York P4MaintenanceParis P5CAD/CAMBoston PROJ 1 PROJ 2 New York PROJ PNOPNAMEBUDGETLOC P1Instrumentation150000Montreal P3CAD/CAM250000 P2Database Develop.135000 P4Maintenance310000Paris P5CAD/CAM500000Boston New York Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

19 E 1 (#,NM,LOC) E 2 (#,SAL) Example: E(#,NM,LOC,SAL)E 1 (#,NM) E 2 (#,LOC) E 3 (#,SAL) Which is the right vertical fragmentation? ….. Grouping Attributes Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

20 Vertical Fragmentation : branch relationship – parents and son Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

21 Hybrid Fragmentation R HF R1R1 VF R 11 R 12 R 21 R 22 R 23 R2R2 Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

22 Allocation Example: E  F 1 =  loc=Sa (E); F 2 =  loc=Sb (E) Site a Site b Fragment E Do we replicate fragments? Where do we place each copy of each fragment? Site c F1F1 F1F1 F2F2 Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

23 Allocation Alternatives Non-replicated – partitioned : each fragment resides at only one site Replicated – fully replicated : each fragment at each site – partially replicated : each fragment at some of the sites Rule : If replication is advantageous, otherwise replication may cause problems read - only queries update queries  1 Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

24 Optimization problem What is the best placement of fragments and/or best number of copies to: – minimize query response time – maximize throughput – minimize “some cost” –... Subject to constraints – Available storage – Available bandwidth, processing power,… – Keep 90% of response time below X –... Very hard problem Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

25 Static data allocation : No change on allocation sites or no need for extra storage space (no expanding on the size. No increasing on data ) Dynamic data allocation: dynamically changed the location of the data as a result of expansion in the data, which usually results because of the nature of the systems producing data. Problems of data sites can be treated through two types of models: Adaptive Models: models that apply when the reason for the change of location due to system activity,( online systems- data storage on line( Example airline bookings). These models saves the additional temporary copies of data and then dealing with these copies by processors duplicate copies (replication). non-adaptive models: These models solve dynamically allocation at the stage of establishing the system or at the stage of reorganization the system Static data allocation & Dynamic data allocation Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

26 Replication Replication is to store copies of the same data in more than one location (site) and then these copies must be consistency updated "Despite the distance from each other" Controlling the updating of these copies is done by one of two techniques: Lazy replication: it is to update the data after the completion of work on one of the copies (master copy). This means that update is done outside the boundaries of transaction Eager replication: is to update the replicated data within the transaction boundaries while working on one of the copies. – central update(initial copy primary copy): update the primary copy first and then update the secondary copy. This method leads to lack of synchronization of the update, which facilitates control of consistency, but may lead to the problems of the bottleneck – Or update everywhere: ​​updating the copies in all places make all the copies of equal opportunities for the update. Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

27 Where/whenEagerLazy Primary Copy Early Solutions in Ingres Sybase/IBM/Oracle Placement Strat. Serialization- Graph Based Update Everywhere ROWA/ROW AA Quorum based Oracle Synchr. Repl. Oracle Advanced Repl. Weak consistency Strat Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

28 Distributed Query Processing The aim of queries processing in distributed data is to let the work on distributed data appear like a single database system. The problem of query processing in distributed data can be fragmented into several levels according to the problems of data The query processing takes SQL statements or OQL as input and then process it through several stages until it is executing the query. Query Decomposition & Data Localization: The first stages of the distributed query processing is to analyze the query to the relation algebra, then the second stages localize the data by distribute the query. Query Optimization: The third stages is to achieve optimal implementation of the query by making the executive be as little as possible and delete the unneeded expression. The query optimization is one of the important aspects in dealing with queries, there are many algorithms used in the investigation of this aspect. Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi


30 Concurrency control in databases is the activities that make the transactions consistence among all the system data. DDBMS take care of synchronized the data that distributed over the network side, each of these sites are running programs dealing with it is own data. In this situation the process of controlling the concurrency of the distributed data is one of the more complex issues. There are four techniques used to control the concurrence on distributed database: locking techniques Timestamp. Optimistic algorithm: make all operations on the data performed except for the operation that updates the data in this case operation updates the local data first. Complex algorithm for timestamps. Concurrency Control in distributed database Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

31 Distributed Concurrency Control Nonreplicated Scheme – Each site maintains a local lock manager to administer lock and unlock requests for local data – Deadlock handling is more complex Single-Coordinator Approach – The system maintains a single lock manager that resides in a single chosen site – Can be used with replicated data – Advantages simple implementation simple deadlock handling – Disadvantages bottleneck vulnerability Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

32 ... Distributed Concurrency Control Majority Protocol – A lock manager at each site – When a transaction wishes to lock a data item Q, which is replicated in n different sites, it must send a lock request to more than half of the n sites in which Q is stored – complex to implement – difficult to handle deadlocks Dr. Mohamed Osman Hegazi

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