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GPU and PC System Architecture UC Santa Cruz BSoE – March 2009 John Tynefield / NVIDIA Corporation.

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Presentation on theme: "GPU and PC System Architecture UC Santa Cruz BSoE – March 2009 John Tynefield / NVIDIA Corporation."— Presentation transcript:

1 GPU and PC System Architecture UC Santa Cruz BSoE – March 2009 John Tynefield / NVIDIA Corporation

2 My Goals Survey history and direction of GPU/PC system architecture Demonstrate the process of system level architectural problem solving Motivate some of you to become architects

3 Disclaimers I work for NVIDIA Public Info All numbers and dates approximate Rounding is our friend No bus/processor is 100% efficient, etc, etc All examples are meant to be illustrative Not comprehensive “ there were >40 gfx companies in 1995”

4 About Me I love games and graphics I love building things

5 Structure Intro to PC and GPU Architecture A Sampling of Architectures Voodoo Graphics / Pentium GeForce 256 / P GeForce 6800 / P Geforce GTX280 / Core2 Ideas for the future of the platform

6 What do architects do? Impose structure on complex design problems Make tradeoffs Validate high risk design bets Structure verification

7 Why this is a great time to be an Architect Radical design mobility I have contributed to 10 completely new processor designs 7 of which shipped in millions of units. Steep competition Not for everybody Changing the World…no…really! Heterogeneous many core computing is here to stay and it has changed the nature of computing

8 Design Tension Fixed Function vs. Programmable Scalar vs. Vector Bandwidth vs. Latency In Order vs. Out of Order Limited vs. Unlimited ( virtualized ) resources

9 Technology Trends CPUs get faster GPUs get faster Interconnects get faster Memory gets faster Memory gets denser Latency increases Feature load increases Physics intrudes more and more All at different rates

10 The long time horizon The Awesome ideas of now take 2+ years to reach market Awesome depreciates rapidly Predictable Silicon Process Roadmap PC Arch Roadmap 3 rd Party Component Roadmap Your capabilities and resources Unpredictable Market Shifts ( commodity prices, supply shocks ) 3 rd Party Strategic Errors ( os/platform/partner slips ) Innovative Competition ( N-way struggle for design initiative )

11 GPU Memory GPU CPU Ultra Simplified PC Anatomy CPU Core Logic GPU GPU Memory System Memory

12 Processor DRAM MGMT Ultra Simplified GPU Anatomy Host Logic DRAM MGMT

13 Ultra Simplified GPU Anatomy (2) Geom Gather Geom Proc Geom Proc Triangle Proc Triangle Proc Pixel Proc Pixel Proc Z / Blend Memory

14 GPU Prehistory 1960s – 1970s Single Purpose BIG IRON E&S, GE, Lockheed, … 1980s – 1990s General Purpose BIG IRON Custom ASICs, Workstations SGI, Sun, Intergraph, Maybe we can fit this on a single consumer add-in card?

15 Fast consumer CPUs with floating point Try 3D rendering in fixed point! PCI VGA and VESA Id Software’s DOOM Contract Fabrication facilities offering.6 micron ASIC design Tools Enabling Technologies in 1994

16 1996 3dfx - Voodoo Graphics PIO Programming Model Pure Pipelined Graphics Partial Triangle Setup – FP32 Fixed Point Integer Texture Mapping and Gouraud Shading Z Buffer and Full OpenGL Blending All at 1 PPC, all the time, with no caches 32-bit PCI -.09 GB/s 128-bit EDO 50 Mhz DRAM -.8 GB/s

17 Voodoo Graphics System Architecture Geom Gather Geom Proc Geom Proc Triangle Proc Triangle Proc Pixel Proc Pixel Proc Z / Blend CPU Core Logic FBI FB Memory System Memory TMU TEX Memory GPUCPU

18 Arch Decision – Triangle Setup Target 3D Triangle with texture and Gouraud shading 3 * XYW RGBA ST = 72 bytes/triangle pre setup 32-bit PCI 33Mhz – 90 MB/s 1.25 M triangles / second speed of light ( 1M is magic ) Observe that post setup 3 * XY WRGBAST start values + screen space derivatives + Area 76 bytes/triangle – 1.18M Tris ( still magic ) Setup can be coded on Pentium in ~100 clocks 1M triangles on P100 ( mktg happy ) Data-limited setup on chip - >10% die cost Typical game scenes <<1000 triangles/frame

19 2000 Nvidia GeForce 256 Decoupled input queuing Hardware Transform & Lighting FP32 FF Transform FP22 FF Lighting Complex fixed function pixel shading 4 Pipelines AGP4X – 1.06 GB/s 256 Bit DDR 300 Mhz Memory – 19.2 GB/s

20 GeForce 256 System Architecture Geom Gather Geom Proc Geom Proc Triangle Proc Triangle Proc Pixel Proc Pixel Proc Z / Blend CPU Core Logic GPU GPU Memory System Memory GPUCPU

21 Architecture Detail – Combiners Logical fixed function extension of OpenGL Machine Surface Color = Diffuse * Texture + Specular Diffuse Color Texture Specular

22 Multi Texture If one texture is good, more are better Diff * ( Tex1 + Tex 2 ) + Spec or Diff * Tex1 * Tex2 or … Diffuse Color Texture 0.0 Texture Specular Diffuse Color Texture Texture2 1.0 Specular

23 Combiners Cascading Mux / SOP / Mux / SOP pipeline Very, flexible, harder to program with deeper nesting Everything is full speed! A MUX B MUX AB Partial C MUX D MUX CD Partial Inputs for Next Stage of Pipeline Texture Fog Light

24 Programmable Shading But the future was obviously Renderman-like shaders normal surfaceN; color C = { 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 }; normal lightDirection; Ci = C * dot ( surfaceN, lightDirection );

25 2004 Nvidia GeForce 6800 Fully general Vertex and Pixel ISA 6 Geometry Processors 16 Pixel Processors Deep recirculating pipelines to hide latency FP32 datapath end to end AGP8X – 2.11 GB/s 256 Bit 700 Mhz GDDR3 – 44 GB/s

26 GeForce 6800 System Architecture Geom Gather Geom Proc Geom Proc Triangle Proc Triangle Proc Pixel Proc Pixel Proc Z / Blend CPU Core Logic GPU GPU Memory System Memory GPUCPU Physics and AI Scene Mgmt

27 Architecture Decision – Tex/Shader Structure Problem: Build a general programmable pipeline Optimize for common workloads TEX – BLEND – FOG Common Game Shaders ( eg. Doom 3 )

28 Plan A – Uncoupled Elegant Small fundamental unit Many “passes” for common shaders TBF TEXMTH TEX BLND Registers Texture Math

29 Less Elegant Larger Fundamental Unit Single pass for common shaders Good scaling for longer shaders Big perf / area win given workloads Not forward looking Plan B - Coupled Registers Math Texture Math

30 GeForce GTX280 Fully unified programmable architecture 240 instances of the same processor IEEE FP32 and FP64 Gen2 PCIE – 8GB/s 512 bit 1100 Mhz GDDR3 – 144 GB/s

31 GeForce GTX280 System Architecture Geom Gather Geom Proc Geom Proc Triangle Proc Triangle Proc Pixel Proc Pixel Proc Z / Blend CPU Core Logic GPU GPU Memory System Memory GPUCPU Physics and AI Scene Mgmt

32 Architecture Decision – Heterogeneous Computing Support Build a bigger Chip Radically improve ability of GPU to share work with the CPU Thread Local Memory Grid 0... Global Memory... Grid 1 Sequential Grids in Time Block Shared Memory Register File

33 Computing Support Add Efficient Thread Launching Add General Load / Store Instructions and Datapath Add Shared Memory Add computational loads to performance design requirements

34 Future Graphics Directions Higher density Higher refresh Higher dynamic range Ubiquity Lower Power Shaving off the last burrs Global Illumination Higher quality modeling Virtualized resources at interactive rates

35 Future PC Architecture Directions Highly Integrated – Low Cost Require a minimum visual feature set Web/video/run today’s apps And everyone else Differentiated PCs More bandwidth and more parallel horsepower More mature unified programming models C on CUDA DX11 OpenCL More resource virtualization

36 Q & A


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