John R. Baldwin firstname.lastname@example.org January 26, 2007
Ways to Study Intercultural Communication (Gudykunst & Nishida, 1989) Emic Studies behavior from within system Examines only one culture Structure discovered by analyst Criteria relative to internal characteristics “Cultural” Communication Etic Studies behavior from outside of system Examines many cultures (comparing) Structure created by analyst Criteria considered absolute, universal Cross-Cultural Communication
Doing Intercultural Research: Methods IInterpretive: TTexts: RRhetorical/textual analysis, semiotics, etc. BBurke, Aristotle, Fisher, or other TThematic analysis, genres, archetypes PPeople: IInterviews, Focus Groups OObservation OOpen-ended questionnaire NNarrative Analysis
Doing Intercultural Research: Examples Interpretive: How does the Chigago Tribune coverage frame the tsunami disaster and relief efforts? How do students interpret the effects of ISU’s global studies requirements? What communicative strategies do interracial romantic partners report as being effective for their relationships? What are the predominant themes in The Simpsons’ construction of the American family?
Speech Codes Theory (Philipsen et al., 2005) WWhat’s the main point? Grounded in: ______________________________________ AA “way to interpret or explain observed communicative conduct by reference to situated codes of meaning and value” (p. 56, my emphasis) BBeyond the particular “a general understanding of communicative conduct” (p. 57). SSo—is it local, or is it universal?
SSpeech Code: “a system of socially- constructed symbols and meanings, premises, and rules, pertaining to communicative conduct” (Philipsen, in Philipsen et al., 2005, p. 57) CCommunicative Resources: used to “enact, name, interpret, and judge communicative conduct.” Def: “symbols and meanings, premises, and rules pertaining to communicative conduct” (p. 57) CContingent, not deterministic, open, not fixed
Codes (p. 57) Constructs created by researchers to…. “Situated resources” that participants use… Symbols & meanings Premises Rules
6 Propositions: P1: Distinctive culture: distinctive speech code P2:Multiple speech codes in a community P3:Distinctive psychology, sociology, rhetoric Meanings Social relations Strategic (appropriate) conduct P4: Speech code significance (meaning) of speaking/speech P5:Terms, rules, premises woven into speaking P6:Artful use of speech code “predicting, explaining, and controlling” discourse forms re: morality, intelligibility, prudence of communicative action.
Applications The classroom context Communicative resources Forms of speaking? Propositions (e.g., P2, P3, P4) Tae Guk Gi (The Brotherhood of War) Studies: Teamsterville: Appropriate speaking for Urban Chicago White males Teamsterville Rhetoric in flames: Fire inscriptions” among Israeli youth Rhetoric in flames Sites of memory: Israeli historic museums and the way the guide handles the “artifacts” depending on audience Sites of memory Doing Whiteness in the College Classroom: Ethnography of a college “performance” classroom on intolerance Doing Whiteness in the College Classroom Latino Nights: a study of a nightclub that has a special night for “Latinos” in Ohio Latino Nights Directive sequences in Colombia & Colorado: Requests in two cities; study using ethnography & interviews Directive sequences in Colombia & Colorado “Self, Soul, and Sex” on Russian TV (Donahue) “Self, Soul, and Sex” on Russian TV (Donahue)