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Modeling Inter-Domain Routing Protocol Dynamics ISMA 2000 December 6, 2000 In collaboration with Abha, Ahuja, Roger Wattenhofer, Srinivasan Venkatachary,

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Presentation on theme: "Modeling Inter-Domain Routing Protocol Dynamics ISMA 2000 December 6, 2000 In collaboration with Abha, Ahuja, Roger Wattenhofer, Srinivasan Venkatachary,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Modeling Inter-Domain Routing Protocol Dynamics ISMA 2000 December 6, 2000 In collaboration with Abha, Ahuja, Roger Wattenhofer, Srinivasan Venkatachary, Madan Musuvathi Craig Labovitz Merit Network/Microsoft Research

2 2 Routing Dynamics Goal: Develop a model of Internet inter-domain routing protocol dynamics. Easy, right? Subgoals –Model impact of failures and topological changes on end-to-end paths –Predict/measure reliability of inter-AS links, routers, etc. –Compare steady-state topology compare to topologies under failure –Figure out where all of those darn BGP updates come from

3 3 Stuff Old stuff –Measurements of BGP updates and convergence –Model BGP convergence (upper and lower bounds) New Stuff –Protocol timer trade-offs –Improvements to BGP (BGP-CT)

4 4 Data Sets & Tools Default-free BGP peering sessions – (routeviews.merit.edu, 2 Equinix probes, 1 Mae-West, several iBGP probes, Merit RSNG route servers) –Daily tables and all BGP updates/events sent to RS over last five years –Daily default-free dumps (and all updates/events) for peers for last two years Fault injection probes (OSPF/BGP) Analysis/Tools –MRT/Perl (playing with SSFNet) –RouteTracker (whois.routetracker.net)

5 5 Internet BGP Update Volume Withdraws in millions until 2/1998 due to withdraw looping/Cisco bug. Dramatic drop after IOS release  Announcements growing after 6/98 due to MED policy and convergence?

6 6 MTTF of Backbone Networks Informally: How long before a network is unreachable? Majority of Internet routes unreachable within 30 days

7 7 Mean Time to Fail-Over How long before traffic is re-routed? Majority of Internet routes which possess backup paths fail-over every 3 days

8 8 Internet Route Repair How long before a network is reachable again? Long-tailed distribution with plateau at 30 minutes. Why this plateau?

9 9 BGP Convergence If complete graph, N! upper theoretic bound and 30*(N-3) lower bound In practice, Internet has hierarchy and customer/provider/sibling relationships. Bounded by length longest possible path

10 10 BGP Convergence Example R AS0 AS1 AS2 AS3 *B Rvia 3 B R via 03 B R via 23 *B Rvia 3 B R via 03 B R via 13 *B Rvia 3 B R via 13 B R via 23 AS0AS1AS2 *** *B R via 203 *B R via 013 B R via 103

11 11 Observed Fault Injection Topologies In steady-state, topologies between ISP1, ISP2, ISP3 similar – all direct BGP peers of ISP4. Repeatedly withdrew single-homed route (R1, R2, R3) Steady State ISP 1 R1R1 Withdraw ISP 4 ISP 2 R2R2 Withdraw Steady State ISP 3 R3R3 Withdraw Steady State MAE-WEST

12 12 Comparing ISP Convergence Latencies CDF of faults injected into three Mae-West providers and observed at ISP router in Japan Significant variations between providers

13 13 ISP1-ISP4 Paths During Failure Only one back up path (length 3) Steady State ISP 1 ISP 5 P2 ISP 4 R1R1 FAULT 96%Average: 92 (min/max 63/140) seconds Announce AS4 AS5 AS1 (44 seconds) Withdraw(92 seconds) 4%Average: 32 (min/max 27/38) seconds Withdraw(32 seconds)

14 14 ISP2-ISP4 Paths During Failure Steady State ISP 2 ISP 4 P2 ISP 5 P3 ISP 6 R2R2 FAULT Vagabond P4 ISP 10 ISP 11 ISP 12 ISP 13 P4 63% Average: 79 (min/max 44/208) seconds AS4 AS5 AS2(35 seconds) Withdraw (79 seconds) 7% Average: 88 (min/max 80/94) seconds Announce AS4 AS5 AS2 (33 seconds) Announce AS4 AS6 AS5 AS2 (61 seconds) Withdraw (88 seconds) 7% Average: 54 (min/max 29/9) seconds Withdraw (54 seconds) 23% Other

15 15 ISP3-ISP4 Paths During Failure ISP 3 Steady State ISP 4 R3R3 P2 ISP 5 FAULT ISP 1 P3 P6 P7 P4 P5 P6 ISP 7 ISP 9 ISP 8 P7 P4 36% Average: 110 (min/max 78/135) seconds Announce AS4 AS5 AS (52 seconds) Withdraw (110 seconds) 35% Average: 107 (min/max 91/133) seconds Announce AS4 AS1 AS3 (39 seconds) Announce AS4 AS5 AS3 (68 seconds) Withdraw (107 seconds) 2% Average: (min/max 120/142) Announce AS4 AS5 AS8 AS7 AS3 (27) Announce AS4 AS5AS9 AS8 AS7 AS3(86) Withdraw (140 seconds) 27% Other

16 16 Race Conditions and Paths T(shortest path) <= Tdown <= T(longest path) B A

17 17 Relationship Between Backup Paths and Convergence Convergence related to length of longest possible backup ASPath between two nodes Longest Observed ASPath Between AS Pair

18 18 Towards Fast BGP Convergence Four possible solutions No transit/One-hop topology (peer and filter everyone) Turn off/Change MinRouteAdver timer “Tag” BGP updates and provide hint so nodes can detect bogus state information Entirely new protocol

19 AS Topology

20 AS Topology

21 21 BGP-CT Incremental addition to BGP4 –Capability negotiation –Tags carried in as multi-protocol NRLI extension –Invalidate alternative paths if match tag (and other necessary conditions met) Details –New state machine additions (temporary invalidation) –Works with iBGP –Implemented MRT and deployed on CAIRN –Improves BGP convergence by an order of magnitude in most cases (in a few cases, behavior is worse)


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