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9 th Open Forum on Metadata Registries Harmonization of Terminology, Ontology and Metadata 20th – 22nd March, 2006, Kobe Japan. ISO TC 37 Tutorial Gerhard.

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Presentation on theme: "9 th Open Forum on Metadata Registries Harmonization of Terminology, Ontology and Metadata 20th – 22nd March, 2006, Kobe Japan. ISO TC 37 Tutorial Gerhard."— Presentation transcript:

1 9 th Open Forum on Metadata Registries Harmonization of Terminology, Ontology and Metadata 20th – 22nd March, 2006, Kobe Japan. ISO TC 37 Tutorial Gerhard Budin University of Vienna Chair, ISO TC 37/SC 2

2 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Overview  ISO TC 37 – foundations and current work  Terminological semantics for semantic interoperability  R&D for creating new standards – LIRICS  Application projects + pre-normative R&D – ADNOM  (Meta-data) Modeling approaches in TC 37 – LMF  Conclusions

3 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 TC 37 Matrix SCsSC 1SC 2SC 3SC 4 Topics Cultural/ling. diversity Metadata/coding Semantic interoperability Lang. res. management Terminology work Terminography15188 Lexicography

4 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 The TC 37 „meta-language“  ISO 1087 contains the axiomatic – philosophical and linguistic – foundations of terminology work based on (traditional ) terminology theory  ISO 704 operationalizes these axioms into rules and principles and provides a basic methodology  ISO specifies how to use and register data categories  ISO 639 specifies how to use and register language codes

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13 LIRICS Linguistic Infrastructure for Interoperable Resources and Systems GOALS:  LIRICS provides a common standards framework for language engineering by translating requirements from language industry into ISO standards on the basis of ongoing R&D work  LIRICS provides input, on the basis of the cooperation and interaction between research consortia and industry groups, to ongoing standards work in ISO/TC 37, mainly focusing on lexicons, morpho-syntax, syntax and semantic content. These standards will be accompanied by a set of test suites in nine European languages to facilitate their implementation and an open source implementation platform allowing common-format, multi-lingual language processing compatible with legacy systems and tools

14 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 SKOS

15 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 LIRICS Consortium  INRIA, Nancy (FR)  DFKI, Saarbr ü cken, (DE)  UFSD, Univ. of Sheffield (UK)  CNR – ILC, Pisa (IT)  Univ. Vienna (AT)  UTiL, Tilburg Univ. (NL)  MPI, Max Planck-Inst. (DE)  Univ. of Surrey (UK)  IULA- UPF Univ. Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (ES)  Industrial Advisory Group: Morphologic, Systran, Polderland, Trados, Acrolinx, BT Exact, EADS CCR, Esteam, Expert System Language Technology, HP, Morphologic, Ontotext, PEARSON – Longman, Polderland, Q Sphere, Quinary, SDL Multilingual services, Sinequa, Synthema, SYSTRAN, Telefonica Investigaci ó n y Desarrollo, TEMIS, THAMUS, XtraMind

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17 ISO/TC 37 Terminology and other language and content resources  Founded in 1936/re-established in 1951  Scope: Standardization of principles, methods and applications relating to terminology and other language and content resources in the contexts of multilingual communication and cultural diversity –SC 1 Principles and Methods (chair: L.-J. Rousseau, Secr. Sweden) –SC 2 Terminography and Lexicography (chair: G. Budin, Secr. Canada) –SC 3 Computer applications (chair: B. Nistrup Madsen, Secr. Germany) –SC 4 Language Resource Management (chair: L. Romary, Secr. Korea)  Each SC has several working groups which run at least one project  Based on practical needs horizontal cooperation and coordination is to be guaranteed by SC chairs

18 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Language Resource Management Standardization  Standardization is needed for language resources (mono- and multilingual), e.g. speech data, written (full) text corpora, lexical (general language) corpora and their processing methods  Relevant research areas are computational linguistics and computational lexicography, language engineering, etc., which have provided industrial best practices to be turned into official standards  This process will contribute to the further development of the language industries at large  As is the case with terminologies, language resources in general are often multilingual, multimedia and multimodal

19 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 ISO/TC 37/SC 1 The following standards are under the direct responsibility of ISO/TC 37/SC 1:  ISO 704:2000Terminology work – Principles and methods  ISO 860:1996Terminology work – Harmonization of concepts and terms  ISO :2000 Terminology work – Vocabulary – Part 1: Theory and application The following standards are under preparation:  ISO/CD 704 Terminology work – Principles and methods  ISO/CD 860 Terminology work – Harmonization of concepts and terms  ISO/PWI Terminology work – Vocabulary – Part 1: Theory and application  ISO/WD Practical guide for socioterminology

20 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 ISO/TC 37/SC 2  Title: Terminography and lexicography  Scope: Standardization of terminological and lexicographical working methods, procedures, coding systems, workflows, and cultural diversity management, as well as related certification schemes

21 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 ISO/TC 37/SC 2 (2) The following standards are under the direct responsibility of ISO/TC 37/SC 2:  ISO 639-1:2002Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 1: Alpha-2 code  ISO 639-2:1998Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 2: Alpha-3 code  ISO 1951:1997Lexicographical symbols and typographical conventions for use in terminography  ISO 10241:1992International terminology standards -- Preparation and layout  ISO 12199:2000Alphabetical ordering of multilingual terminological and lexicographical data represented in the Latin alphabet  ISO 12616:2002Translation-oriented terminography  ISO 15188:2001Project management guidelines for terminology standardization

22 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 ISO/TC 37/SC 2 (3) The following standards are under preparation:  ISO/DIS Codes for the representation of names of languages Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages  ISO/CD Codes for the representation of names of languages Part 4: Implementation guidelines and general principles for language coding  ISO/CD Codes for the representation of names of languages Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups  ISO/WD Codes for the representation of names of languages Part 6: Extension coding for language variation  ISO/FDIS 1951 Presentation/representation of entries in dictionaries  ISO/CD Terminological entries in standards – Part 1: General requirements  ISO/CD Terminological entries in standards  ISO 12615Bibliographic references and source identifiers for terminology  ISO/NWI TR Quality assurance guidelines for terminology products  ISO/NP Assessment and benchmarking of terminological holdings

23 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 ISO/TC 37/SC 3 (1)  title: Terminology management systems and content interoperability  scope: Standardization of principles and requirements for semantic interoperability, terminology and content management systems, and knowledge ordering tools

24 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 ISO/TC 37/SC 3 (2) The following standards are under the direct responsibility of ISO/TC 37/SC 3:  ISO :2000Terminology work – Vocabulary – Part 2: Computer applications  ISO 6156:1987Magnetic tape exchange format for (withdrawn) terminological/ lexicographical records ISO 6156:1987  ISO 12200:1999Computer applications in terminology – Machine-readable terminology interchange format (MARTIF) – Negotiated interchange  ISO 12620:1999Computer applications in terminology – Data categories  ISO 16642:2003Computer applications in terminology – Terminological markup framework

25 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 ISO/TC 37/SC 3 (3) The following standards are under preparation:  ISO/NWI TR 12618Computational aids in terminology – Design, implementation and use of terminology management systems  ISO/CD 12620Computer applications in terminology – Data categories  NWI on conceptual modeling  NWI on electronic catalogs

26 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 ISO/TC 37/SC 4 (1)  Title: Language resource management  Scope: Standardization of specifications for computer-assisted language resource management  linguistic infrastructures are being established or re-enforced as part of the rapidly evolving information and communication society;  professional activities involving language resource sharing and standardization are increasing in diverse areas: –governmental or non-governmental organizations, public or private institutions, educational institutions, commercial enterprises, etc., –both, globalization and localization necessitate multilingual communication;  there is an increasing need for new standardization as well as urgent recognition of existing de facto standards and their transformation into International Standards

27 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 ISO/TC 37/SC 4 (2) The following standards are under preparation:  ISO/NWI Terminology for language resources  ISO/NP Word segmentation of written texts for mono-lingual and multi-lingual information processing – Part 1: General principles and methods  ISO/NP Word segmentation of written texts for mono-lingual and multi-lingual information processing – Part 2: Word segmentation for Chinese, Japanese and Korean  ISO/CD Language resource management – Feature structures – Part 3: Word segmentation for other languages  ISO/WD 24611Language resource management – Morpho-syntactic annotation framework  ISO/WD 24612Language Resource Management – Linguistic Annotation Framework  ISO/WD 24613Language resource management – Lexical markup framework

28 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Approach  Industry requirements  -> specifications for designing the standards  Scoping: language technology standards, terminology and language resource standards, etc.  Feedback loops/co-operation schemes/liaison strategies/workshops  Critically reviewing and revising existing standards to live up to changing and new expectations and requirements

29 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 How to achieve terminological interoperability  Working principles –consensus building + international project management –Conceptual precision by documenting and agreeing on DEFINITIONS (conceptual specifications) –Linguistic precision –Terminological assignments –Systematic approach (concept systems, conceptual modeling) –Multilingual, cross-cultural approach

30 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Application example CEN/ISSS WS ADNOM Administrative Nomenclatures

31 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Goal: Implementing a framework for Semantic Interoperability across domains and languages in Europe  Without high quality and standards-based terminologies it is impossible to reach precision, efficiency, and transparency within and across eBusiness, eGovernment, eHealth, eLearning, eCulture, eScience, etc. processes and systems  Problem situation: lack of accessibility to high quality resources in many domains and languages, diversity of coding schemes and data organization -> lack of interoperability (syntactic, semantic, pragmatic) across existing data bases  Cultural differences across language communities and domain cultures are sometimes so strong that citizens as well as experts are lost in dynamic communication situations – > administrative and legal language is the best example

32 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Goal: Implementing a framework for Semantic Interoperability across domains and languages in Europe  Such terminologies are organized and used for multiple purposes in the form of dictionaries, data bases, thesauri, classification systems, nomenclatures, taxonomies, ontologies, indexes, term lists, etc.  ADNOM provides a coherent methodology for modeling, mapping, presenting, and accessing such resources in the context of the emerging European Interoperability Framework and in line with – and contributing to new – European and international standards (ISO/TC 37, JTC 1/SC 32, etc.).  Approach: federated registries based on ebXML and Topic Maps implementations, meta-data standards, terminology mark-up framework -> Semantic richness/complexity is managed and visualized and not eliminated.

33 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Achievements – Results - Deliverables  Survey on existing administrative nomenclatures and similar terminological resources in Europe as well as on the organizations managing these resources  Procedural methodology described in the CWA (with principles and recommendations)  Demonstrator showing the implementation of the ADNOM approach (ebXML + Topic Maps (XTM) + ISO ISO other standards) (will be operational online in April), showing the “ ADNOM Seamless Knowledge Core model ” with federated registries, navigation services, etc.  Emerging organizational network of relevant institutions (stake holders), integrating existing networks; dissemination efforts (conference on 1st of December 2005 in Brussels on the Communicative Government organized by NL-Term together with CEN/ISSS WS-ADNOM)

34 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 A concrete example of mapping multilingual administrative nomenclatures  Simplified example on names of government ministries and agencies in Austria, France, and Germany linked to the different scopes and responsibilities of these administrative units as far as pension schemes are concerned  The asymmetries are presented by a visualization of the conceptual map as implemented in a Topic Map linking the data described above  It includes the meta-data level using the COFOG classification (incl. the terms in 16 languages for “ economic affairs ”  In the framework of the “ ADNOM Seamless Knowledge Core model ” for organizing conceptual hierarchies

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36 Terminological Semantics

37 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Basic model: the Semiotic triangle  The semiotic triangle is a basic semantic model in philosophy of language and semiotics: concept object sign  Signs (linguistic signs, such as terms) refer to objects (e.g. objects of investigation) by conceptualizations  Note: the arrows point in two directions (onomasiological and semasiological reference, ontological reference) cognition communication reality

38 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Specific aspects of terminological semantics  Focus on –Conceptual content of domain texts and domain terms –Semiotic assignments between concepts and terms –Conceptual relations between terms –Disambiguation, conceptual change, synonymy, polysemy, cultural diversity (equivalence), vagueness –Reference to objects of investigation  Methods –Conceptual logic, prototypes, various semantic theories –Definitions as explicit meaning statements –Semantic components (conceptual characteristics) are made explicit, text semantics, semantic features –Referential statements on objects –Documentation (terminography), prescription (standards)

39 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 A functional-systemic model of terminological semantics  Semantic coherence in semantic systems, semantic reference  Primary functions include cognition (concept formation) and categorization (classifying objects into concept classes) as well as semiosis (assigning signs to concepts and concept classes) and representation  Secondary functions include systematic achievements in discourse such as precision and consistency in naming  Tertiary functions include translation, data exchange, technical communication, harmonization of terminologies, etc.  The arrows that go across all three functional levels signify the fact that semantic continuity and semantic interoperability depend on the fulfillment of multiple functions, in particular on the primary and secondary levels.

40 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 A poly-functional terminology model Primäre Funktion Terminology Primary Functions Secondary Functions Tertiary Functions Cognition, Categorization Semiosis, Representation Organization, Nomination Consistency, Continuity, Precision, Understanding Distinction, Recognition Intercultural knowledge transfer, corporate Information Management, unambiguous communication, conceptual comparison of cultures Learning and searching aids, Interoperability, Data exchange Information, argumentation, knowledge sharing

41 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Terminological reference  Due to the hypothetical, constructive nature of scientific knowledge, terminological reference is the process of constructing meaning hypotheses  This does not require the proof of existence of an object referred to  Terminological reference in social sciences and humanities typically includes both the postulation of existence of a certain object plus its conceptualization in a specific categorial schema, i.e. a particular theory  The theory is used as a categorial schema that allows the researcher to position objects or rather their linguistic representations in this schema

42 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Formal models of terminological semantics and of semantic interoperability  The following models are examples of formal models that are created as instruments for managing semantic information and semantic structures and their representation forms  Semantic annotation has become a powerful tool for enriching the explanatory power of formal semantic models  Modeling tools in ISO TC 37: –ISO framework –UML –W3C standards/recommendations – XML, RDF(S), OWL, > –Conceptual modeling approaches, KR languages, etc.

43 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Terminology Markup Framework (ISO 16642) – meta-model – structural skeleton

44 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Lexical Markup Framework

45 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 LMF modeling approach  LMF models consist of UML classes, associations among the classes, and a set of ISO data categories that function as attribute-value pairs.  The data categories are used to adorn the UML diagrams that provide a high level view of the model.  LMF specifications, textual descriptions that describe the semantics of the modeling elements, provide more complete information about classes, relationships, and extensions than can be included in UML diagrams.

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50 Semantic Interoperability Framework

51 9th Open Forum for Metadata Registry, Kobe, 2006 Conclusions  Terms are complex lexical units that are constantly semantically re- determined by their communicative functions in professional discourse (incl. knowledge sharing) and by the semantic relationships to other terms in domain-specific knowledge structures, in text corpora, and in concrete action situations  A comprehensive, multi-dimensional modeling approach is suitable to describe and explain multiple functions of lex/term resources in diverse applications and situations  Modeling methods and tools adhere to a range of complementary standards that are constantly updated and improved (upward compatibility)  Modeling terminological semantics is a pre-requisite for reaching semantic interoperability in the Semantic Web and web-based information and communication systems


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