Presentation on theme: "Lab 9 CIS 370 Umass Dartmouth. A pipe is typically used as a one-way communications channel which couples one related process to another. UNIX deals."— Presentation transcript:
A pipe is typically used as a one-way communications channel which couples one related process to another. UNIX deals with pipes the same way it deals with files. A process can send data ‘down’ a pipe using a write system call and another process can receive the data by using read at the other end.
$ who | sort This command causes the shell to start the commands who and sort simultaneously. The ‘|’ symbol in the command line tells the shell to create a pipe to couple the standard output of who to the standard input of sort. The final result of this command should be a nicely ordered list of the users logged onto this machine.
The who command on the left side of the pipe does not know that its stdout is being sent to a pipe. The who command simply writes to stdout. Similarly the sort command does not know that it is getting its input from a pipe. The sort command simply reads the stdin. Both commands behave normally!
The overall effect is logically as if the following sequence has been executed. $ who > sometempfile.txt $ sort sometempfile.txt $ rm sometempfile.txt Flow control is maintained automatically by the OS (if who writes faster than sort can read, who is suspended, until sort catches up).
#include Within programs a pipe is created using the system call pipe(). int pipe(int filedes); If successful, this call returns two file descriptors: one for writing down the pipe, one for reading from it.
filedes is a two-integer array that will hold the file descriptors that will identify the pipe. If successful, filedes will be open for reading from the pipe and filedes will be open for writing down it. pipe() can fail (returns -1) if it cannot obtain the file descriptors (exceeds user- limit or kernel-limit).
This sample code available online: www.cis.umassd.edu/~jplante/cis370/lab09/samples/pipes.c
The output of pipes.c : Hello, World #1 Hello, World #2 Hello, World #3
Pipes behave first-in-first-out, this cannot be changed; lseek() will not work in pipes! The size of the read and write don’t have to match (For example, you can write 512 bytes at a time while reading 1 byte at a time). The previous example is trivial as there is only one process involved and the process is sending messages to itself! Pipes become powerful when used with fork().
This sample code available online: www.cis.umassd.edu/~jplante/cis370/lab09/samples/pipes_3.c
We now have a uni-directional pipe connecting two processes!
Closing the write file descriptor If all processes close the write-only end of the pipe and the pipe is empty, any process attempting a read will return no data (will return 0 like EOF). Closing the read file descriptor If all processes close the read-only end of the pipe and there are processes waiting to write to the pipe, the kernel will send a SIGPIPE signal. If the signal is not caught the process will terminate. If the signal is caught, then after the interrupt routine has completed, write will return -1.
This sample code available online: www.cis.umassd.edu/~jplante/cis370/lab09/samples/pipes_4.c
Included with these slides are those from previous semesters covering other topics related to pipes. This material was not covered because it is mostly unrelated to today’s lab assignment. Identifying the size of a pipe to prevent writing too much data. Non-blocking reads and writes on pipes. Using select() system call to handle multiple pipes. Pipes with exec(). FIFOs (named pipes). You should review Chapter 7 of the lab textbook for comprehensive explanations of these topics.
You will write a C program which opens FOUR pipes, P1, P2, P3 and P4. Your program should then create three children, C1, C2, and C3 (all in the same generation) as shown in the family tree below. Parent C1 C2 C3
The structure of pipes and processes should look as follows: Parent C1 C2 C3 P1 P2 P3 P4
Your program should behave as follows: AFTER opening the pipes and creating the children, the parent process should prompt the user for the number of messages to pass. Only the parent should know this value. Once the parent knows how many messages to expect from the user, it should prompt the user for those messages in the form: “ ” You may assume that messages are only one word in length (you do not need to handle spaces in messages). The parent will then use pipes P1 and P2 to send all the messages to the appropriate children. Because C2 and C3 share pipe P2, they may receive each other’s messages. In this situation, they are responsible for using P3 or P4 to forward the messages as appropriate.
Each process should ensure that its pipes are unidirectional. Once received, messages MUST be printed out in the form “Child read message: ” Where is the number of the child (1, 2, 3) that is printing the message and is the message itself. Hint: To avoid blocking reads in the children, you should consider what happens when processes close one end of a pipe. Hint: When sending messages to C2 and C3, you may want to append a special character to the message so that they will know if it was meant for them or not. Hint: It’s probably a good idea to perform all the writes before performing any reads.