Presentation on theme: "Background info… muscular contractions other functions digestion circulationrepairing tissues The body needs a steady supply of energy to produce the."— Presentation transcript:
Background info… muscular contractions other functions digestion circulationrepairing tissues The body needs a steady supply of energy to produce the muscular contractions that are essential for sport, as well as to perform all the other functions needed to stay alive, such as digestion of foods, circulation and repairing tissues. For movement to occur, the body must transfer stored chemical energy to mechanical energy. The body does this by breaking down a high energy compound called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Task… 1)Research what is ATP within the energy system (what it looks like and what function it serves. -What are the 3 energy systems and some background information on each system.
Adenosine Triphosphate and energy production
ATP – Energy is produced by breaking down the foods that we eat in our diet – Made up of one Adenosine molecule, attached to 3 phosphate molecules These are bound together by high energy bonds 3 phosphate molecules Adenosine molecule
In order to get the energy In order to get the energy, we need to: – Break down the bond between the second and third phosphate molecules. The bond between the outer of the 3 phosphate molecules needs to be broken.
The breakdown leaves us with a second compound – Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a loose phosphate molecule 2 phosphate molecules Adenosine molecule We must reattach these molecules in order to remake ATP. We need energy to do this.
So Adenosine Triphosphate breaks down This breakdown produces energy We use this energy to move and to keep our body systems going. Adenosine Diphosphate + a loose phosphate molecule
Merit We know that the splitting of the outer bond of the ATP molecules releases energy. – This energy stimulates the myosin cross bridge to the active site on the actin filament. According to sliding filament theory, this then stimulates movement.
Merit The problem is that the muscles only store a small amount of the energy compound ATP The problem is that the muscles only store a small amount of the energy compound ATP – Probably only enough for a few contractions at a high intensity, such as a few seconds of flat out running – Therefore, in a game situation, we must continually resynthesize ATP in order to supply a constant source of energy. To do this, we must attach the ADP and the phosphate again to make ATP, so that the ATP can again be broken down and the energy released The problem is that: resynthesizing ADP into ATP requires energy and needs 1 of the 3 different energy systems to do this. We will look at the different energy systems in later tasks.
Task… Make an A4 poster, presenting what you have learned from todays lesson on ATP. - Use the PowerPoint and internet to produce the poster… using information that has been synthesised by yourself and also having sourced your own pictures and illustrations.
The 3 energy systems… Creatine Phosphate system CP (Phospocreatine system- PC) Lactic Acid System Aerobic System
Task 2 – The CP System PASS CP stands for Creatine Phosphate The muscles contain more CP stores than ATP stores. The aim of the CP system is to create ATP from ADP + P The CP bond is broken down so that the loose P can join the 2 P Ps in ADP to create ATP. This energy system is used for exercise of a high intensity & short duration (approx. 6 seconds). Once the CP stores have run out, the CP system cannot work. We have to wait for more CP to be made (resynthesized). After the CP stores have run out, we must use a different energy system. + + AAPPPPPP CC
Task 2 – The CP System MERIT Key Features: It is fast & immediate CP is stored in the muscle & so there ready & waiting! Its used in the early stages of high intensity exercise. Because of the limited stores of ATP & CP, it can only last approx seconds (ATP=2 sec CP=6sec). After this we fatigue. A limitation with the CP System is that stores (of ATP & CP) run out very quickly. To resynthesize (make more) them, requires aerobic energy which takes a lot longer. Examples of exercises that use the CP system:
Task 3 – The Lactic Acid System PASS anaerobicThe Lactic Acid System is anaerobic meaning it doesn’t use Oxygen (O²) It gets energy from the break down of Glucose molecules (stored within the muscles), this is known as “Glycolysis” It releases energy very quickly and is required when the activity is intense!! Glucose Glucose – 6 Phosphate Pyruvic Acid Lactic Acid 1 ATP Glucose is converted to Glucose-6 Phosphate in order to resynthesize ATP…to do this requires 1 ATP This reaction produces 3 ATP Lactic Acid is a waste product of this energy system. Lactic Acid is what gives you a “stitch” during exercise!
Task 3 – The Lactic Acid System MERIT Glucose Glucose – 6 Phosphate Pyruvic Acid Lactic Acid Glucose-6 Phosphate is broken down by Glycolytic Enzymes to produce Pyruvic Acid This reaction produces 3 ATP Lactic Acid accumulates and diffuses into the muscles and blood, causing discomfort (stitch) & fatigue, so needs to be removed by the CV system. Lactic Acid also inhibits further breakdown of Glucose. - Only 5% of Glucose is broken down by the Lactic Acid System. The other 95% is broken down by the Aerobic Energy System. -The Lactic Acid System is used from 10 sec (after the CP System runs out) up to approx 1-3 minutes. -This system is required as the body does not have time to deliver oxygen (Anaerobic Glycolysis). Glycolytic Enzymes
ATP is produced very slowly by the Aerobic System, it is very sluggish compared to the CP & Lactic Acid Systems. Energy comes from breaking down glucose & fats. The aerobic system produces Glucose molecule -38 ATP when breaking down a Glucose molecule Fat molecule -129 ATP when breaking down a Fat molecule Waste products are H²O (water) & CO² (carbon dioxide) and heat (lost through sweat) which don’t inhibit further Glycolysis (unlike Lactic Acid as a waste product). This type of energy production can be used for hours. It is used when exercising at low intensity for long durations. For example: Task 4 – The Aerobic Energy System PASS This is a huge amount more than the other energy systems Carbon Dioxide & Water are waste products of Aerobic Exercise! Jogging, lasting 90 minutes, a marathon, long distance sports
During the Lactic Acid System, Pyruvic Acid is produced. This then enters the mitochondria for the Krebs Cycle. Pyruvic Acid Acetyl CoA 5 carbon compound Citric Acid (6 carbon compound) 4 carbon compound Oxaloacetate H²O CO² ATP The Pyruvic Acid comes from the Lactic Acid System Repeat Cycle… Task 5 - The Krebs Cycle & Electron Transfer Chain MERIT (part of The Aerobic Energy System) 2 ATP are produced Pyruvic Acid is converted into Acetyl CoA H²O, CO² & Hydrogen are all waste products from the Krebs Cycle.
It is the movement of the electrons & protons that creates huge amounts of energy. In this case 34 ATP molecules are produced!! Task 5 – The Krebs Cycle & Electron Transfer Chain MERIT (part of The Aerobic Energy System) cont… Hydrogen electron proton Splits into… These then move out of the mitochondria, then move back into the Mitochondria They then combine with Oxygen to produce H²O (water). Following on from the Krebs Cycle… Remember Hydrogen was a waste product from the Krebs Cycle Mitochondria
Task: You should have designed now an information Page/ Leaflet/ Poster on the following: -ATP/ ADP -The Creatine Phosphate (CP) energy System -The Lactic Acid energy System -The Aerobic energy System P7/ M4
The energy Continuum Look on the page next and complete the energy continuum that each sport/activity may sit upon…
Energy Continuum Graph A graph to show the different duration times that each energy system offers an individual/athlete.
Task… Find a picture of these sports and place them on the continuum below in accordance to the energy requirements: · Weight lifting · Marathon running – middle of the race · 100m Sprint – start · 100m sprint – middle · 100m sprint - end · Football player sprinting down the wing half way through a game · Football player jogging up for a corner · Shot putt · 400m run · 400m swim · 100k cycle Pass Merit explain explain why you have chosen that position on the continuum for each of the different sporting actions.
Describe each of the energy systems named BELOW and relate the energy systems to their use in different sport and exercise activities. Describing / Explaining and Analysing the amount of ATP produced and recovery time s of each. Examine each energy system and explain its use in a variety of sport and exercise activities Energy systems: 1)ATP splitting and synthesis 2)Phosphocreatine (CP) system 3)Lactic acid system 4)Aerobic system 5)Energy continuum Analyse three different energy systems and their use in a wide variety of sport and exercise activities