Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byRhiannon Nickol Modified over 2 years ago

1
An F-Measure for Context-Based Information Retrieval Michael Kandefer and Stuart C. Shapiro University at Buffalo Department of Computer Science and Engineering Center for Multisource Information Fusion Center for Cognitive Science {mwk3,shapiro}@cse.buffalo.edu

2
Introduction Commonsense 2009 – One of the major long-term goals of AI is to endow computers with common sense – One challenge is the accumulation of large amounts of knowledge about our everyday world Managing a large-scale knowledge store is necessary

3
Introduction Building commonsense reasoners requires access to large amounts of information – Deductive reasoners suffer performance issues when working with large KBs Optimal solution: – Use only that information that is needed for reasoning Considered the relevant information – Not practical Can take as long as reasoning

4
Introduction Solution: Context-based Information Retrieval – Use context to help establish information that is likely to be relevant The environment and other constraints Not the KR sense of context – Heuristic that sacrifices precision for rapid retrieval – Useful for many applications: HCI Devices, Embodied acting agents Problem: Which CBIR techniques are better? – How do you measure CBIR output?

5
CBIR Process Input (I) CBIR Process Reasoning Engine Retrieved Propositions Background Knowledge Sources (BKS) Query (Q)

6
F-Measure Retrieved Propositions (RET) Retrieved Propositions (RET) Relevant Propositions (REL) Relevant Propositions (REL) Recall (r)Precision (p)F-Measure vs.

7
Establishing Relevant Propositions Relevant propositions are only those needed for performing the required reasoning – Establish what’s really relevant Can be generated manually – Not practical for large KBs Automatic procedures are desirable – Run prior to use of CBIR procedure Runtime is not a huge issue – Two will be discussed Relevance-theoretic Distance from the Optimal

8
CBIR Input (I) CBIR Process Reasoning Engine Retrieved Propositions Background Knowledge Sources (BKS) Query (Q)

9
Relevant Proposition Tagging Input (I) Retrieved Propositions Background Knowledge Sources (BKS) Query (Q) Relevant Propositions RPT vs.

10
Relevance-Theoretic Sperber and Wilson’s Relevancy Theory Model of utterance interpretation – Receives an input utterance and determines how relevant it is to an agent’s beliefs – Can be used for other cognitive processes Proposed for measuring relevance in IR – Establishing the set of relevant propositions

11
S & W Relevance After {I Q} is inserted into BKS, a proposition p BKS is relevant if it causes a positive cognitive effect – ¬p {I Q} – p helps strengthens some q {I Q}, or – p contributes to a contextual implication: {{I Q} BKS} non-trivially derives using p some proposition q {I Q} alone does not non-trivially derive q, and BKS alone does not non-trivially derive q p strengthens q if: – q was already derived in {I Q} and BKS can non-trivially derive q using p – i.e., q is independently derived Non-trivial derivations are not easy to formalize – No formalization provided by S & W – Consider propositions used in forward chaining as non-trivial

12
Example BKS A1 : ∀ (x, y)(Blunt(x) ∧ Conical(x) ∧ Drawer(y) ∧ ConnectedByTip(x, y) → Handle(x)). A2 : ∀ (x)(Handle(x) → CanBePulled(x)). A3 : Blunt(h1). A4 : Conical(h1). A5 : ∀ (x, y)(Rope(x) ∧ Light(y) ∧ Connected(x, y) → CanBePulled(x) A6 : ∀ (x, y)(Blunt(x) ∧ Conical(y) ∧ ConnectedByBase(x, y) → ¬Handle(x) A7 : ∀ (x)(Drawer(x) → ContainsItems(x)). {I Q}: {Drawer(d1) ∧ ConnectedByTip(h1, d1) ∧ CanBePulled(h1)}. rel: {A1, A2, A3, A4, A7}

13
Example CBIR Name |REL||RET| |RET REL| RecallPrecisionF-Measure CBIR15440.81.000.899 CBIR25540.80.800.800 CBIR35540.80.800.800 BKS5751.00.710.830 rel: {A1, A2, A3, A4, A7} CBIR Result NameCBIR Retrieved Propositions CBIR1{A1,A2,A3,A4} CBIR2{A1,A2,A3,A4,A6} CBIR3{A2,A3,A4,A5,A7}

14
Distance from the Optimal Using I, Q, and BKS and some reasoner capable of maintaining origin sets Origin sets – Product of relevance logic/ATMS – The propositions required for deriving some proposition Procedure: – Generate the origin set required for deriving Q – Use the origin set as the relevant propositions – Compare CBIR results to the optimal solution

15
Finding the Optimal Solution 1.Given: Q, BKS, and I 2. Load the BKS into a reasoner. 3. Add I to the BKS. 4. Query the reasoner on Q. 5. Examine the origin set for Q,, defined as: {A - I| A {BKS I} A ├ Q ¬ ∃ A’((A’ A) A’ ├ Q) } 6. Select the sets in that have the minimal cardinality. This new set of origin sets will be denoted with min( )

16
Example BKS A1 : ∀ (x, y)(Blunt(x) ∧ Conical(x) ∧ Drawer(y) ∧ ConnectedByTip(x, y) → Handle(x)). A2 : ∀ (x)(Handle(x) → CanBePulled(x)). A3 : Blunt(h1). A4 : Conical(h1). A5 : ∀ (x, y)(Rope(x) ∧ Light(y) ∧ Connected(x, y) → CanBePulled(x) A6 : ∀ (x, y)(Blunt(x) ∧ Conical(y) ∧ ConnectedByBase(x, y) → ¬Handle(x) A7 : ∀ (x)(Drawer(x) → ContainsItems(x)). I: {Drawer(d1) ∧ ConnectedByTip(h1, d1)} rel: {A1, A2, A3, A4} Q: {CanBePulled(h1)}

17
Example CBIR Name |REL||RET| |RET REL| RecallPrecisionF-Measure CBIR14441.01.001.0 CBIR24541.00.800.889 CBIR34530.750.600.667 BKS4741.00.570.726 rel: {A1, A2, A3, A4} CBIR Result NameCBIR Retrieved Propositions CBIR1{A1,A2,A3,A4} CBIR2{A1,A2,A3,A4,A6} CBIR3{A2,A3,A4,A5,A7}

18
Relevance-theoretic vs. Distance from the Optimal Similarities – Rules of inference used to create relevant proposition set Differences – Distance of the optimal generates relevant proposition sets that precisely match the original definition – Relevance-theoretic values CBIR outputs with multiple paths of inference to a solution – Relevance-theoretic requires a formalization of the non-trivial derivation concept

19
Conclusions and Future Work Conclusions – Relevance-theoretic approach is less successful at measuring some CBIR results than the distance from the optimal – Uses Comparing different CBIR algorithms Improving CBIR Procedures – Many CBIR procedures have various parameters that can be modified to change their performance Future Work – Use the theoretical discussion to help construct comparisons of CBIR results

Similar presentations

Presentation is loading. Please wait....

OK

Case-based Reasoning System (CBR)

Case-based Reasoning System (CBR)

© 2018 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Ppt on surface water pollution Ppt on ganga river system Ppt on area of plane figures exercises File type ppt online voting system Ppt on asymptotic notation of algorithms meaning Ppt on next generation 2-stroke engine stops Ppt on eia report in malaysia Ppt on economic development and growth Ppt on agriculture in pakistan Ppt on ms project 2007