Presentation on theme: "Square Folds For each of these challenges, start with a square of paper. Fold the square so that you have a square that has a quarter of the original area."— Presentation transcript:
2Square FoldsFor each of these challenges, start with a square of paper.Fold the square so that you have a square that has a quarter of the original area.How do you know this is a quarter?
3Square FoldsFold the square so that you have a triangle that is a quarter of the original area.How do you know this is a quarter?Can you find a completely different triangle which has a quarter of the area of the original square?
4Square FoldsFold to obtain a square which has half the original area. How do you know it is half the area?Can you find another way to do it?
5Pythagoras Unfolded Start with a square of paper. Put a dot a short distance from one vertex - about a third of the side length works well, not too close as you’re going to have to fold from it.Put dots exactly the same distance from the other vertices, working around the square as shown.
6Fold to join the dots as shown. What shape is this? How do you know? Pythagoras UnfoldedFold to join the dots as shown.What shape is this?How do you know?
7Pythagoras UnfoldedMark three other dots as shown, using the same distance as you used for the previous ones.
8Pythagoras Unfolded Create folds as shown. Notice that two of the folds don’t go all the way across.It’s easiest if you do the vertical one first as this gives the guide line for where to finish the other folds.
9Pythagoras UnfoldedFor the next slides, locate the relevant lengths or shapes on your folded square.
16Pythagoras Unfolded Explain what this sequence of diagrams shows: Thinking about how you folded the shapes, can you explain why the yellow and green triangles will fit as shown?
17Pythagoras UnfoldedCan you now link it all together and explain how this is a proof of Pythagoras’ Theorem?This proof started with a square in which you created triangles in a certain way; would it work for any right-angled triangle?
18Start with a piece of A4 paper. Fold as shown. Equilateral TriangleStart with a piece of A4 paper. Fold as shown.
19Equilateral TrianglePick up the bottom left hand vertex and fold so that the vertex touches the centre line and the fold being made goes through the top left vertex.
20Equilateral TrianglePick up the bottom right hand vertex and fold so that the fold being made lines up with the edge of the paper already folded over.
21Equilateral TriangleFinally, fold over the top as shown. Folding away from you helps keep the triangle together.
22Equilateral TriangleThis looks like an equilateral triangle, but how can we be sure that it is?Unfolding the shape gives us lots of lines to work with, but all we really need is the first couple of folds.It may help to start with a fresh piece of paper and simply make these two folds.
23Equilateral Triangle Drawing round these edges will also be helpful. This is what you should have.What can you work out?
24Equilateral Triangle Hint #1 The triangle is created as shown; we need to show that 2 of its angles are 60°
25Hint #2 Can you find the angles in this triangle? Equilateral TriangleHint #2Can you find the angles in this triangle?
26Hint #3 Think of the length of the short edge as 2x. Equilateral TriangleHint #3Think of the length of the short edge as 2x.
27Hint #4 When you fold the vertex in, what distance is shown? Equilateral TriangleHint #4When you fold the vertex in, what distance is shown?
28Hint #5 What dimensions of this triangle do you know? Equilateral TriangleHint #5What dimensions of this triangle do you know?
29Hint #6 The fold line is a line of symmetry of the grey shape. Equilateral TriangleHint #6The fold line is a line of symmetry of the grey shape.
30Regular Pentagon Start with a piece of A4 paper. Put two diagonally opposite vertices together and fold as shown.
31Turn the shape clockwise so that it looks like this: Regular PentagonTurn the shape clockwise so that it looks like this:
32Crease along the line of symmetry, then open it back out. Regular PentagonCrease along the line of symmetry, then open it back out.
33Fold so that the red edge meets and aligns with the red fold. Regular PentagonFold so that the red edge meets and aligns with the red fold.
34Fold the other side (marked in red) in a similar way. Regular PentagonFold the other side (marked in red) in a similar way.
35Regular PentagonThis looks like a regular pentagon, but how can we be sure that it is?Folding can be inaccurate, but with mathematics we can prove whether it is regular or not.
36Regular PentagonUnfolding the shape gives us lots of lines to work with, but all we really need is the first fold.It may help to start with a fresh piece of paper and simply make the first fold.
37Regular PentagonYou need to know that the dimensions of a piece of A4 paper are 297mm by 210mm.What is the size of the internal angle of a regular pentagon?Can you work out the size of the angle at the top of the shape?
38Regular Pentagon Hint #1 The top angle is made up of two smaller angles. Find out what these are and add them together.
39Hint #2 Draw this line on before opening it out Regular PentagonHint #2Draw this line on before opening it out
43Teacher notes: Paper Folding This month’s edition has 4 activities which link paper folding and proof. These support the development of reasoning, justification and proof: a renewed priority within the new National Curriculum. They are presented in approximate order of difficulty. Discussion and collaboration are key in helping to develop students’ skills in communicating mathematics and engaging with others’ thinking, so paired or small group work is recommended for these activities. The first ‘Square Folds’ is suitable for many ages and abilities since a range of responses with different levels of sophistication are possible. The second activity looks at a paper-folding proof of Pythagoras.
44Teacher notes: Paper Folding The third and fourth activities require students to create specific common shapes and then prove whether or not they are regular. The third requires a knowledge of basic trigonometry, the fourth requires basic understanding of trigonometry and Pythagoras and the ability to expand brackets and solve linear equations (a quadratic term appears, but is balanced by an equivalent one on the other side of the equation). Hints are given, but it is helpful to allow students to grapple with the problems by not showing these too soon. Once a hint is given, it’s useful to wait a while before showing another. Discussion and explanaiton are key. One option is to print the hint slides out on card (2 or 4 to a sheet) and just give them to students as and when they need them rather than showing them to the whole class.
45Teacher notes: Square Folds There are a range of possible responses for each of these. One of the key concepts that can be developed through this activity is an appreciation of what is meant by proof.The progression through:Convince yourselfConvince a friendConvince your teacheris a good structure to use to encourage students to think about ‘why’ something is as they think it is, rather than just responding with ‘you can see that it is’.Demonstrating by folding to show that different sections are equal may be acceptable, or you may wish students to consider the dimensions of the shapes.
46Teacher notes: Square Folds Some possible answers:A square, a quarter of the area.The lengths of the sides are ½ the original.𝑥 2 × 𝑥 2 = 𝑥 2 42&3. A triangle, a quarter of the area.1 2 𝑥 2 ×𝑥 = 𝑥 2 4
47Teacher notes: Square Folds 4&5 A square, half the area. Folding the vertices of the original square into the centre is one way to demonstrate that it is half the original area. Using Pythagoras theorem to show that the new square has side length √2 is also possible. This one is harder to justify. The diagonal of the new square is x. Using Pythagoras’ theorem, the side length of the square must be 𝑥 2 so the area is 𝑥 2 2
48Teacher notes: Pythagoras Unfolded Although it would be possible to skip straight to the diagrams, students having something they’ve folded in front of them helps them to see and understand exactly what’s going on. They can then annotate and/or colour the square and stick in their books or folders. Identify that the bottom triangle is a,b,c. Show that a2+b2=c2The proof will work for any right-angled triangle. Create 4 copies of the required triangle and arrange them so that a ‘long’ and ‘short’ side form the edge of a square as shown (makes no difference which is short and which is long for isosceles triangles).
49Teacher notes: Equilateral Triangle Making the equilateral triangle is relatively straight-forward and can be used with all students during work with shape. Do they tessellate. Fold the vertices in to the centre to make a regular hexagon etc. The more challenging aspect of this activity is proving that it is indeed an equilateral triangle.Assuming the length of the blue side is 2x.The red line aligns with the blue side when the fold is made, so it is also 2x.In the right angled triangle shown, Opp is x and Hyp is 2x, therefore the angle shown is 30°
50Teacher notes: Equilateral Triangle Making the equilateral triangle is relatively straight-forward and can be used with all students during work with shape. Do they tessellate. Fold the vertices in to the centre to make a regular hexagon etc. The more challenging aspect of this activity is proving that it is indeed an equilateral triangle.Assuming the length of the blue side is 2x.The red line aligns with the blue side when the fold is made, so it is also 2x.In the right angled triangle shown, Opp is x and Hyp is 2x, therefore the angle shown is 30° and the other angle in the triangle must be 60°
51Teacher notes: Equilateral Triangle Looking at the grey kite, the fold line is a line of symmetry. This gives the angles shown. Since the angle sum of a quadrilateral is 360° the missing two angles must each be 60°.
52Teacher notes: Regular Pentagon The ‘top’ angle consists of a right angle and the angle shown. Since the interior angle of a pentagon is 108°, if the marked angle is 18° then it might be a regular pentagon, if it’s not 18° then it definitely isn’t regular.
53Teacher notes: Regular Pentagon The red line is created when the fold is made.
54Teacher notes: Regular Pentagon The dimensions of the triangle are as shown. Using Pythagoras’ theorem: (297-x)2 = 2102+x x+x2=x x = x = x= 74.26
55Teacher notes: Regular Pentagon The dimensions of the triangle are as shown. Using trigonometry: tan 𝜃= 𝜃=19.47° This means that the top angle is °, so the pentagon is not regular… despite the title of the activity!
56AcknowledgementsIdeas for ‘Square Folds’ fromImages from:Pythagoras activity from T. Sundara Row (1905) Geometric Exercises in Paper Folding.