Multiple outlet factor Christiansen's equation for computing the reduction coefficient (F) for pipes with multiple, equally spaced outlets where the first outlet is S l from the mainline is: F = Reduction factor N= number of sprinklers M= exponent depends on which friction equation is used
Caveats For pipes that have no flow past the last outlet (sprinkler) Cannot be directly applied to the estimation of friction losses only partway down the lateral pipe. Assumes that each outlet has a constant discharge, Equations are for use with laterals having nearly constant discharge per outlet, such as for hand lines, wheel-lines, solid set (fixed), and linear-move systems. The value of F approaches 0.36 when N > 35, which is often the case with sprinkler laterals.
Applying Irrigation Water in Circles (vs. squares) Why it’s a little trickier? In a rectangular system each sprinkler applies water to an Identically sized Area (A) In a circular system the area increases as the radius increases Hence, each sprinkler applies water to a differently sized Area (A) 1432 A1 = A2 = A3 = A4 A1 < A2 < A3 < A4 1 243
Center pivot reduction factor Outlet discharge varies with distance from the center pivot Flow rate in the pipe decreases more slowly at the upstream end Average velocity along the length of the lateral is higher. F value is higher on a center-pivot lateral than on laterals for other types of sprinkler systems For center pivot F = 0.555 (> than 35 sprinklers)
Friction loss Hazen-Williams Equation Q=Flow rate (gpm) D=Pipe diameter (in) L= Pivot length (ft) F = Friction Reduction factor h f =Friction loss (ft)
Hydraulic length No flow past the last outlet ◦ End gun? L h = Hydraulic length (ft) L = Base pivot length (ft) Q b = base pivot flow rate (gpm) Q g = end gun flow rate (gpm)
Friction loss Hazen-Williams Equation Q=Flow rate (gpm) D=Pipe diameter (in) L h = Pivot length (ft) F = Friction Reduction factor h f =Friction loss (ft)