Presentation on theme: "Ashfia Huq 1, P.W. Stephens 1, Naceur Ayed 2, Housam Binous 2, Miroslav Papiz 3 and Manolis Pantos 3 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University."— Presentation transcript:
Ashfia Huq 1, P.W. Stephens 1, Naceur Ayed 2, Housam Binous 2, Miroslav Papiz 3 and Manolis Pantos 3 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY11794-38002, USA 2 Institut National des Sciences Appliquées et de la Technologie, Centre Urbain Nord, BP 676 1080 Tunis, Tunisia. 3 Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD, UK. Natural antique colorants include red pigments such as cinnabar and ochre and pink pigments such as madder. These archaeological pigments have been used as ritual and cosmetic make- up and they are a material proof of handcraft activities and trade in the Mediterranean. The pigments were discovered during different excavations in archaeological sites of Tunisia (Carthage, Kerkouane, Bekalta, Bouaarada and elsewhere). ELEMENTAL AND MINERALOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PUNIC MAKE-UP
800-909: Expansion of Islam and establishment of the Aghlabid Dynasty. 909-1159: Fatimid and Zirides dynasties. 1159-1230: Almohads unify the Maghreb countries and Moslem Andalusia. 1230-1574: The Hafsids break away from Almohads and establish new dynasty based in Tunis. 1574: Tunisia becomes part of the Ottoman Empire. 1705-1881: Husseinite Dynasty. 1881-1956: French Protectorate. 1956 (20 March): Independence from France. 1957 (25 July): Proclamation of the Republic. Habib Bourguiba becomes first President of Independent Tunisia. 1959 (1st June): Adoption of the first Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia. 814 BC: Foundation of Carthage by Phoenician settlers led by Queen Dido. 264 BC to 146 BC: The Punic Wars: Three wars with Rome, including elephant- mounted expedition by Hannibal across the Alps (218-202 BC,) end with the defeat of Carthage. 146 BC-439: Establishment of the first Roman Colony, Africa, and its attachment to the Roman Empire. 439: Takeover of Carthage by the Vandals. 533: Takeover of Carthage by the Byzantines. 647-698: Advent of the Arab- Islamic period. Foundation of Kairouan by Oqba lbn Nafaa (670), and takeover of Carthage by the Arabs (698). A BRIEF HISTORY OF TUNISIA
OBJECTIVES Characterization of this archaeological pigments in their archaeological context. Creation of a database. Because of Punic wars with the Romans, there is little material proof of the Punic civilization when compared with other civilizations. Identification of these materials can possibly explain exchanges with other civilizations. Find differentiation criteria to avoid the confusion between ochre and cinnabar often found in the literature. Differentiate between make-up used before death (cosmetic make-ups) and a make-up used to vivify the dead (replace the dead person's blood). This practice was used in different periods and regions of the world (palaeolithic to bronze age). An unction was applied on the face and the forehead of the dead using cinnabar or ochre. These red materials can be called mourning reds.Traces of red pigmentation of bones and particularly skulls implies that this ritual was extremely frequent in Punic and Roman periods (also at earlier periods). A study of these red pigments found isolated or on bones will allow us to differentiate them from cosmetic make-up (madder-based make-up) on the basis of consistency, purity and texture.
Left: Data obtained from Beamline X3B at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source using stepping mode, high resolution powder diffraction. Right: 2D data obtained at station 9.6 of the Daresbury SRS using a CCD detector. The CCD data allows a fast (30-300sec) survey of mineral content, crystalline size and texture while the HRPD data is essential for quantitative phase analysis by means of Rietveld refinement. Normally, a ritual make-up does not require a specific and sophisticated preparation and formulation while a cosmetic make-up needs a particular attention and formulation. In fact, the colorant is present at low concentrations in a calcium sulfate or silico-aluminate charge. In addition, cosmetic make-up requires additional manipulations such as heating and casting (for instance, the pink make-up was prepared into a conical shape and was cast in a marine shell).
2D diffraction pattern of pigment B2 with the capillary static. Cinnabar and Quartz are the main ingredients of pigment B2. The cinnabar diffraction rings are fine and continuous, indicating a very small particle size.
Conclusions Ten punic make-up samples were studied with SR-XRD using a 2D CDD detector and high angular resolution powder diffraction. Four samples (B1, B2, B3 and FCC5) contain quartz and cinnabar while four other samples (B10, FCC4, FCC6 and OCRB) contain quartz and hematite. The presence of quartz is probably due to sand/clay from the excavation area. These results are similar to what would be obtained from raw materials indicating that these eight samples were not subject to any preparation by the Carthaginians. These eight samples were used as ritual make-up. However, the last two samples (FCC2 and C41C) showed an amorphous background, their preparation required sophisticated techniques corresponding to cosmetic make-up; they contain purpurin as major pigment which is formulated in a similar fashion as a lacquer.