An Ancient Prophecy A darkness will settle on the people of Cambodia. There will be houses but no people in them, roads but not travelers; the land will be ruled by barbarians with no religion; blood will run so deep as to touch the belly of the elephant. Only the deaf and mute will survive. The Lost Executioner bv Nic Dunlop
Cambodia Size: 69,898 Sq. Miles. Slightly smaller than Oklahoma. Population: 14 Million (90% Khmer, 5% Vietnamese, 1% Chinese). Arable Land: 20.44% Median Age: 21. Life Expectancy: 57M/62F Religion: Theravada Buddhist. GDP/capita: $1,800.00
Government/Economy Form: Constitutional Monarchy. System: Parliamentary bicameral. P.M.- Hun Sen Capital: Phnom Penh Resources: Timber, gem stones, coastal oil & natural gas. (2005) Industry: Garment Manufacture & Tourism. Agriculture: Rice, rubber, corn, cashews, tapioca & cardamom. King Norodom Sihamoni, son of Norodom Sihanouk, assumed throne in 2004. He was trained as a ballet dancer. No heir.
Questions Q1. How large is Cambodia? What is its population? What is the nationality and religion of most of the population? A1. Cambodia is about the size of Oklahoma. Its population is 14 million. 90%+ of the people are Khmer and Theravada Buddhist. Q2. What is the form of government? Where is the capital? A2. Constitutional monarchy. The capital is Phnom Penh.
More Questions Q3. What proportion of the Cambodian population is under 21 years of age? A3. One half or 7 million. Why? Q4. What industry has recently provided the greatest boost to the Cambodian GNP? A4. The garment industry. Q5.What country is Cambodia’s largest export customer? A5. The USA with over 51%.
Earliest Civilization Human remains - 1500 BC. Major Indian cultural influences: a.Agriculture: Cattle-raising and rice cultivation. b.Religion: Hinduism with Shiva/phallic worship. Later, Buddhism. c.Government: Concept of monarchy – Deva-raja. d.Language: a.At the Royal Court: Sanskrit aural & written. b.In the country side: aural and written Khmer of the common people.
Pre-Colonial Kingdoms Funan - 1 st thru 6 th Century Chenla – 6 th to 8 th Century Water (Lower) Chenla – 706 to 802 Angkor/Kambujia – 9 th to 15 th Century Phonom Penh/Lovek – 1432 to 1863 French Protectorate – 1863 to 1887
Funan Earliest kingdom - 1 st – 6 th Century. Mon-Khmer. Capital: Ba Phnom Major port: Oc Eo. Described in Chinese records by K’ang T’ai. Composed of costal areas from Nha Trang on the S.China Sea to the Upper Malay Peninsula
Oc Eo Gold coin from Oc Eo, a major port of the kingdom of Funan. Oc Eo may have been known to the Romans as Kattigara. It’s in Ptolemy’s geography and may have influenced Columbus.
Chenla Chenla was a vassal state of Funan. It became an independent in 550 CE. King Ishanavarman conquered Funan during 612-628. During the next three centuries, Chenla annexed central and lower Laos and southern Thailand. In the 8 th Century, factional disputes led to it becoming two states in 706: Land (Upper) Chenla and Water (Lower) Chenla.
Water Chenla During the late 8 th Century, Water (Lower) Chenla suffered repeated attacks by pirates from Java, Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. In the 9 th Century, it became a vassal state of Sailendra (Java). In 790, the king of Water Chenla was killed by the Javanese monarch whom he had offended, leading to a power vacuum. The king of a small Khmer state north of the Mekong Delta assumed the throne as Jayavarman II (r.802-850) This was the beginning of the Angor Kingdom.
The Devaraja Cult In 802, Jayavarman II proclaimed himself god-king of Cambodia. He did so through a Hindu ritual involving worship of Shiva, king of the gods. A royal cult developed, involved an annual festival during which a statue of Shiva was paraded thru the capital city. The ceremony not only proclaimed the devaraja but Cambodia’ permanent separation from Java. Ritually sanctifying a symbol of the devaraja.
Questions Q1. What three kingdoms composed Cambodia’s earliest (pre-Angkorian) history? A1. Funan, Chenla and Water Chenla. Q2. What country provided the dominant cultural influence for these early kingdoms? A2. India. Q3. What evidence do we have of Funan’s existence and role as an entrepot? A3. Chinese records, Ptolemy’s geography and the archeological remains, e.g., Oc Eo.
More Questions Q4. What was the impact of the collapse of the Roman empire on Funan? A4. Contributed to Funan’s collapse. Why? Q5. What happened to Land (Upper) Chenla? Q5. It became Laos, eventually. Q6. What SEAsian country dominated Water Chenla? A6. Sailandra/Java. Q7. Name the king who initiated the move to Angkor. His coronation involved what cult? A7. Jayavarman II. Shiva/Devaraja.
Angkor/Kambuja Angor or Kambuja - late 9 th to late 15 th Centuries. From 802 to 1471, it was the mightiest kingdom in S.E. Asia, receiving tribute from its neighbors. Indravarman I (A.D. 877-89) extended control to the Korat Plateau and began a program of constructing reservoirs and canals to provide irrigation for wet rice cultivation. The Angkor complex is north of the Tonle Sap and the modern city of Sien Reap. The location provided protection from Javanese incursions.
Angkor Wat Suryavarman II (1113-50) built Angkor Wat. He expanded the kingdom’s territory thru successful wars with Champa, Nam Viet, the Mons in Burma and Thai people, who he reduced to vassalage. Thirty years later the Cham revenged their losses by destroying the city of Angkor in 1177. Angkor Wat is the largest religious edifice in the world and the greatest architectural work in Southeast Asia.
Angkor Wat Complex The Angkor Wat complex was dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu and reflects the structure of the Hindu mythological universe. The five towers at the center represent the peaks of Mount Meru, the center of the universe; the outer walls represent the mountains that ring the world’s edge; and the moat depicts the cosmic ocean. The Angkor Wat complex as seen from the air.
Angkor Thom Angkor Thom was built by Jayavarman VII (r.1181-1218) following the expulsion of the Cham. It was a governmental complex. The statuary and relief carvings are Mahayana Buddhist rather than Hindu. They depict Buddha's, gods and kings. Jayavarman VII also built 200 rest houses and hospitals and maintained a system roads between the capital and provincial towns. A Thai army captured Angkor Thom in 1431. Angkor Thom South Gate
Bayon Angkorian society was strictly hierarchical. The king was divine and owned both the land and his subject. The Brahman priesthood and about 4,000 official were below the monarch and his family and administered the country. The commoners bore the burden of corvee labor. There was also a large slave class that built the monuments. Bayon is a Buddhist temple. It was built in the Angkor Thom complex in the 12 th & 13 th Century. 216 faces of Buddhas, gods and kings are carved into the stone. The central face is that of Jayavarman VII.
Questions Q1. Why did Jayavarman II move the capital of Cambodia to the Angkor area? A1. To find a safer location. Q2. What was the source of Angkorian wealth? A2. Agriculture. Wet rice cultivation made possible through the construction of reservoirs and canals. Q3. To what god was Angor Wat dedicated? What did its design reflect? A3. The Hindu god, Vishnu. Its design reflected the Hindu mythological universe.
More Questions Q4. What country conquered Angkor in 1177? A4. Champa. Q5. Bayon was built as part of what complex? Whose face is carved in the temple? A5. Angkor Thom. Jayavarman VII. Q6. Angkor Thom reflects what religious tradition? A6. Mahayana Buddhism.
Cambodia’s Dark Ages From 1432 to 1887, was a period of economic, social and cultural stagnation together with increasing Thai and Vietnamese encroachment and control. The capital was moved to near Phnom Penh after the capture of Angkor Thom in 1431, giving the Khmers control over trade along the Mekong and Tonle Sap. Sample of relief carvings on Angkor Wat. These are devatas, Hindu guardian spirits, usually female.
Western Contact King Ang Chan (1516-66) moved the capital north along the Tonle Sap to Lovek in 1553. Lovek became the site of the flourishing foreign trade, including the Portuguese & Spanish and later Dutch & English. Thai pressure led Khmer King Sattha (1576-94) to ask the Spanish governor of the the Philippines for aid in 1593. The Spanish saw this as an opportunity to establish a protectorate and sent a 120 man force. It was too late. The Thai had captured Lovek in 1594.
French Protectorate Under King Norodom, Cambodia became a French protectorate in 1863 to avoid Thai and Vietnamese encroachment. The treaty provided French protection in exchange for permission for a French “resident” plus rights of exploration along the Mekong and exploitation of natural resources. The Thai relinquished their influence in exchange for the Provinces of Battambang & Siem Reap in 1867. French dominion in Vietnam (1862) & Cambodia (1863).
Questions Q1. Which country conquered Angkor Thom in 1431 leading to Cambodia’s “Dark Age.” A1. Thailand. Q2. To where was the Cambodian capital moved in 1432? A2. Phnom Penh. Q3. The movement of the capital to what location in 1532 led to flourishing foreign trade with western nations? A3. Lovek.
More Questions Q4. In 1593, the king of Cambodia asked the colonial governor of what country for aid? A4. The Philippines. Q5. Why did King Norodom seek French protection in 1863? A5. Fear of Thai and Vietnamese encroachment. Q6. In 1867, what induced Thailand to relinquish its influence in Cambodia to the French? A6. The “gift” of the provinces of Batambang and Siem Reap.
French Indochina France proclaimed the Union of Indochina in 1887. It included Laos, Tonkin, Annam and Cochinchina in addition to Cambodia. The extent of French control in Cambodia was determined thru an 1884 treaty and a declaration in 1897. It was a rare example of direct rule.
Direct Rule The 1884 treaty was imposed by gun boat diplomacy. It required the abolition of slavery, instituted private land ownership, and established of French residents in provincial cities. In 1897, the resident declared King Norodom incompetent and received permission from France to assume the king's authority to issue decrees, collect taxes, and appoint royal officials in his name.
Cambodian Resistance King Norodom stymied the enforcement of the 1884 treaty reforms until his death in 1904. Norodom’s son, Prince Yukanthor, was highly critical of the French administration during his travels in Europe in the 1890’s. Yukanthor’s attitude reflected the feelings of many Cambodians when he said to the French people “You have created property in Cambodia, and thus you have created the poor.”
Cambodian Resistance King Sisowath proved more cooperative. Nevertheless, the country remained mired in patronage, violence, fatalism, corruption, inefficiency and banditry. The Cambodians felt threatened by change, especially modernization. The French administration focused on rice, rubber and efficient tax collection. They increasingly relied upon immigrant Chinese and Vietnamese for labor and local administration.
1916 Affair and Murder The French convinced themselves that all was well in the provinces, ignoring unexpressed feelings in an unvarying calm. –The 1916 Affair involved 100,000+/- peasants converging in groups on Phnom Penh to petition the King for lower taxes. –The murder in 1925 of the French Resident, Felix Louis Bardez, in a village in Kompong Chhnang should have been more predictable.
Free Khmer Movement Son Ngoc Thanh was the leader of the Free Khmer Movement. –He founded the first Khmer- language newspaper in Phnom Penh, Nagaravatta in 1936. –He was a leader in the Buddhist Institute of Phnom Penh. –In 1945, he organized the Khmer Issarak with 2,000 armed volunteers. –He returned from exile in France to actively campaigned against Cambodia being part of the French Union in 1951-52 and founded a second newspaper, Khmer Krok. Son Ngoc Thanh
1942 Monk Demonstration In 1942, a 1,000 persons + (half monks) marched in Phnom Penh demanding the release of a monk arrested for allegedly plotting against the French. The leader of the demonstration was Pach Chhoeum, who was sentenced to life in prison for presenting the French resident superior with a petition demanding the monk’s release. Son Ngoc Than who planned the demonstrations escaped to Thailand and eventually Tokyo. The Japanese anti-colonial attitude may have encouraged the demonstrations.
Questions Q1. What territorial entities composed the French Union? A1. Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina Laos and Cambodia. Q2. What were the reforms required by the treaty the French imposed on Cambodia in 1884? When were they enforced? A2. Aboliton of slavery, private land ownership and provincial French residents. After King Norodom’s death in 1904.
More Questions Q3. What was so shocking to the French about the 1916 Affair? A3. There was no prior warning of dissatisfaction. Q4. What led to Resident Bardez’s murder in 1925? A4. His attempt to publicly humiliate Cambodians from whom he was trying to collect taxes. Q5. Who was the leader of the Free Khmer movement? A5. Son Ngoc Thanh.
Still More Questions Q6. What sentence did the French impose on Pach Chhoeum for his role in the Monk’s Demonstration? A6. Life in prison.
Norodom Sihanouk During his reign, Cambodia became a constitutional monarch (1947) and achieved limited autonomy as part of the French Union (1949). He became a highly sympathetic figure and a much loved monarch and hero. In 1953, he conducted a “Crusade for Independence,” visiting Paris, Washington and New York before going into self-imposed exile in Bangkok. It was only by granting complete independence that the French were able to induce him to return. King/Prince Norodom Sihanouk (b.1922; r. 1941-55, 1993-2004)
Geneva Accords Dien Bien Phu fell in May 1954 leading to collapse of support by the French public for the war against the Viet Minh. A peace conference involving all of Indochina was held in Geneva. The conference produced the Geneva Accords in July 1954. Under the accords: –a. The French and Vietnamese ceased hostilities. –b. Vietnam was divided into North and South, the Viet Minh withdrew to the North and the French withdrew their forces from Indochina. –c. All former French colonies in Indochina were declared independent.
Keeping Cambodia Independent With respect to Cambodia, the Geneva Accords specified: –The withdrawal of all Viet Minh forces in 90 days. –Demobilization of Cambodian resistance forces in 30 days. –Withdrawal of all French and Vietnamese forces by October 1954. Cambodia refused to accept the demand of absolute and complete neutrality as the price of the withdrawal of Vietnamese forces from its territory.
Sihanouk Abdicates Sihanouk resigned on March 2, 1955 in favor of his father, Norodom Suramarit, and took the title “Prince” so that he could directly participate in politics. Sihanouk formed the Sangkum Reastr Niyum (Popular Socialist Community), aka, Sangkum to combat Son Ngoc Thanh’s Khmer Independence party and the leftists “Citizen’s Party. The Sangkum party won 83% of the vote.
Sangkum Party Platform Sihanouk’s ideology was expressed in the Sangkum platform. –Nationalism. –Loyalty to the monarchy. –Struggle against injustice and corruption. –Protection of Theravada Buddhism. –Karma as an explanation of social and economic inequalities and hope for the next life.
Sihanouk’s Policies Sihanouk was suspicious of U.S. intentions and considered Red China to be a valuable ally. His admiration of China led to “royal socialism:” Nationalized Banking and Insurance. Created National Export-Import Corporation. He opened the Sangkum to multiple candidates. A surge in conservative votes resulted and Lon Nol became Prime Minister in 1966 and again in 1969. Lon Nol (1913-85)
Questions Q1. Why did Cambodia refuse to accept demands for its absolute neutrality at the 1954 Geneva Conference? A1. It would have compromised Cambodia’s sovereignty and right of self-defense. Q2. Under which king did Cambodia become a constitutional monarchy (1947) and achieve independence (1953)? A2. King Norodom Sihanouk
More Questions Q3. Why did Norodom Sihanouk resign as king in 1955? A3. He wanted to participate in politics. Q4. What political party did Prince Sihanouk establish? A4. Sangkum Reastr Niyum (Popular Socialist Community), aka, Sangkum.
And More Questions Q5. What was Sangkum’s explanation for social and economic inequality? A5. Karma. Q6. What led Sihanouk to indulge in “royal socialism?” A6. Sihanouk’s admiration for Maoist China. Q7. How did Lon Nol become Prime Minister? A7. Sihanouk opened Sangkum to multiple candidates leading to a rise in the conservative vote. Lon Nol was backed by the military.
Nonaligned Foreign Policy In the 1960’s, Sihanouk sought to play one power against another to retain Cambodia’s independence. –1954 – Considered but rejected joining SEATO. –1955 – Accepted U.S. military aid and a MAAG. –1963 – Expelled the MAAG and severed relations with Saigon in favor of Hanoi and the NFLSVN. –1965 – Severed diplomatic relations with the U.S. –1966 _ Sihanouk agreed to a PAVN/ NLF Base area in Cambodia and the use of the port at Sihanoukville. –1967 – Signaled no objection to U.S. hot pursuit of communist forces and bombing. –1969 – Reestablished diplomatic relations with U.S.
Lon Nol’s Coup d’etat On March 18, 1970, Lon Nol staged a coup d’etat, ousting Prince Sihanouk as head of state. He established close ties with the U.S. and SVN and agreed to their forces operating on Cambodian territory. In October 1970, he declared Cambodia a republic, ending the monarchy. Pitted FANK against PAVN/NFL forces. Sihanouk sought refuge in China and aligned himself with the Khmer Rouge.
The War In Cambodian The PAVN/NLF’s base area grew to encompass about 1/4 th of Cambodia. –The area was secretly bombed by B-52’s under the “Menu Series” from March 1969 to May 1970. –The ground incursion involved 30,000 U.S. & ARVN troops and lasted from May thru July 1970. Huge amounts of equipment and supplies were destroyed, but COSVN headquarters was never found. –U.S. air operations continued in Cambodian into 1973. President Richard Nixon explained the April 1970 incursion of U.S. ground forces into Cambodia in terms of a future withdrawal from SEA.
Impact of War on Cambodia All told, 539,129 tons of ordinance were dropped in Cambodia. As many as 600,000 Cambodians were killed. The popularity of Khmer Rouge forces increase. Khmer Rouge forces grew to 100,000. By 1973, the Khmer Rouge controlled 60% of Cambodian territory and 25% of its population. In 1975, Phnom Penh fell and “Year Zero” was declared.
Questions Q1.Who agreed to the use of Cambodian territory and ports by the PAVN/NLF? Why was the decision later reversed? A1. Prince Sihanouk. Cambodia was loosing control of its own country to an ancient enemy. Q2. What was SEATO? A2. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization formed in 1954 as a military alliance for the protection of SEA. Q3. What is a MAAG? A3. Military Assistance Advisory Group.
More Questions Q4. Who ended the Cambodian monarchy? A4. Lon Nol. Q5. Where did Sihanouk seek refuge following the coup d’etate in 1970? A5. China, where he was graciously received. Q6. What was the Menu Series. A6. The US bombing of Cambodia in 1969-70. Q7. What were the long and short term results of the incursion into Cambodia? A7. Delayed the fall of Vietnam but further destabilized Cambodia.
Pol Pot Born in 1925 to a wealthy farm family. Sent to Phnom Penh in 1935. Lived in royal household. Sister was a concubine to the King. Attended French schools. Won a scholarship to France in 1949. Joined the Communist Party. Lost his scholarship and returned home. In 1963, was elected leader of Khmer Communist Party (KCP, aka, Angka). The Khmer Rouge became its military. In 1965, he traveled to NVN and China. In 1975, captured Phnom Penh; imposed radical agrarian collectivization. Saloth Sar, aka, Pol Pot or Brother #1
Fall of Phnom Penh Over 2.5 million persons fled to Phnom Penh from the Khmer Rouge. Food and supplies became scarce and resupply on the Mekong was blocked. After the fall of Phnom Penh, the entire city was forcibly evacuated within days including hospital patients. Other major cities met the same fate. The goal was to create a nation of peasant farmers. The people were told to leave their homes open and that they would only be gone for two or three days. Instead, most never returned; they were worked to death on communal farms.
Evacuation of Cities The decision to evacuate the cities was secretly made before the liberation of Phnom Phenh. According to David Chandler: –The capital was genuinely short of food. –Difficulty was expected in controlling several million persons who had not supported the revolution. –DK leaders were fearful for their own security. –Desire to transform society thru radical collectivization and assert the dominance of the countryside poor over counterrevolutionary cities. –Wish to create a rice surplus to earn hard currency and finance industrialization.
Khmer Rouge Rule Renamed Cambodia as Democratic Kampuchea (DK) and “Year Zero” declared. Attempted to instantly transform country into an agrarian utopia of rural collectives. Abolished money, private property and religion. Tortured and killed all intellectuals & the educated. Totally isolated the country from the outside. Special prisons were set up to torture and execute the educated middle classes. 17,000 died in Toul Sleng (S21), a converted school.
The Killing Fields The remains of 16,000 persons were exhumed from the killing fields at Choeung Ek in 1980. It was the first indication of just how terrible the Khmer Rouge rule had been.
Guiding Principals “One death is a tragedy – a million a statistic.” Joseph Stalin “Better to destroy ten innocent people than let one enemy go free.” Khmer Rouge slogan
Questions Q1. Who was Pol Pot? A1. Pol Pot, aka, Saloth Sar, aka, Brother #1 was the leader of the Khmer Communist Party (Angkar) and the Khmer Rouge. Q2. What happened to the residents of Phnom Penh when the city fell to the Khmer Rouge? A2. Phnom Penh and all other major cities were totally evacuated in a matter of days. The residents were sent into the countryside to work as slave labor. About 1.7 million died.
More Questions Q3. What was Pol Pot’s principal objective in evacuating the cities? A3. Pol Pot sought to instantly create an agrarian Utopia thru radical collectivization. Q4. What groups were targeted for extermination by the Khmer Rouge? A4. Intellectuals, the educated, professional people such as teachers, doctors and lawyers.
Cambodian – Vietnamese War The Vietnamese invasion began on December 25, 1974 and ended the rule of the Khmer Rouge. The Vietnamese withdrew in 1989. Causes of the war: –The ideological split among Communist parties. Russia backed Vietnam. China backed Cambodia. –Long existing animosity between Vietnamese and Cambodians leading to distrust and suspicion. –Khmer Rouge demand that the Mekong Delta and territorial waters (oil discovered) be returned. –Khmer attacks on Vietnamese in border areas starting with the massacre of civilians on Phu Quoc and Tho Chu Islands and subsequent counterattacks.
Vietnamese Invasion Phnom Penh fell to the Vietnamese in January 1979, two weeks after the invasion was launched on December 25. The Vietnamese occupied the cities; the Khmer Rouge controlled the countryside. The war deteriorated into a guerrilla action. Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge took refuge in the jungle along the Thai border. Sihanouk returned to exile in China.
Heng Samrin Heng Samrin was elected as president of the Khmer National United Front for National Salvation (KNUFNS) in 1978. It was in the name of the KNUFNS that Vietnam justified its invasion of Cambodia. He was the Khmer Rouge Eastern Zone commander until he defected to the Vietnamese and became the puppet leader of Cambodia during 1978 –1979. Heng Samrin, born 1934.
The Occupation Khmer Rouge rule had decimated the Cambodian population. Only half of the 10 million persons population remained. The Vietnamese-installed government took the name People’s Republic of Kampuchea (PRK). Under it, a semblance of normalcy returned. –A market system was reestablished. –Piped water and electricity were made available. –Marriage and family restrictions were ended. –Forced collectives were abolished. –Schools were opened and universal primary education mandated.
Hun Sen Hun Sen became prime minister of Cambodia in 1985 and still holds that office. Hun Sen had been a Khmer Rouge regimental commander in the Eastern Zone when he defected to the Vietnamese. He become Foreign Minister of the Peoples Republic of Kampuchea in 1979. In 1985 he became both Foreign Minister and P.M. and was a principal negotiator at the Paris Peace Talks in 1989-91. Hun Sen. Prime Minister of Cambodia from 1985 to present. Born in 1952 to a peasant family. Joined the Communist resistance as a teenager out of loyalty to Prince Sihanouk.
Western Foreign Policy The foreign policy of the U.S. and its allies toward the Khmer Rouge during the time of the Vietnamese occupation can be summarized as “ My enemy’s enemy is my friend.” –Supported retention of U.N. seat by the DK. –Provided aid and training directly and indirectly to non-communist and DK forces.
Vietnamese Withdrawal The Vietnamese withdrew their forces from Cambodia in 1989. A civil war followed involving four factions. –a. The Vietnamese-installed government of the State of Cambodia (SOC), led by Hun Sen. –b. The communist Democratic Kampuchea (DK - commonly known as the Khmer Rouge). –c. The noncommunist Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) led by Son Sann. –d. The noncommunist United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), aka, the Sihanoukists led by Prince Ranarridh.
Questions Q1.What was the principal reason for the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1979? A1. Territorial aggression by Cambodia. Q2. Why did Vietnam withdraw from Cambodia in 1989? A2. There are many reasons: a. Stalemated war; b. Expected withdrawal of Russian funds; c. Interest in normalization of relations with the U.S., China and ASEAN. Q3. What caused Heng Samrin and Hun Sen to defect to the Vietnamese? A3. A failed rebellion and threatened purge.
More Questions Q4. Why was finding qualified officials to run the Vietnamese occupation government so difficult? A4. The Khmer Rouge had killed anyone with the qualifications to do so. Q5. Why did the U.S. back the Khmer Rouge during the Vietnamese occupation? A5. A couple of reasons: a. Nixon’s visit to China caused a realignment in the Cold War with Russia backing Vietnam and China backing the Khmer Rouge; b. The Khmer Rouge formed a buffer between the Vietnamese occupation and Thailand.
UNTAC A peace agreement was reached in Paris in 1991. The four warring Cambodian factions agreed to form a Supreme National Council (SNC) for the period of the transition to peace. The chairman was Prince Sihanouk. The SNC delegated to the United Nations Transitional Authority (UNTAC) all powers necessary to achieve a ceasefire, conduct general elections, administer the country, maintain law & order and repatriate refugees. An UNTAC peacekeeper in 1993.
UNTAC Contingent UNTAC mission in Cambodia lasted from 2/92 to 9/93. The Chief of Mission was Yasushi Akashi (Japan). Lt Gen John Sanderson (Australia) was military commander. 45 nations contributed 15,547 troops, 893 observers, 3, 500 police, 1,149 civilian staff and 465 UN volunteers. The operation cost $1.6 billion and 82 lives. Australia contributed a 502-person Force Communications Unit plus a unit of 6 helicopters and 115 troops
The Elections UNTAC’s success depended on the voluntary cooperation of all factions. It was not forthcoming. Yet, the elections were declared free and fair. –The Khmer Rouge refused to disarm, blocked inspections of their area, withdrew from the election process and renewed terrorist activities. –The cease-fire broke down into low level civil conflict. –The Cambodian Peoples Party (CPP) led by Hun Sen and the Sihanoukists led by Prince Ranarridh actually conducted an active election campaign. –90% of the 4 million eligible voted.
Winners and Losers FUNCINPEC Sihanoukists won 45% of the vote and 57 seats in the National Assembly. Hun Sen’s CCP won 38.2% of the vote and 51 seats in the National Assembly. Prince Ranarridh and Hun Sen were designated co-prime ministers after latter threatened civil war. The Khmer Rouge was kept out of the assembly and executive branch. Sihanouk was named King once again, but soon left the country for cancer treatment.
Questions Q1. What powers did the Supreme National Council (SNC) delegate to the United Nations Transitional Authority for Cambodia UNTAC)? A1. All powers necessary to achieve a cease fire, administer the country, maintain order, repatriate refuges and conduct general elections. Q2. When did UNTAC withdraw its forces? A2. In November 1993, when the elections were over and declared free and fair.
More Questions Q3. What was the principal obstacle to UNTAC’s mission? A3. The Khmer Rouge’s failure cooperate; its withdrawal from the election process and continuing terrorist activities. Q4. What was the outcome of the UNTAC supervised elections? A4. FUNCINPEC received 45% of the vote; CPP received 38.2%. Hun Sen and Prince Ranarridh became co- prime ministers. The Khmer Rouge was excluded from the government.
Hun Sen’s Coup d’etat The existence of the co-prime ministership led to bitter rivalry compounded by continued Khmer Rouge terrorism. On July 6, 1997, the coup took place. Hun Sen replaced Prince Ranarridh while he was out of the country with Ung Huot (the foreign minister) as co-p.m. FUNCINPEC supporters were assassinated or placed under house arrest.
The End of the Khmer Rouge Pol Pot was found in 1997 and tried by a Khmer Rouge “people tribunal.” He was sentenced to house arrest and died in 1998. The Khmer Rouge had become factionalized and its strength dissipated. By 1999, most Khmer Rouge leaders had surrendered. In 2001, UN demands for trials to deal with war criminals eventually overcame Hun Sen’s opposition and the National Assembly agreed to a tribunal. Pol Pot in 1997.
Genocide Tribunal Establishing a tribunal was a torturous process. –1997 – The UN recommended an international court to conduct genocide trials. –2000- The UN and Cambodia agreed on a mixed court. –2001 – Cambodia passed a law giving legal status to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC). –2002 – The scope of the trials were limited to senior Khmer leaders and crimes committed between 1975 and 1979. –By 2006, a total of 12 foreign judges & prosecutors were selected plus 17 Cambodian judges & prosecutors. –2007 – The first actual trial commenced.
Duch, aka, Kang Dech Eav Duch was the first defendant before the mixed tribunal in 2007. Duch was the commandant of the Toul Sleng prison complex. He was responsible for the torture, mutilation and death of 14,000. In 1996, Duch was drawn to a missionary church and in 1999 accepted Christ. Why?
Others Facing Genocide Trials Ieng Sary and his wife were arrested in 2007 on charges of crimes against humanity. They are scheduled to face the tribunal in 2008. Ieng Sary was Pol Pot’s brother- in-law. They studied in France together and joined the French Communist Party. He was granted a pardon by Sihanouk in 1996 and lived very comfortably in Phnom Penh. Ieng Sary, former DK Foreign Minister
Questions Q1. How did Hun Sen become sole Prime minister of Cambodia? A1. He staged a coup in 1997 while Prince Ranarridh was out of the country. Q2. What organization tried Pol Pot for his war crimes? A2. The Khmer Rouge in 1997 under Ta Mok, who had been his chief of staff. Q3. Who was the first person to be tried before the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts of Cambodia? A3. Duch, aka, Kang Dech Eav in 2007.
The Future Positive Factors: –Newly discovered oil and gas reserves. Estimated income of $1 Billion per year starting in 2009/2010. –Tourism and Casinos –Garment Industry –Stable foreign relations Negative Factors: –Tradition of graft and corruption –Loss of a generation. –Few educated leaders and professionals.