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Chapter 8 Register Transfer Level. Content Register Transfer Level (RTL) RTL in HDL Algorithmic State Machines (ASM) Design Example HDL Description of.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Register Transfer Level. Content Register Transfer Level (RTL) RTL in HDL Algorithmic State Machines (ASM) Design Example HDL Description of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Register Transfer Level

2 Content Register Transfer Level (RTL) RTL in HDL Algorithmic State Machines (ASM) Design Example HDL Description of Design Example Binary Multiplier Control Logic HDL Description of Binary Multiplier Design with Multiplexers

3 Register Transfer Level (RTL) Large Digital system design – modular approach modular :constructed from digital device, e.g. register, decoder, multiplexer etc. Register Transfer operation The information flow and processing perform on the data stored in register RTL is specified by the following three components: The set of register in the system The operation that are performed on the data stored in the register The control that supervises the sequence of operation in the system

4 Register Register is constructed from F.F. and gates 1 F.F. =>1 bit register N F.F. =>n bit resister Register can perform set, cleared, or complement

5 Data processing in register performed in parallel during one clock The result may replace previous data or transferred to another register For example counter Shift register

6 Statements of RTL Transfer: R2←R1 Conditional statement: if (T1=1) then(R2 ← R1) if(T1=1)then(R2 ← R1, R1 ← R2) Other R1 ←R1+R2 R3 ←R3+1 R4 ←shr R4 R5 ← 0

7 RTL in HDL Digital system can be described in RTL By means of HDL Verilog HDL RTL description use a combination of behavior and data flow

8 The transfer statement of Verilog HDL (without a clock) Continuous statement: Procedural assignment (without a clock):

9 The transfer statement of Verilog HDL (with a clock) Blocking: use “=” as transfer operator executed sequentially non-blocking: use “ <= ” as transfer operator executed on parallel

10 HDL operators Arithmetic :+ 、 - 、 * 、 / 、 % Logical:&& 、 || 、 ! Logic:& 、 | 、 ~ 、 ^ Bitwise or reduction Relational:> 、 = 、 <= True or false Shift: >> 、 << 、 {, }

11 Loop statement Repeat,Forever,While,For Must appear inside an initial or always block

12 Logic Synthesis The automatic process of transforming a high-level language description such as HDL into an optimized netlist of gates that perform the operations specified by the source code Designers adopt a vendor-specific style suitable for particular synthesis tools HDL constructs used in RTL description can be converted into gate-level description

13 Example of synthesis from HDL to gate structure Assign assign Y = S ? I1:I0 ; Is interpreted as a multiplexer of 2-to-1 always may imply a combinational or sequential circuit (I1 or I0 or S) if (S) Y=I1 ; else Y=I0 ; (posedge clock) (negedge clock)

14 Process of HDL simulation and synthesis

15 Algorithmic State Machine Logic design can be divided into two part The digital circuits that perform the data processing operation Control circuits that determines the sequence in which the various actions are performed

16 Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) A special flowchart that has been developed specifically to define digital hardware algorithms Resembles a conventional flowchart, but is interpreted somewhat differently. conventional: sequential ASM: sequence of even timing relationship between the states of sequential controller even occurs while going from one state to the next Three basic elements: state box, decision box, conditional box

17 State box FIGURE 8.3 ASM chart state box

18 Decision box FIGURE 8.4 ASM chart decision box

19 Conditional box FIGURE 8.5 ASM chart conditional box

20 ASM block

21 ASM chart and state diagram

22 Timing consideration Major difference between conventional flow chart and a ASM chart is in interpreting the time relation among the various operation ASM considers the entire block as one unit.

23 Design example Two F.F. E and F A 4-bits binary counter A (A4,A3,A2 and A1) A start signal S (starting by clearing A and F) S=1, increment counter A3 and A4 determine the sequences of operations  If A3 = 0, E is clear to 0, count continues  If A3 = 1,E is set to 1,then if A4 = 0, the count continues, but if A4 = 1, F is set to 1 on next clock pulse and system stops counting  Then if S = 0, the system remains in the initial state, but if S = 1, the operation cycle repeats.

24 ASM chart

25 Table 8-2

26 Datapath for Design Example

27 RTL Description

28 State table for control Two F.F. G1 and G2

29 Logic diagram of control

30 HDL Example 8-2 //RTL description of design example (Fig.8-11) module Example_RTL (S,CLK,Cir,E,F,A); //Specify inputs and outputs //See block diagram Fig input S,CLK,Cir; output E, F; output [4:1] A; //Specify system registers reg [4:1] A; //A register reg E, F; //E and F flip-flops reg [1:0] pstate, nstate; //control register //Encode the states parameter TO = 2'b00, Tl = 2'b01, T2 = 2'b11; //State transition for control logic //See state diagram Fig. 8-11(a) HDL Description

31 CLK or negedge Clr) if (~Clr) pstate = TO; //Initial state else pstate <= nstate; //Clocked operations (S or A or pstate) case (pstate) TO: if (S) nstate = Tl; else nstate = TO; Tl: if (A[3] & A[4]) nstate = T2; else nstate = Tl; T2: nstate = TO; endcase //Register transfer operations //See list of operation Fig.8-11(b) (posedge CLK) case (pstate) TO: if (S) begin A <= 4'bOOOO; F <= 1'bO; end Tl: begin A <= A + 1'b1; if (A[3]) E <= 1'bl; else E <= 1'b0; end T2: F <= I'bl; endcase endmodule

32 Testing the design description HDL Example 8-3 //Test bench for design example module test_design_example; reg S, CLK, Clr; wire [4:1] A; wire E, F; //Instantiate design example Example_RTL dsexp (S,CLK.Clr,E,F,A);

33 initial begin Cir = 0; S = 0; CLK = 0; #5 Clr = 1; S = 1; repeat (32) begin #5 CLK = ~ CLK; end initial $monitor("A = %b E = %b F = %b time = %0d". A.E.F,$time); endmodule


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