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Crossing the Chasm: Sneaking a parallel file system into Hadoop Wittawat Tantisiriroj Swapnil Patil, Garth Gibson PARALLEL DATA LABORATORY Carnegie Mellon.

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Presentation on theme: "Crossing the Chasm: Sneaking a parallel file system into Hadoop Wittawat Tantisiriroj Swapnil Patil, Garth Gibson PARALLEL DATA LABORATORY Carnegie Mellon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crossing the Chasm: Sneaking a parallel file system into Hadoop Wittawat Tantisiriroj Swapnil Patil, Garth Gibson PARALLEL DATA LABORATORY Carnegie Mellon University

2 In this work … Compare and contrast large storage system architectures Internet services High performance computing Can we use a parallel file system for Internet service applications? Hadoop, an Internet service software stack HDFS, an Internet service file system for Hadoop PVFS, a parallel file system Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/2

3 Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/3 Today’s Internet services Applications are becoming data-intensive Large input data set (e.g. the entire web) Distributed, parallel application execution Distributed file system is a key component Define new semantics for anticipated workloads –Atomic append in Google FS –Write-once in HDFS Commodity hardware and network –Handle failures through replication

4 The HPC world Equally large applications Large input data set (e.g. astronomy data) Parallel execution on large clusters Use parallel file systems for scalable I/O e.g. IBM’s GPFS, Sun’s Lustre FS, PanFS, and Parallel Virtual File System (PVFS) Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/4

5 Why use parallel file systems? Handle a wide variety of workloads High concurrent reads and writes Small file support, scalable metadata Offer performance vs. reliability tradeoff RAID-5 (e.g., PanFS) Mirroring Failover (e.g., LustreFS) Standard Unix FS interface & POSIX semantics pNFS standard (NFS v4.1) Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/5

6 Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/6 Outline  A basic shim layer & preliminary evaluation Three add-on features in a shim layer Evaluation

7 HDFS & PVFS: high level design Meta-data servers Store all file system metadata Handle all metadata operations Data servers Store actual file system data Handle all read and write operations Files are divided into chunks Chunks of a file are distributed across servers Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/7

8 PVFS shim layer under Hadoop Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/8

9 Preliminary Evaluation Text search (“grep”) common workloads in Internet service applications Search for a rare pattern in 100-byte records 64GB data set 32 nodes Each node serves as storage and compute nodes Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/9

10 Vanilla PVFS is disappointing … Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/ times slower

11 Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/11 Outline A basic shim layer & preliminary evaluation  Three add-on features in a shim layer Readahead buffer File layout information Replication Evaluation

12 Read operation in Hadoop Typical read workload: Small (less than 128 KB) Sequential through an entire chunk HDFS prefetches an entire chunk No cache coherence issue with its write-once semantic Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/12

13 Readahead buffer PVFS has no client buffer cache Avoid a cache coherence issue with concurrent writes Readahead buffer can be added to PVFS shim layer In Hadoop, a file can become immutable after it is closed No need for cache coherence mechanism Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/13

14 PVFS with 4MB buffer Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/14 still quite slow

15 Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/15 Outline A basic shim layer & preliminary evaluation  Three add-on features in a shim layer Readahead buffer File layout information Replication Evaluation

16 Collocation in Hadoop File layout information Describe where chunks are located Collocate computation and data Ship computation to where data is located Reduce network traffic Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/16

17 Hadoop without collocation Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/17 Node B Chunk 1 Node C Chunk 2 Node A Chunk 3 Chunk1Chunk2Chunk3 Computation Chunk1Chunk2Chunk3 Compute Node Storage Node 3 data transfers over network Chunk1Chunk2Chunk3

18 Hadoop with collocation Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/18 Node B Chunk 1 Node C Chunk 2 Node A Chunk 3 Chunk1Chunk2Chunk3 Chunk1Chunk2Chunk3 Compute Node no data transfer over network Chunk1Chunk3Chunk2 Computation Storage Node

19 Expose file layout information File layout information in PVFS Stored as extended attributes Different format from Hadoop format A shim layer converts file layout information from PVFS format to Hadoop format Enable Hadoop to collocate computation and data Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/19

20 PVFS with file layout information Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/20 comparable performance

21 Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/21 Outline A basic shim layer & preliminary evaluation  Three add-on features in a shim layer Readahead buffer File layout information Replication Evaluation

22 Replication in HDFS Rack-awareness replication By default, 3 copies for each file (triplication) 1.Write to a local storage node 2.Write to a storage node in the local rack 3.Write to a storage node in the other rack Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/22

23 Replication in PVFS No replication in the public release of PVFS Rely on hardware based reliability solutions Per server RAID inside logical storage devices Replication can be added in a shim layer Write each file to three servers No reconstruction/recovery in the prototype Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/23

24 PVFS with replication Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/24

25 PVFS shim layer under Hadoop Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/25

26 Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/26 Outline A basic shim layer & preliminary evaluation Three add-on features in a shim layer  Evaluation Micro-benchmark (non MapReduce) MapReduce benchmark

27 Micro-benchmark Cluster configuration 16 nodes Pentium D dual-core 3.0GHz 4 GB Memory One 7200 rpm SATA 160 GB (8 MB buffer) Gigabit Ethernet Use file system API directly without Hadoop involvement Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/27

28 N clients, each reads 1/N of single file Round-robin file layout in PVFS helps avoid contention Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/28

29 Why is PVFS better in this case? Without scheduling, clients read in a uniform pattern Client1 reads A1 then A4 Client2 reads A2 then A5 Client3 reads A3 then A6 PVFS Round-robin placement HDFS Random placement Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/29 A1 A3 A2 A5 A4 A6 A1 A4 A2 A5 A3 A6 Contention A1 A3 A2 A5 A4 A6 A1 A4 A2 A5 A3 A6

30 HDFS with Hadoop’s scheduling Example 1: Client1 reads A1 then A4 Client2 reads A2 then A5 Client3 reads A6 then A3 Example 2: Client1 reads A1 then A3 Client2 reads A2 then A5 Client3 reads A4 then A6 Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/30 A1 A3 A2 A5 A4 A6 A1 A3 A2 A5 A4 A6 A1 A3 A2 A5 A4 A6 A1 A3 A2 A5 A4 A6

31 Read with Hadoop’s scheduling Hadoop’s scheduling can mask a problem with a non-uniform file layout in HDFS Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/31

32 N clients write to n distinct files By writing one of three copies locally, HDFS write throughput grows linearly Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/32

33 Concurrent writes to a single file By allowing concurrent writes in PVFS, “copy” completes faster by using multiple writers Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/33

34 Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/34 Outline A basic shim layer & preliminary evaluation Three add-on features in a shim layer  Evaluation Micro-benchmark (non MapReduce) MapReduce benchmark

35 MapReduce benchmark setting Yahoo! M45 cluster Use nodes Xeon quad-core 1.86 GHz with 6GB Memory One 7200 rpm SATA 750 GB (8 MB buffer) Gigabit Ethernet Use Hadoop framework for MapReduce processing Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/35

36 MapReduce benchmark Grep: Search for a rare pattern in hundred million 100-byte records (100GB) Sort: Sort hundred million 100-byte records (100GB) Never-Ending Language Learning (NELL): (J. Betteridge, CMU) Count the numbers of selected phrases in 37GB data-set Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/36

37 Read-Intensive Benchmark PVFS’s performance is similar to HDFS Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/37

38 Write-Intensive Benchmark By writing one of three copies locally, HDFS does better than PVFS Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/38

39 Summary PVFS can be tuned to deliver promising performance for Hadoop applications Simple shim layer in Hadoop No modification to PVFS PVFS can expose file layout information Enable Hadoop to collocate computation and data Hadoop application can benefit from concurrent writing supported by parallel file systems Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/39

40 Acknowledgements Sam Lang and Rob Ross for help with PVFS internals Yahoo! for the M45 cluster Julio Lopez for help with M45 and Hadoop Justin Betteridge, Kevin Gimpel, Le Zhao, Jamie Callan, Shay Cohen, Noah Smith, U Kang and Christos Faloutsos for their scientific applications Wittawat Tantisiriroj © February 09http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/40


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