CCC A4-202 Slide 209/28/98 TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION: Implement a Total Physical Fitness Program. CONDITIONS: Given FM 21-20, AR 350-1, chapter 1-21 & 4-9 and AR 600-9. STANDARD: Monitor your program to ensure that it is implemented IAW FM 21-20 and that it meets your unit’s mission requirements.
CCC A4-202 Slide 409/28/98 PRIMARY REFERENCES FM 21-20, Physical Fitness Training AR 600-9, The Army Weight Control Program AR 350-1,Training Units
CCC A4-202 Slide 509/28/98 PHYSICAL FITNESS Definition: The ability to function effectively in physical work, training and other activities and still have enough energy left over to handle any emergencies which may arise. Functional Definition: The ability of the body to meet present and future physical demands.
CCC A4-202 Slide 609/28/98 COMPONENTS OF FITNESS Cardiorespiratory endurance. Muscular strength. Muscular endurance. Flexibility. Body composition.
CCC A4-202 Slide 709/28/98 CARDIORESPIRATORY (CR) ENDURANCE The efficiency with which the body delivers oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from the cells.
CCC A4-202 Slide 809/28/98 MUSCULAR STRENGTH (MS) The greatest amount of force that a muscle or muscle groups can exert in a single effort.
CCC A4-202 Slide 909/28/98 MUSCULAR ENDURANCE (ME) The ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated movements with a sub-maximal force for extended periods of time.
CCC A4-202 Slide 1009/28/98 FLEXIBILITY (FLEX) The ability to move joints or any group of joints through an entire, normal range of motion.
CCC A4-202 Slide 1109/28/98 BODY COMPOSITION (BC) The amount of body fat the soldier has in comparison to his/her total body mass.
CCC A4-202 Slide 1209/28/98 Motor Efficiency Physical Fitness Combat Readiness MOTOR EFFICIENCY Proper training to enhance the five components previously mentioned will lead to a higher level of physical fitness. The key element that bridges the gap between physical fitness and readiness is motor efficiency.
CCC A4-202 Slide 1309/28/98 MOTOR EFFICIENCY The quality of movement performed by the body through space.
CCC A4-202 Slide 1409/28/98 MOTOR EFFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT Coordination. Speed. Skill. Power. Kinesthetic Awareness. Posture. Balance. Agility.
CCC A4-202 Slide 1509/28/98 PRINCIPLES OF EXERCISE P rogression. R egularity. O verload. V ariety. R ecovery. B alance. S pecificity.
CCC A4-202 Slide 1609/28/98 PROGRESSION The intensity (how hard) and/or duration (how long) of exercise must gradually increase to improve the level of fitness.
CCC A4-202 Slide 1709/28/98 REGULARITY Must exercise often Each of the first four components should be trained at least 3 times per week Infrequent exercise can do more harm than good Resting, sleeping, and good diet
CCC A4-202 Slide 1809/28/98 OVERLOAD Exercise session must exceed normal demands placed on the body in order to bring about training effect.
CCC A4-202 Slide 1909/28/98 VARIETY Increases Motivation and ProgressIncreases Motivation and Progress Reduces BoredomReduces Boredom
CCC A4-202 Slide 2009/28/98 RECOVERY Most neglected principle Absolutely necessary when training for muscular strength/endurance
CCC A4-202 Slide 2109/28/98 BALANCE Program must emphasize all fitness components
CCC A4-202 Slide 2209/28/98 SPECIFICITY Training towards specific goals
CCC A4-202 Slide 2409/28/98 FREQUENCY How often? AR 350-1 states 3-5 times per week Optimal results in 5 times per week Allow 48hrs minimum and no more than 96hrs to recover an overloaded muscle.
CCC A4-202 Slide 2509/28/98 INTENSITY One of the largest problems in unit PT Must reach at least 60 to 90 percent of HRR for Cardiorespiratory fitness Strength training deals with repetition maximum 8 to 12 repetitions to improve both muscular strength and endurance 12+ repetitions to improve muscular endurance
CCC A4-202 Slide 2609/28/98 Estimated Target Heart Rate Formula Maximum Heart Rate: 220 - age = MHR To figure a Training Heart Rate that is 80% of the estimated MHR: % x MHR = THR Calculation 0.80 x 200 BPM = 160 BPM
CCC A4-202 Slide 2709/28/98 Calculating training heart rate formula: Determine Maximum heart rate: 220 - Age = MHR Determine Resting heart rate: 30 second resting pulse x 2 = RHR Determine Heart rate reserve: MHR - RHR = HRR Calculate Training heart rate: (% x HRR) + RHR = THR / BPM
CCC A4-202 Slide 2809/28/98 Utilizing THR Should be reached within first 5 minutesShould be reached within first 5 minutes Maintain 20 to 30 minutesMaintain 20 to 30 minutes Should return to normal range within 5 minutes after exercise period (60-90)Should return to normal range within 5 minutes after exercise period (60-90)
CCC A4-202 Slide 2909/28/98 TIME Depends on the type of exerciseDepends on the type of exercise Cardiorespiratory at least 20 to 30 minutesCardiorespiratory at least 20 to 30 minutes Muscular strength and endurance TMFMuscular strength and endurance TMF
CCC A4-202 Slide 3009/28/98 TYPE Refers to the kind of exercise performedRefers to the kind of exercise performed Consider the principle of specificityConsider the principle of specificity One must practice the particular exercise, activity, or skill he wants to improveOne must practice the particular exercise, activity, or skill he wants to improve
CCC A4-202 Slide 3109/28/98 FITT FACTORS APPLIED TO PHYSICAL CONDITIONING ME- 12+ reps, MSE-8-12 reps, MS- 3-7 reps CREMSME 3 - 5 Times Weekly F 70-90% MHR 20+ min. Running Cycling Rowing Road Marching Swimming Based on Sets and Reps Free Weights Machines Free Weights Machines Calisthenics Grass Drills Rifle PT TMF -Temporary Muscle Failure T I T
CCC A4-202 Slide 3209/28/98 STRUCTURE OF A PT SESSION WARM UPWARM UP THE MAIN WORKOUTTHE MAIN WORKOUT COOL DOWNCOOL DOWN
CCC A4-202 Slide 3309/28/98 WARM - UP -PREVENTS INJURIES -INCREASES BODY INTERNAL TEMPERATURE AND HEART RATE -BEGIN WITH TWO MINUTE WALK OR JOG FOLLOWED BY STRETCHING STRETCHING SHOULD BE SPECIFIC TO THE TYPE OF CONDITIONING EXERCISE YOU WILL PERFORM (IE. LEG STRETCHES FOR RUNNING DAYS ETC.)
CCC A4-202 Slide 3409/28/98 CONDITIONING -WHERE CARDIORESPIRATORY AND OR MUSCULAR ENDURANCE AND STRENGTH IS DEVELOPED -SHOULD REACH THR IN FIRST FIVE MINUTES
CCC A4-202 Slide 3509/28/98 COOL- DOWN *SERVES TO GRADUALLY SLOW THE HEART RATE AND HELPS PREVENT POOLING OF BLOOD IN THE LEGS AND FEET *CONSISTS OF 2-3 MINUTES OF LOW INTENSITY EXERCISE FOLLOWED BY 2-3 MINUTES OF STRETCHING
CCC A4-202 Slide 3709/28/98 PREPARATORY STARTING PHASE DEPENDS ON PERSONS AGE, FITNESS LEVELS, AND PREVIOUS PHYSICAL ACTIVITYSTARTING PHASE DEPENDS ON PERSONS AGE, FITNESS LEVELS, AND PREVIOUS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEGINNING WORKLOAD MUST BE MODERATEBEGINNING WORKLOAD MUST BE MODERATE PROGRESSION IS ACHIEVED THROUGH GRADUAL, PLANNED INCREASES IN FREQUENCY, INTENSITY, AND TIMEPROGRESSION IS ACHIEVED THROUGH GRADUAL, PLANNED INCREASES IN FREQUENCY, INTENSITY, AND TIME
CCC A4-202 Slide 3809/28/98 CONDITIONING PHASE EFFORT TO REACH DESIRED LEVEL OF FITNESSEFFORT TO REACH DESIRED LEVEL OF FITNESS PHASE ENDS WHEN:PHASE ENDS WHEN: SOLDIER IS PHYSICALLY MISSION CAPABLE ALL PERSONAL STRENGTH AND UNIT FITNESS GOALS HAVE BEEN MET
CCC A4-202 Slide 3909/28/98 MAINTENANCE PHASE SUSTAINS HIGH LEVEL OF FITNESS ACHIEVED IN CONDITIONING PHASESUSTAINS HIGH LEVEL OF FITNESS ACHIEVED IN CONDITIONING PHASE TO STAY AT MAINTENANCE PHASE YOU NEED:TO STAY AT MAINTENANCE PHASE YOU NEED: A WELL DESIGNED, 45-60 MINUTE WORKOUT THREE TIMES A WEEK AT THE RIGHT INTENSITYA WELL DESIGNED, 45-60 MINUTE WORKOUT THREE TIMES A WEEK AT THE RIGHT INTENSITY
CCC A4-202 Slide 4009/28/98 7-STEP PLANNING PROCESS Step 1: Analyze the mission. Step 2: Develop fitness objectives. Step 3: Assess the unit. Step 4: Determine training requirements. Step 5: Develop fitness tasks. Step 6: Develop a training schedule. Step 7: Conduct and evaluate training.
CCC A4-202 Slide 4109/28/98 STEP 1: ANALYZE THE MISSION Wartime mission. Mission essential task list (METL). Commander’s intent. ARTEP/MTP experience (JRTC and NTC). NCO experience.
CCC A4-202 Slide 4309/28/98 FITNESS OBJECTIVES Meet unit foot march standards. Complete rope climb w/BDU’s, boots, kevlar and LCE. Execute minimum of six pull ups. Run five miles. No APFT failures. No soldiers on weight control program. No more than 10% of company on profile.
CCC A4-202 Slide 4409/28/98 DEVELOP PERFORMANCE MEASURES Light infantry company performance measures: –Perform 52 push-ups, 62 sit-ups and 2-MR < 14:54. –Perform 6 pull-ups. –Carry equal size soldier 100 meters. –Lift 130 pounds to a height of 48-52 inches. –Road march 12 miles with 35 lbs. ALICE pack < 3 hours.
CCC A4-202 Slide 4509/28/98 DEVELOP PERFORMANCE MEASURES Medical company performance measures: –Perform a 400-meter fireman’s carry with an equal size soldier in less than 3 minutes. –Perform a timed 100-meter skedco pull with 135 lbs inside. –Perform a landing zone inverted Y shuttle. –Set up a GP medium < 15 minutes. –Road march 12 miles with 35 lbs. ALICE pack < 3 hours.
CCC A4-202 Slide 4609/28/98 Utilizing performance measures: –Identify current fitness level. –Test standardized performance measures. –Identify unit strengths and weaknesses. STEP 3: ASSESS THE UNIT
CCC A4-202 Slide 4809/28/98 STEP 5: DEVELOP FITNESS TASKS Base fitness tasks on the mission and METL. Conduct realistic training (road march with a combat load for a realistic distance over terrain). Train all components of physical fitness and condition the entire body with a wide variety of exercise techniques. Don’t just train for the APFT.
CCC A4-202 Slide 5009/28/98 Review the training objectives. Determine training methods and frequency. Train all five components of physical fitness and adhere to the seven principles of exercise. STEP 6: DEVELOP A TRAINING SCHEDULE
CCC A4-202 Slide 5109/28/98 DEVELOP AN EVENT LIST Sandbag circuit. Aquatics. Strength training machine circuit. Calisthenics circuit. Ability group run. Interval run. Road march. Obstacle/confidence course. Cross-country run. Rifle PT. BF PT circuit.
CCC A4-202 Slide 5209/28/98 STEP 7: CONDUCT AND EVALUATE TRAINING Execute battle-focused physical training. Re-evaluate performance at 6 and 10 weeks using standardized assessment techniques. Allow for continuous feedback.
CCC A4-202 Slide 5309/28/98 4 WEEK TRAINING SCHEDULE MONTH #2 SUN A: Log Drills D: 60 Min I: TMF (Anaerobic Power) MONDAYTUESDAYWEDNESDAYTHURSDAYFRIDAYSAT A: Confidence Obstacle Course D: 90 Min I: 70-90% MHR/ TMF A: TOC Equip Circuit D: 50 Min I: TMF/80% MHR A: Ability Group Run D: 3 miles I: 75-80% MHR w/ 150 Push- ups and Sit-ups A: Ability Group Run D: 2 miles I: 70% MHR A: Push-up/Sit-up Improvement D: 45 Min I: TMF A: Road March D: 2 hours I: 6 miles @ 20 min/mile w/ 30 lb ruck, weapon, LCE, softcap A: Individual Movement Tech. Circuit D: 40 Min I: 80% MHR/ TMF A: Ability Group Run D: 2 miles I: 70% MHR A: Push-up/Sit-up Improvement D: 45 Min I: TMF A: Road March D: 2 hours I: 6 miles @ 20 min/mile w/ 30 lb ruck, weapon, LCE, softcap A: Individual Movement Tech. Circuit D: 40 Min I: 80% HR/TMF A: 1000m Swim D: 45 Min I: 70-90% MHR A: Litter Relays D: 60 Min I: 70-90% MHR/ TMF BDU + Boots A: Cross Country Run D: 40 Min I: 70% MHR BDU w/ athletic footwear of choice A: Rifle Drills B: 60 Min I: TMF/70% MHR A: Road March D: 105 min I: 6 miles @ 17.5 min/mile w/ 30lb ruck, weapon, LCE, softcap A: Single Station Machine Circuit to Music D: 60 Min I: TMF/80% MHR A: Interval Training D: 60 Min I: As per 2 Mile Run Breakdown 5 X 400m with Flexibility to improve training A: Bayonet Assault Course I: 80-90% MHR/ TMF BDU + Boots
CCC A4-202 Slide 5409/28/98 SPECIAL POPULATIONS Medical Profiles: –Injury. –Pregnancy. Overweight. APFT failure. New soldier.
CCC A4-202 Slide 5509/28/98 You are not a doctor. Do not cause further injury. Do not make PT punitive. Train with your unit when possible. GENERAL RULES
CCC A4-202 Slide 5609/28/98 PROFILE PT* CR: Low impact - stationary cycle, walking, rowing machine and aquatics. MS: Sympathetic stimulation and use of strength training machines. ME: Aquatics, surgical tubing,calisthenics and conditioning drills. FLEX: Static, passive and PNF techniques. BC: Calculate caloric intake vs. expenditure. * Remember rules #1 and #2.
CCC A4-202 Slide 5709/28/98 OVERWEIGHT Education on caloric intake vs. expenditure: –Diet and exercise. Long slow duration and low impact activities: –Prevent overuse injuries. MSE/FLEX: –Overweight soldiers should not be limited in these areas. –Ensure proper progression. Educate and train: –Teach, coach and mentor.
CCC A4-202 Slide 5809/28/98 APFT FAILURE* Progression: Do not exceed 10% per week for CR and MSE training. Balance: Ensure all muscle groups are trained. Recovery: Is often violated when additional PT is conducted. Utilize low impact activities such as aquatics, stationary cycle and strength training machines. These activities will provide variety, as opposed to just push-ups, sit-ups and running. *Pay attention to rules 2, 3, and 4.
CCC A4-202 Slide 5909/28/98 NEW SOLDIER Who is a new soldier? Make the new soldier mission capable. Progression is the key: train motion, form, and muscle memory. Gradually increase intensity over a period of weeks. Exercise prescription during new soldier PT should mirror what is expected at unit level, but at lower intensity to prevent injury.
CCC A4-202 Slide 6009/28/98 PREGNANCY Rule #1: You are not a doctor. Reference FM 21-20, Appendix A (physiological differences). Develop and implement a post-wide pregnancy PT program. Activities should include: Low impact exercise, strength training machines and flexibility training. Do not regulate the pregnant soldier’s diet. Always work within the physician's guidelines.
CCC A4-202 Slide 6109/28/98 SPECIAL POPULATIONS* You are not a doctor. Do not cause further injury. Do not make PT punitive. Train with your unit when possible. *It is the MFTs responsibility to develop training programs for special populations that are IAW with the four rules listed above and the seven principles of exercise.
CCC A4-202 Slide 6209/28/98 AR 600-9, The Army Weight Control Program, has been in existence since 1977. Originally the regulation only established minimum and maximum height/weight standards. There were no objective standards for allowing weight exceptions for more muscular and large framed individuals. In the 1977 regulation, such individuals only needed a subjective statement from a physician allowing an exception to the height/weight standards. HISTORY OF AR 600-9
CCC A4-202 Slide 6309/28/98 PURPOSE OF AR 600-9 To establish policies and procedures for the implementation of the Army Weight Control Program
CCC A4-202 Slide 6409/28/98 POLICY Applies to all military personnel At a minimum personnel will be weighed when they take the APFT or at least every 6 months Personnel exceeding screening table weight or identified by the Commander, will have determination made of body fat
CCC A4-202 Slide 6509/28/98 POLICY CON’T Commanders will provide education and other motivational programs to encourage personnel to attain and maintain proper weight standards Nutritional education sessions are required for all soldiers enrolled in weight control program Exercise program is required even if soldier meets minimum APFT standard
CCC A4-202 Slide 6609/28/98 Maximum allowable percent body fat standards … Age Group 17-20 Male: 20 Female: 30 Age Group 21-27 Male: 22 Female: 32 Age Group 28-39 Male: 24 Female: 34 Age Group 40 & older Male: 26 Female: 36
CCC A4-202 Slide 6709/28/98 Personnel who are overweight will... Be considered non-promotable Will not be authorized to attend civilian or military schools Will not be assigned to command positions
CCC A4-202 Slide 6809/28/98 DEFINITION OF TERMS a. Body composition - the human body is composed of two major elements: lean body mass and body fat. b. Overweight - soldiers are overweight if their percent body fat exceeds the specified body fat standards. c. Satisfactory progress - losing 3-8 pounds per month progressing towards the screening table weight of achieving body fat standard. d. Weight control - an individual program by which a soldier attains and maintains acceptable weight and body fat composition. e. Professional military and civilian schooling - all individual training beyond Initial Entry Training (IET). IET includes Officer Basic Course, Basic Training, Advanced Individual Training, and One Station Unit Training.
CCC A4-202 Slide 6909/28/98 Procedures Body fat composition will be determined for personnel... When the unit Commander or Supervisor determines that the individual’s appearance suggests that body fat is excessive Whose body weight exceeds screening table weight
CCC A4-202 Slide 7009/28/98 Routine weigh-ins will be accomplished at unit level A soldier of the same gender will be present when opposite gender is conducting the measurement.
CCC A4-202 Slide 7109/28/98 Soldiers exceeding the body fat standard will... Be counseled by health care personnel Entered in the weight control program by the commander Flagged under the provisions of AR 600-8-2 Have a medical evaluation
CCC A4-202 Slide 7209/28/98 Required to lose 3 to 8 pounds per month Will be removed from the program as soon as body fat standards are achieved After 6 months in the program they will be eliminated If within 1 year of removal from the program soldier re-enters program, soldier will be eliminated Con’t
CCC A4-202 Slide 7309/28/98 Reenlistment criteria -Personnel exceeding the STW and body fat standards are not allowed to reenlist of extend. (1) Exceptions to this policy may be requested for individuals with temporary medical conditions for which disability separation is not appropriate or soldiers who are pregnant. (2) Requests for exception to policy are forwarded through the chain of command. The approving authority is the commander exercising General Court Martial Convening Authority or the first General officer in the chain of command. (3) The request will have the commander's personal recommendation and appropriate comments at each level.
CCC A4-202 Slide 7409/28/98 Con’t (4) The request will include at a minimum the physician's evaluation, record of progress in weight control program, current height and weight, current body fat, years of active federal service, and any other pertinent information. (3) Soldiers who have attained 18 years of active federal service (AFS) may be extended for the minimum time to attain 20 years of AFS. They must retire no later than the last day of the month in which they attain eligibility for retirement
CCC A4-202 Slide 7509/28/98 Circumference sites for males Neck Abdomen Circumference sites for females Hips Forearm Neck Wrist Conducting Body Fat measurements
CCC A4-202 Slide 7609/28/98 Determining circumference sites for males abdomen Stand with arms relaxed Measure at midpoint of navel Ensure tape is level around midsection Ensure soldier is not holding breath Ensure tape is taunt but not tight
CCC A4-202 Slide 7709/28/98 Determining circumference sites for male neck Soldier stands looking straight ahead with chin parallel to the floor Place tape just below larynx Do not place over Adam's Apple Ensure tape is level as feasible Do not allow shoulder muscles to interfere with measurement Do not allow soldier to hold breath or bull neck
CCC A4-202 Slide 7809/28/98 Determining circumference sites for females Neck Same as for males Forearm Extend arm away from the body Palm up Place tape around largest part of forearm Soldier determines which arm
CCC A4-202 Slide 7909/28/98 Females Wrist Arm extended away from the body Same arm as forearm measurement Place tape below hand and above lower end of the bones of the forearm
CCC A4-202 Slide 8009/28/98 Females Hips Around hips where tape passes over the greatest protrusion of the gluteal muscles Tape is kept horizontal Tape is drawn snug to compensate for wear of the gym shorts
CCC A4-202 Slide 8109/28/98 ADMINISTERING THE ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST
CCC A4-202 Slide 8209/28/98. Test Administration ›Must be administered properly to standard ›Individuals may not administer test to themselves
CCC A4-202 Slide 8309/28/98 Required Equipment Copy of FM 21-20 Clipboard and pen to record scores on scorecards Two stopwatches Numbers for runners Scorecards for each soldier
CCC A4-202 Slide 8409/28/98 Preparation for the APFT includes... Selecting and training scorers Briefing administrators and participants Selection of location
CCC A4-202 Slide 8509/28/98 Supervision Uniformity must be maintained in the following Scoring the test Training of scorers Preparing the test
CCC A4-202 Slide 8609/28/98 Supervisors should ensure... Soldiers are not tested when fatigued or ill Soldiers do not have tiring duties just before the APFT Weather is not a factor
CCC A4-202 Slide 8709/28/98 Duties of test personnel Provide OIC or NCOIC A supervisor, scorer, and demonstrator for each event Support personnel No more than 1:15 ratio for scorers
CCC A4-202 Slide 8809/28/98 OIC or NCOIC responsibilities Administer the APFT Procure equipment Layout test site Train scorers Ensure test is properly administered, events explained, demonstrated, and scored according to standard
CCC A4-202 Slide 8909/28/98 Soldiers should be allowed no less than 10 minutes, but no more than 20 minutes to recover between events Entire APFT must be finished within 2 hour Soldiers who perform events incorrectly must be stopped by the scorer before the completion of 10 repetitions CON’T
CCC A4-202 Slide 9009/28/98 Will repeat # of last correctly executed push-up if repetition does not count May either sit or kneel to evaluate Positioned approximately three feet from shoulder at a 45 degree angle to the front to evaluate push-up Positioned approximately three feet from the soldiers hip to evaluate the sit-up CON’T
CCC A4-202 Slide 9109/28/98 SUMMARY What criteria are used to implement the company fitness program? What types of injuries are most special population soldiers prone to?