Presentation on theme: "Water (hydrological) cycle"— Presentation transcript:
1Water (hydrological) cycle Why is the water cycle processes called a cycle?What is an aquifer?How can people obtain water supplies from aquifers?
2Movement of water from the atmosphere onto the Earth’s surface and back into the atmosphere It occurs continuously: water is constantly being recycled; water can be stored for a time in surface stores such as lakes or underground stores in permeable rocks; eventually it is evaporated back to the atmosphere where condensation and precipitation restart the cycle.An underground water store in permeable rock (eg chalk).Normally by sinking wells; sometimes water reaches the surface naturally in springs.
3Human impacts on the water cycle Q1 How does the amount of runoff change after deforestation?Q2 Explain why it changesQ3 Why is runoff faster from urban areas faster than from farmland?Q4 Are the actions of people leading to more frequent and more severe floods? Explain your answer
4Changes to water-cycle processes caused by the activities of people A1 Runoff increases A2 without trees none of the precipitation is intercepted; runoff is not blocked by tree trunks, especially on steep slopes; water is no longer lost to the atmosphere by transpiration A3 most farm land has surface vegetation which intercepts rain and soils which store water; hard surfaces like roads and pavements in urban areas stop water from infiltrating into the ground; rain is channelled quickly down gutters, into drains and straight back into rivers A4 by increasing and speeding up runoff, humans are making natural floods worse
5Drainage basin Q1 Name drainage basin feature X Q2 What is the difference between a tributary and a distributary?Q3 Explain where the highest land is found.Q4 Explain where the lowest land is found
6The area of land drained by a river and its distributaries A1 X= confluenceA2 a tributary is a small stream or river that flows into a larger one, a distributary is a small river channel carrying water into the sea after the river has split up in a deltaA3 the watershed follows the highest land, rivers on the other side of the watershed flow in the opposite directionA4 the lowest land is at the mouth where the river meets the sea; surface rivers must flow downhill
7River long profile1.State the two differences between the profile in the upper course and the lower course2.Why does the shape of the long profile change between points these places3.Name the main landforms found in the upper and lower courses
8River long profile answers A1. steep in upper course; gentle in lower course sediment is irregular in upper course; smooth in lower course A2. At the top the river is cutting down by vertical erosion ; in the lower course the river is cutting sideways by lateral erosion, because it has almost reached sea level A3. upper course: steep-sided, V-shaped valley; interlocking spurs; gorge; waterfall; rapids lower course: meander; oxbow lake; levée; floodplain; delta
9River landforms in the uplands Describe the river and the channel features in the photo2.Explain how the channel features in the photo were formed
10formed mainly by vertical erosion as the river cuts down into the land A1. small waterfalls and rapids; rocky bed with bands of hard rock; steep-like channel; fast flowing river; brown water (peaty) A2. hard rock outcrops are difficult to erode; area of softer rock between them are easier to erode; water falls over the hard rock outcrops to the lower, eroded areas; rivers cut down by vertical erosion; abrasion and corrosion are examples of the processes of erosion
11River landforms in the lowlands Q1 explain the formation of the floodplainQ4. How is the mouth or estuary of a river different in big rivers such as the Nile, Mississippi and Ganges?
12Formed mainly by lateral erosion and deposition A1. the floodplain is formed be both deposition and lateral erosion; every time the river floods it deposits a layer of silt, which accumulates over time into a great thickness of silt; the flood plain is widened by the lateral erosion on the outside bends of meanders; the side of the floodplain are cut back where outside bends reach them A2. deltas form; instead of one channel, water enters the sea by many channels
13Meanders and oxbow lakes Q1 What is the difference between the river cliff and the slip off slope?Q2 How and why do ox-bow lakes form?Q3 Where is the deepest water in the channel of a meandering river?
14Common landforms where rivers flow across flat land in the lowlands A1The river cliff is the steep cliff is the steep bank on the outside of the bend, formed by erosion; the slip offf slope is the gentle slope on the inside of the bend, formed by depositionA2 erosion causes the outside bends of two meanders to come closer together; during a flood the river may cut across the narrow neck and flow straight; the old meander loop is cut off to form the oxbow lake; silt is deposited to seal the lake off from the riverA3 just below the bank on the outside bend
15DeltasQ1. Explain the formation of a delta. Q2. Why do most big rivers have deltas? Q3. Why are deltas challenging places for people to live? Q4. Some of the world’s most densely populated rural areas are in deltas (e.g the Ganges delta in Bangladesh). Explain why.
16Triangular shaped areas of land where a river splits into many different channels(distributaries) A1. Rivers have large loads and are slow flowing near the sea; meeting denser salt water holds back their flow; they split into separate channels, depositing silt over a wide areaA2. Big rivers have large loads of sediment, e.g the Mississippi, the Ganges.A3. Large areas of swamp and standing water make transport difficult; land needs to be drained and reclaimed for farming; high flood risk from heavy rains and rising sea levels.A4. the soils are incredibly fertile; fertility is renewed by regular flooding.
17River floods State three natural causes of river floods. Name two river landforms formed during floods.Describe the possible impacts of flooding on people.Why are more people being affected by flooding in the UK than in the past?
18When rivers break their banks, covering surrounding land areas that are usually dry A1 wet season with long and heavy rainfall; summer melting of snow and ice on mountains, thunderstorms or rain during cyclonesA2 floodplain, levee and oxbow lakeA3 people drowned; houses flooded and made uninhabitable; bridges and roads washed away; crops ruined and livestock drowned; soils made from silt are very fertileA4 more houses have been built in high risk locations on floodplains; more urban area with increased surface runoff
1920 River Basin Management Q1 Name three methods used to reduce river flooding.Q2 Describe how they workQ3 Name two disadvantages of using these methods.Q4 What can be done in the rural areas to reduce runoff into streams and rivers.
20The attempt by people to control rivers for their own purposes A1 Dams, embankments and wall in urban areas.A2 Dams hold back water for control releaseEmbankments increase the height of the river banks.Walls in urban areas hold back water and stop rivers from changing course.A3 High cost of buildings and maintenance; interference with the rivers natural flow; silt trapped in dams and channel beds.A4 Plant trees which increase rate of interception, hold back the flow of rainwater and increase the rate of infiltration
2121 Example of a RiverQ1 Describe the physical features in the photo. Q2 What could happen next to the course of the river? Q3 When in a flood, how much of the land in the photo will be underwater?
22The river Severn is famous for its meanders A1 Large, wide meander loops, flat land (floodplain) on both side of the river.A2 The meander loop could become narrower and cut through the river; an oxbow lake would be left in place of the meander loop.A3 Flat land will go first, flooding will start by the river and slowly work the way out until all the land is covered
23Processes of Landforms of Coastal Erosion Q1 What is abrasion (corrosion)?Q2 when is wave erosion greatest?Q3 Name three other processes of costal erosion.Q4 which of the following landforms are formed by coastal erosion?Arch, cave, stack, bar, cliff, wave-cut platform, bay, headland, beach, split.
24The ways in which waves wear away the coastline and the resulting coastal features A1 The wearing away of rocks by waves flinging pebbles against cliff faces.A2 During storms when waves are big and powerful, known as destructive waves; when winds blow onshore, driving the waves against the cliffs.A3 Attrition, corrosion and hydraulic action.A4 Arch, bay, cave, cliff, headland, stack and wave-cut platform (all the others are landforms of deposition.
25Cliffs, caves, arches and stacks Name the landforms A-D.Which rock features aid erosion?Explain how a stack is formed.What is the name for the last piece of rock left after a stack has collapsed?DBAC
26Landforms created by a sequence of erosion, ending with an isolated piece of rock (stack) A1. A=cliff B=cave C=arch D=stackA2. rock weaknesses, both horizontal (bedding planes) and vertical (joints)A3. waves attack a vertical weakness in the cliff; further erosion widens the crack into a cave; an arch is formed when the cave is eroded through the headland; the arch roof collapses after its base suffers from more wave erosion; an isolated pillar of rock (stack) is leftA4. stump
27Longshore drift What is the difference between swash and backwash? Explain the direction of longshore drift shown in the diagram.
28The movement by waves of sand and pebbles along a coastline A1. swash is the wave direction of breaking waves up the beach; backwash is the direction of water returning down the beach A2. waves approach the beach from the southwest; once wave power is lost, pebbles roll back into the sea with the backwash at a right angle to the beach, in the same direction as the slope; pebbles are picked up by another wave from the southwest; repeated wave movements carry pebbles from west to east
29Landforms of costal deposition How are beaches and spits different?What is similar about their formation?What is the evidence that shows the direction of longshore drift?
30Made from sand, shingle and pebbles, carried and deposited by longshore drift A1. in shape and location; beaches tend to be semi-circular, often in a bay; spits are narrow strips of land ending in the open sea, sometimes with a hooked end; bars are ridges which extend in a line across the mouth of a bay A2. all are formed from sediments carried by longshore drift; deposition takes place in sheltered locations, such as bays or river mouths A3. direction of the spit: longshore drift must be from the direction the waves are approaching the beach
31Spits Q1.Describe the shape of a spit. Q2.Explain its formation. Q3.Why are extensive mud flats and salt marshes present?Q4.Why do some stop growing or break?
32Ridges of sand and shingle attached to the land at one end and terminating in the sea A1. narrow and straight for 1-2 km from the land, with four hooks at the sea end, the last one being the largest.A2. deposition begins at the bend in the coastline; longshore drift builds up a ridge of settlement out to the sea; in the open sea currents rework the settlements into hooks.A3. the spit shelters the water behind it from currents; sediments accumulate, which plants colonise.A4. supply of sediment may be reduced; storm waves from a different direction may break the spit at a narrow point; strong currents prevent growth out to sea.
33Methods of coastal protection Q1. Name two methods of coastal protection.Q2. Explain how they protect the coastline.Q3. Where are they used most?Q4. State two problems of coastal protection.
34Used to try to stop coastal erosion A1. sea walls, blocks of rock and groynes.A2. 1)sea walls and blocks of rock break the force of the waves before they reach the cliffs.2)groynes trap sediment and widen the beach, keeping waves away from the cliffs.A3. in seaside resorts and where homes need protection; where cliffs made of soft rock and crumbling, particularly along the south and east coasts of England.A4. 1)high coasts of construction and maintenance.2)other unprotected parts of the coast suffer from the increased erosion.
35Coastal managementA1. What are groynes and why are they a common sight in British seaside resorts? A2. Consider the following polices for dealing with rising sea levels. 1)policy A: extend sea walls and build barrages. 2)policy B: do nothing and let the sea flood low-lying coastal areas. Decide who is in favour of each policy and say why.
36Changing and controlling stenches of coastline for human benefit A1. they are wooden (or metal) barriers running down the beach; they trap sand and shingle carried by longshore drift, increasing beach sizesA2. 1)on favour of policy A: local authorities in urban areas; people who have homes or caravans on the coast; farmers-all will suffer economic losses as sea levels rise.2)in favour of policy B: local authorities in rural areas-as they do not have the money for sea defences; environments-to increase wildlife wetland habitats.
37Example of crumbling cliffs Q1. Describe the features in the photo that show the cliffs are crumbling.Q2. What would be the chances of protecting these cliffs?Q3. Why is the problem of crumbling cliffs in the UK becoming more serious?
38Walton-on –the- Naze in Essex, where the cliffs are built of soft sands A1. rock, soil and vegetation are slipping down the cliffs; great mass of cliff debris looking unstable; cliff top is a long way inland from the beach.A2. it is unlikely that these cliffs can be protected for several reasons: impossibly expensive; cliffs are high; rain will loosen rocks and soil so that they slip more; difficult to hold back so much cliff material; narrow beach at bottom without a good site for building a sea wall.A3. the number of major storms seems to be increasing; sea levels are slowly rising; places that were once inland are now in danger from future collapses.