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Template Implicit function overload. Function overload Function overload double ssqq(double & a, double & b) { return(a*b);} float ssqq(float & a, float.

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Presentation on theme: "Template Implicit function overload. Function overload Function overload double ssqq(double & a, double & b) { return(a*b);} float ssqq(float & a, float."— Presentation transcript:

1 Template Implicit function overload

2 Function overload Function overload double ssqq(double & a, double & b) { return(a*b);} float ssqq(float & a, float & b) {return(a*b);} int ssqq(int & a, int & b) {return(a*b);} main() { int na=3, nb=-5; float ra=2.1, rb=-3.4; double da=4.7, db=-5.6; cout << "integer : " << ssqq(na, nb) << "\n"; cout << "float : " << ssqq(ra, rb) << "\n"; cout << "double : " << ssqq(da, db) << "\n"; system("pause"); return(0); }

3 template template TYPE1 ssqq(TYPE1 & a, TYPE1 & b) { return (TYPE1)(a*b);} main() { int na=3, nb=-5; float ra=2.1, rb=-3.4; double da=4.7, db=-5.6; cout << "integer : " << ssqq(na, nb) << "\n"; cout << "float : " << ssqq(ra, rb) << "\n"; cout << "double : " << ssqq(da, db) << "\n"; system("pause"); return(0); } template.. or template class can be used for both class and variable type, but type name only refers to variable types

4 Function template with two types Function template with two types template double ssqq(TYPE1 & a, TYPE2 & b) { return (double)(a*b);} main() { int na=3, nb=-5; float ra=2.1, rb=-3.4; double da=4.7, db=-5.6; cout << "2 integer : " << ssqq(na, nb) << "\n"; cout << "float * double : " << ssqq(ra, db) << "\n"; cout << "double * float : " << ssqq(da, rb) << "\n"; system("pause"); return(0); }

5 Template-function overload Template-function overload template double ssqq(TYPE1 & a, TYPE2 & b) { return((double)(a*b));} template TYPE3 ssqq(TYPE3 & a) { return((TYPE3)(a*a)); } main() { int na=3, nb=-5; float ra=2.1, rb=-3.4; double da=4.7, db=-5.6; cout << "2 integer : " << ssqq(na, nb) << "\n"; cout << "float & integer : " << ssqq(ra, nb) << "\n"; cout << "float & double : " << ssqq(rb, db) << "\n"; cout << "1 integer : " << ssqq(na) << "\n"; cout << "1 float : " << ssqq(ra) << "\n"; cout << "1 double: " << ssqq(da) << "\n";

6 Template class Template class template class position { XTYPE x, y, z; public: position(){}; position(XTYPE px, XTYPE py, XTYPE pz) { x = px; y=py; z=pz; } position(position & r) {x=r.x; y=r.y; z=r.z;} //member functions XTYPE r() {return (XTYPE)(sqrt((double)(x*x+y*y+z*z)));} void setx(XTYPE rx){ x=rx;} void sety(XTYPE ry){ y=ry;} void setz(XTYPE rz){ z=rz;} XTYPE getx() { return(x);} XTYPE gety() { return(y);} XTYPE getz() { return(z);} XTYPE phi(); XTYPE theta(); void print(); };

7 Member function of template class template void position ::print() { printf("x = %lf y = %lf z = %lf\n",(double)x,(double)y,(double)z); } template XTYPE position ::theta() { return( (XTYPE) acos(z/this->r())); } template XTYPE position ::phi() { return( (XTYPE) atan2(this->y, this->x) ); }

8 Using template class position r(3.0F, 4.0F, 5.0F); r.print(); r.setx(3.0); r.print(); printf("r=%f phi=%f theta=%f\n",r.r(), 180.0F*r.phi()/MyPi, 180.0F*r.theta()/MyPi); position ra[5]; // declare a position array for (i=0; i<5; i++) { ra[i].setx( (double)i); ra[i].sety( (double)i); ra[i].setz( (double)i); }

9 Complex class Complex class #include using namespace std; complex ca, cb(1.2, 6.1); ca = complex (2.4, 5.3); Headfile: Declare:

10 Complex functions cout << "ca = " << ca << "\n"; cout <<" real = " << ca.real() << "\n"; cout <<" imag = " << ca.imag() << "\n"; cout << "cb = " << cb << "\n"; cout << "ca+cb = " << (ca+cb) << "\n"; cout << "ca*cb = " << ca*cb << "\n"; cout << ca << "conjugate = "<< conj(ca) << "\n"; cout << "exp(ca) = " << exp(ca) << "\n"; cout << "abs(ca) = " << abs(ca) << "\n";

11 complex array complex cc[4]; cc[0] = ca = complex (0.0, 1.0); for (i=1; i<4; i++) cc[i] = cc[i-1] * ca; for (i=0; i<4; i++) cout << i << " : " << cc[i] << "\n";

12 Practice Using Newton ’ s method to solve a root for a polynomial. Write the polynomial in a form of template class to allow complex coefficients. dx = f(x) / df(x); x = x – dx; All these variables will be double or complex numbers.

13 template class polynomial { }; template class polynomial { }; template class polynomial { int n; XTYPE *a; public: polynomial(int); //constructor polynomial(int, XTYPE *); //member functions XTYPE f (const XTYPE) const; XTYPE df(const XTYPE) const; void print() const; void coef(XTYPE *); inline void coef(int n, XTYPE x) {a[n] = x;} }; // end of class definition

14 constructor template polynomial ::polynomial (int nn, XTYPE *c) { int i; n = nn; a = new XTYPE[n+1]; if (a==NULL) n=0; else { for (i=0; i <= n; i++) a[i] = c[i]; }

15 I/O format for complex number complex a(1.0, 2.0); cout << a << “ \n ” Output 結果 : (1, 2) complex b; cin >> b; 輸入格式為 : (1.0, 2.0)

16 練習二. 將 Matrix class 加上 template for double and complex 練習二. 將 Matrix class 加上 template for double and complex typedef complex CMPLX; // short-hand for complex template class Matrix { protected: XT *xpt; int nrow, ncol; public:.... // constructor, member function and frieds. };

17 Matrix (){;} Matrix (const int, const int); Matrix (const Matrix &); Matrix (int, int,XT*); ~Matrix () { this->nrow = this->ncol = 0; delete [] this->xpt; } Constructors XT is the symbol defined at the declaration of a class object. class Matrix m1(3,4), m2; class matrix > c1, c2;

18 template Matrix ::Matrix (int n, int m, XT *ap) { int i; if ((n > 0) && (m > 0) ) { this->xpt = new XT [n*m]; if (this->xpt != NULL) { this->nrow = n; this->ncol = m; for (i=0; i xpt[i] = ap[i]; } Example of constructor code built outside the class

19 inline int row() const { return this->nrow;} inline int col() const { return this->ncol;} inline int dim() const { return (this->nrow * this->ncol) ;} inline int CV(const int i,const int j) const { return(ncol*i + j);} inline XT get(const int i, const int j) const { return this->xpt[CV(i,j)]; } inline void set(const int i, const int j, XT xx) { this->xpt[CV(i,j)] = xx; } inline XT get(const int i) const { return this->xpt[i]; } inline void set(const int i, XT xx) { this->xpt[i] = xx; } Matrix getcol(int) const; // get a column form the matrix Matrix getrow(int) const; // get a row from the matrix Manipulation member functions

20 template Matrix Matrix ::getcol(int nr) const { int i; Matrix colv(this->nrow, 1); for (i=0; i nrow; i++) colv.xpt[i] = this->get(i, nr); return colv; } Example of Member function built outside the class

21 double norm() const; // remain double inline double abs() const {return sqrt(this->norm());} Matrix transport() const; Matrix adjoint() const; // for complex -- transport and conjugate Utility member functions adjoint: 共軛轉置矩陣 程式中若須要區分 double 和 complex, 可用 sizeof(XT). 當 sizeof (XT) <= 8 adjoint = transport In code norm: 先把 xx cast 轉成 complex, 取共軛再相乘, 乘完再取 real. template double Matrix ::norm() XT xx; xx = this->xpt[i]; sum = sum + (conj((CMPLX)xx) * xx).real(); 不然就必須把 Matrix 和 Matrix 分開寫兩個程式.

22 Declaration inside class: Matrix &operator= (const Matrix ); Matrix &operator+=(const Matrix ); Matrix &operator-=(const Matrix ); Unary operator Code outside the class: template Matrix &Matrix ::operator+=(const Matrix m2) { int i; if ((this->ncol==m2.ncol) && (this->nrow==m2.nrow)) for (i=0; i dim(); i++) this->xpt[i] += m2.xpt[i]; else { this->ncol = this->nrow = 0; delete [] this->xpt; } return *this; } // the code is same for both double and complex.

23 template friend ostream &operator ); template friend Matrix operator+(Matrix, Matrix ); template friend Matrix operator-(Matrix, Matrix ); template friend Matrix operator*(double, Matrix ); template friend Matrix operator*(CMPLX, Matrix ); template friend Matrix operator*(Matrix, double); template friend Matrix operator*(Matrix, CMPLX); template friend Matrix operator*(Matrix, Matrix ); Template defined friend functions 每一個用任何 class 或 變數 取代 TT 所得的函數, 都被當作是 class Matrix 的 friend function.

24 template Matrix operator+(Matrix m1, Matrix m2) { int i; Matrix m3; if ((m1.nrow == m2.nrow) && (m1.ncol == m2.ncol)) { m3 = m1; for (i=0; i

25 #include #include "ytluMatrix2.h “ // CMPLX = complex using namespace std; int main() { int n=3, m=4, i; CMPLX xx[12]; for (i=0; i<12; i++) xx[i] = CMPLX((double)i, (double)i*0.5 ); Matrix a1(n, m, xx), a3, a4; Matrix a2(m, n, xx); cout << " a1 = " << a1 ; cout << " 2nd COlumn of a1 " << a1.getcol(1); cout << " 2nd row of a1 " << a1.getrow(1); cout << " a2 = " << a2; a3 = a4 = a1; cout << "a1 = " << a1 << "a3 = " << a3 << "a4 = " << a4; cout << "a1 + a3 + a4 = " << (a1+a3+a4); cout << "a1 * (1i) " << a1 * CMPLX(0.0, 1.0); cout << "a1 * 2.0 " << a1 * 2.0; cout << "(1i) * a1 *2 " << CMPLX(0.0,1.0)*a1*2.0; cout << "a1 * a2" << a1 * a2; system("pause"); return 0; } Exmaple of program using Matrix class

26 #include #include "ytluMatrix2.h “ // typedef complex CMPLX using namespace std; int main() { int n=3, m=4; double xx[12] = { 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6., 7., 8., 9., 10., 11., 12.}; Matrix a1(3, 4, xx), a3, a4; Matrix a2(4, 3, xx); cout << " a1 = " << a1 ; cout << " 2nd Column of a1 " << a1.getcol(1); cout << " 2nd row of a1 " << a1.getrow(1); cout << " a2 = " << a2; a3 = a4 = a1; cout << "a1 = " << a1 << "a3 = " << a3 << "a4 = " << a4; cout << "a1 + a3 + a4 = " << (a1+a3+a4); cout << "a3 - a4 " << (a3-a4); cout << "a1 - a3 -a4 " << (a1-a3-a4); cout << "a1 * (1i) " << a1 * CMPLX(0.0, 1.0); cout << "a1 * 2.0 " << a1 * 2.0; cout << "(1i) * a1 *2 " << CMPLX(0.0,1.0)*a1*2.0; cout << "a1 * a2" << a1 * a2; cout << "(1i)*a1 *a2" << CMPLX(0.0, 1.0)*a1*a2; system("pause"); return 0; } Example of using Matrix


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