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David Evans CS201j: Engineering Software University of Virginia Computer Science Lecture 20: Hair Dryer Attacks Image.

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Presentation on theme: "David Evans CS201j: Engineering Software University of Virginia Computer Science Lecture 20: Hair Dryer Attacks Image."— Presentation transcript:

1 David Evans CS201j: Engineering Software University of Virginia Computer Science Lecture 20: Hair Dryer Attacks Image from GoldenBlue LLC.

2 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Menu Array Subtyping Java Security Review Violating Type Safety with a Hair Dryer

3 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Subtyping and Arrays If B <= A, should B[] <= A [] ?

4 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Array Subtyping static public Object getFirst (Object [] els) throws NoSuchElementException { if (els == null || els.length == 0) { throw new NoSuchElementException (); } else { return els[0]; } static public void main (String args[]) { try { Object o = getFirst (args); System.err.println ("The first parameter is: " + o); } catch (NoSuchElementException e) { System.err.println ("There are no parameters!"); }

5 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Array Store static public void setFirst (Object [] els) throws NoSuchElementException { if (els == null || els.length == 0) { throw new NoSuchElementException (); } else { els[0] = new Object (); } static public void main (String args[]) { try { Object o = getFirst (args); System.err.println ("The first parameter is: " + o); setFirst (args); } catch (NoSuchElementException e) { System.err.println ("There are no parameters!"); } > javac TestArrays.java > java TestArrays test The first parameter is: test Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ArrayStoreException at TestArrays.setFirst(TestArrays.java:16) at TestArrays.main(TestArrays.java:25)

6 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall ESC/Java and Array Stores > escjava TestArrays.java ESC/Java version 1.2.4, 27 September 2001 TestArrays... TestArrays: getFirst(java.lang.Object[])... [0.199 s] passed TestArrays: setFirst(java.lang.Object[]) TestArrays.java:16: Warning: Type of right-hand side possibly not a subtype of array element type (ArrayStore) els[0] = new Object ();

7 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Java Type checking: B <= A  B[] <= A[] Need a run-time check for every array store (to an array where the actual element type is not known) Better rule: no inference of array subtypes

8 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Java Security

9 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Java javac Compiler malcode.java malcode.class JVML Joe User Java Bytecode Verifier JavaVM “Okay” Invalid STOP Trusted Computing Base

10 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Bytecode Verifier Checks JVML code satisfies safety properties –Simulates program execution to know types are correct, but doesn’t need to examine any instruction more than once –After code is verified, it is trusted: is not checked for type safety at run time (except for casts, array stores) Key assumption: when a value is written to a memory location, the value in that memory location is the same value when it is read.

11 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Violating the Assumption … // The object on top of the stack is a SimObject astore_0 // There is a SimObject in location 0 aload_0 // The value on top of the stack is a SimObject If a cosmic ray hits the right bit of memory, between the store and load, the assumption might be wrong.

12 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Improving the Odds Set up memory so that a single bit error is likely to be exploitable Mistreat the hardware memory to increase the odds that bits will flip Following slides adapted (with permission) from Sudhakar Govindavajhala and Andrew W. Appel, Using Memory Errors to Attack a Virtual Machine, July 2003.

13 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Making Bit Flips Useful Fill up memory with Filler objects, and one Pointee object: class Filler {class Pointee { Pointee a1; Pointee a2; Pointee a2; Pointee a3; Filler f; Pointee a4; int b; Pointee a5; Pointee a6; Pointee a6; Pointee a7;}

14 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Filling Up Memory Pointee p = new Pointee (); Vector fillers = new Vector (); try { while (true) { Filler f = new Filler (); f.a1 = p; f.a2 = p; f.a3 = p; …; f.a7 =p; fillers.add (f); } } catch (OutOfMemoryException e) { ; } a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 Filler Object a1 a2 f b a5 a6 a7 Pointee Object a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 Filler Object

15 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Wait for a bit flip… Remember: there are lots of Filler objects (fill up all of memory) If a bit flips, good chance (~70%) it will be in a field of a Filler object and it will now point to a Filler object instead of a Pointee object a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 Filler Object a1 a2 f b a5 a6 a7 Pointee Object a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 Filler Object

16 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Type Violation After the bit flip, the value of f.a2 is a Filler object, but f.a2 was declared as a Pointee object! a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 Filler Object a1 a2 f b a5 a6 a7 Pointee Object a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 Filler Object Can we exploit this?

17 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Finding the Bit Flip while (true) { for (Enumeration e = fillers.elements (); e.hasMoreElements () ; ) { Filler f = (Filler) e.nextElement (); if (f.a1 != p) { // bit flipped! … } else if (f.a2 != p) { … } Pointee p = new Pointee (); Vector fillers = new Vector (); try { while (true) { Filler f = new Filler (); f.a1 = p; f.a2 = p; f.a3 = p; …; f.a7 =p; fillers.add (f); } } catch (OutOfMemoryException e) { ; }

18 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Violating Type Safety Filler f = (Filler) e.nextElement (); if (f.a1 != p) { // bit flipped! Object r = f.a1; // Filler fr = (Filler) r; // Cast is checked at run-time class Filler {class Pointee { Pointee a1; Pointee a2; Pointee a3; Filler f; Pointee a4; int b; Pointee a5; Pointee a6; Pointee a7;} Declared Type f.a1Pointee f.a1.bint fr == f.a1Filler fr.a4 == f.a1.bPointee

19 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Violating Type Safety Filler f = (Filler) e.nextElement (); if (f.a1 != p) { // bit flipped! Object r = f.a1; // Filler fr = (Filler) r; // Cast is checked at run-time f.a1.b = ; // Address of bank balance object fr.a4.a1 = p.a5; // Set it to a new value class Filler {class Pointee { Pointee a1; Pointee a2; Pointee a3; Filler f; Pointee a4; int b; Pointee a5; Pointee a6; Pointee a7;}

20 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Violating Type Safety Filler f = (Filler) e.nextElement (); if (f.a1 != p) { // bit flipped! Object r = f.a1; // Filler fr = (Filler) r; // Cast is checked at run-time f.a1.b = ; // Address of the SecurityManager fr.a4.a1 = null; // Set it to a null // Do whatever you want! There’s no security policy now… new File (“C:\thesis.doc”).delete (); class Filler {class Pointee { Pointee a1; Pointee a2; Pointee a3; Filler f; Pointee a4; int b; Pointee a5; Pointee a6; Pointee a7;}

21 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Getting a Bit Flip Wait for a Cosmic Ray –You have to be really, really patient… (or move machine out of Earth’s atmosphere) X-Rays –Expensive, not enough power to generate bit-flip High energy protons and neutrons –Work great - but, you need a particle accelerator Hmm….

22 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Using Heat n 50-watt spotlight bulb n Between 80° - 100°C, memory starts to have a few failures n Attack applet is successful (at least half the time)! n Hairdryer works too, but it fries too many bits at once Picture from Sudhakar Govindavajhala

23 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Should Anyone be Worried? Java virtual machine

24 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Recap Verifier assumes the value you write is the same value when you read it By flipping bits, we can violate this assumption By violating this assumption, we can violate type safety: get two references to the same storage that have inconsistent types By violating type safety, we can get around all other security measures For details, see paper linked from notes

25 6 November 2003CS 201J Fall Charge: Problem Set 6 Violate type safety to steal an election No need to open up ITC machines to try to heat up memory –Please don’t try this in lab (but try it at home if you want) Instead, use java –noverify to get around type checking: allows byte codes to run without verifying them


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