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Molecular Biology Course Section A Cells and macromolecules Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Protein DNA RNA.

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Presentation on theme: "Molecular Biology Course Section A Cells and macromolecules Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Protein DNA RNA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Molecular Biology Course Section A Cells and macromolecules Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Protein DNA RNA

2 Other macromolecules unrelated to MB course Polysaccharides lipids Complex macromolecules including these molecules

3 A1 Cellular classification (Eubacteria, Archea, Eukaryotes, Cellular differentiation) A2 Subcellular organelles (Nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, microbodies, organelle isolation) A3 Macromolecules (protein and nucleic acids, polysaccarides, lipids, complex macromolecules) A4 Large macromolecular Assemblies (protein complex, nucleoprotein, membranes, noncovalent interactions) Molecular Biology Course

4 A1 Cellular classification Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Classifying organisms according to cell types

5 Prokaryotes (原核生物) (Simplest living cells)Eukaryotes (真核生物) Eubacteria (真细菌) Archaea (古细菌) Structural features 1-10  m, no distinct subcellular organelles, pili, flagella 10-100  m, Organelles Biochemistry rRNA molecules are different among these kingdoms (rRNA based phylogeny, Fig. S2)Fig. S2 Ester linkage (酯键) (link) (link Ether linkage (醚键) Ester linkage (酯键) Energy production, metabolism Replication, transcription and translation Differentiatio n (link)link Formation of sporesEmbryonic cell differentiation 重点

6 Phylogenetic tree determined by rRNA sequence comparisons (rRNA 序列比较得到的系统发育树) A1 Cellular classification Fig. S2 back

7 典型原核细胞示意图 ( 类核 ) (毛)(毛) ( 鞭毛 ) A1 Cellular classification back 重点

8 Cell wall: to prevent cell lysis in environments of low osmolarity Plasma membrane: lipid bilayer and embedded proteins for small molecule exchange Genetic materials: nucleiod (single and circular chromosome), plasmid Ribosmes: protein synthesis machinery Pili: to allow the cell to attach to other cells and surface Flagella: cell movement

9 典型真核细胞示意图 A1 Cellular classification back 重点

10 Cytoskeletal Fiber : 1.Controls the shape and movement of the cell 2.Organizes some metabolic functions

11 1.Definition: The daughter cells change their patterns of gene expression to become functionally different from the parent cell after cell division. 2.The main molecular reason: change of the genes being transcribed, but not that of the DNA content. 3.Regulated by developmental control genes, mutations in these genes result in abnormal body plans. A1 Cellular classification back Cellular differentiation ( 细胞分化 )

12 For example Spore formation among prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes (Fig. S3)Fig. S3 Embryonic cell differentiate into highly specialized cells among higher eukaryotes. (Fig. S4)Fig. S4 Cross with Cell Biology Course

13 Cell differentiation in yeast ( 酵母) Mating: n + n  2n Spore formation: 2n  n + n A1 Cellular classification Fig. S3 back

14 Embryonic cell differentiation in Xenopus ( 爪蟾属 ) : from a single cell to an adult tadpole Differentiation is regulated by developmental control genes A1 Cellular classification Fig. S4 back

15 A2 Subcellular organelles Nuclei mitochondria and chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, microbodies, organelle isolation Molecular Biology Course Cross with Cell Biology

16 A2 Subcellular organelles

17 (核) DNA replication  RNA transcription & processing  Ribosome assembly A2 Subcellular organelles

18 (线粒体) Main function: cellular respiration/ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein synthesis Nuclear-encoded Mitochonrial proteins: synthesis and transportation A2 Subcellular organelles

19 (类囊体) (基粒) Photosynthesis, the light-dependent assimilation of CO 2 and H 2 O to form carbohydrates and O 2 DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein synthesis A plant specific organelle A2 Subcellular organelles (叶绿体) Nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins: synthesis and transportation

20 drug oxidation and detoxificatin ( 内质网 ) Protein synthesis (酯类代谢) (药物的氧化和解毒) A2 Subcellular organelles

21 Microbodies (lysosomes, peroxisomes and glycoxysomes) (溶酶体,过氧化物酶体,醛氧化酶体) Glyoxysomes are specialized plant peroxisomes which carry out the reactions of glyoxylate cycle (乙醛酸循环). A2 Subcellular organelles

22 Organelle isolation: centrifugation ( 离心 ) Density gradient centrifugation Rate zonal (velocity) centrifugation Equilibrium centrifugation Differential (speed) centrifugation: A2 Subcellular organelles Sedimentation coefficient (s) Density gradients: to prevent convective mixing of the components after separation and to ensure linear sedimentation rates of the components Supporting materials: sucrose ( 蔗糖), Ficoll, cesdium chloride (氯化铯)

23 A3 Macromolecules Protein (Section B) Nucleic acids (Section C) Polysaccharides Lipids Complex macromolecules MB course (X), Biochemistry (  ) Immunology (  ) Molecular Biology Course

24 A3 Macromolecules Polysaccharides are polymers of simple sugars covalently linked by glycosidic bonds.

25 A3 Macromolecules Lipids: individual lipids are not strictly macromolecules, large lipid molecules are built up from small monomeric units and involved in many macromolecule assembly Triglycerides ( 甘油三酯 ) back

26 Complex macromolecules ( 复合大分子) Covalent or noncovalent associations of more than one major classes of large biomolecules which greatly increases the functionality or structural capabilities of the complex. Nulceoprotein: nucleic acids + protein (Section A4) A3 Macromolecules Glycoprotein: carbohydrate + protein Lipoprotein: Lipid + protein

27 A4 Large macromolecular Assemblies Protein complexes Nucleoprotein Membranes Noncovalent interactions Molecular Biology Course

28 protein complexes Long polymers of tubulin Fig.1. Schematic diagram showing the (a) cross-sectional and (b) surface pattern of tubulin  and  subunits in a microtubule (microfilament) actin and myosin, components of muscle fibers as well keratin (cilia and flagella) A4 Large macromolecular Assemblies Noncovalent interaction 重点

29 Crystal structure of 50S rRNA A4 Large macromolecular Assemblies Nulceoprotein (1) associations of nucleic acids and protein Ribosome : ribosomal proteins + rRNAs 重点

30 Chromatin ( 染色质 ) : Viruses: Telomerase ( 端粒酶 ) : Ribonuclease P : A4 Large macromolecular Assemblies deoxyribonucleoprotein consisting of DNA & histones to form a repeating unit called nucleosome protein capsid + RNA or DNA replicating the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. RNA acts as the replication template, and protein catalyzes the reaction tRNA maturation. Protein + P RNA Nulceoprotein (2) 重点

31 Noncovalent interactions The force of macromolecule assembly A4 Large macromolecular Assemblies van der Waals forces: noncovalent associations between uncharged molecules. *Hydrogen bonds (dipole-dipole): nucleic acids *Hydrophobic interaction : proteins Charge-charge interactions (salt bridges): charged molecules Charge-dipole, dipole-dipole: either or both of the participants is a dipole. Dispersion interactions: non-poplar molecule 重点

32 ( 偶极 ) (uncharged molecules)

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