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**Course Outline Traditional Static Program Analysis Software Testing**

Theory Today: Compiler Optimizations, Control Flow Graphs Data-flow Analysis Classic analyses and applications Software Testing Dynamic Program Analysis

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Textbooks Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools by Aho, Lam, Sethi and Ullman Addison-Wesley 2007 Principles of Program Analysis by Nielsen, Nielsen and Hankin, Springer 1999 Notes, handouts and papers

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**Static Program Analysis**

Analyzes the source code of the program and reasons about the run-time program behavior Many uses Traditionally in compilers in order to perform optimizing, semantics-preserving transformations Recently in software tools for testing and validation: our focus

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**Outline An Example: basic compiler optimizations Control flow graphs**

Local optimizations --- within basic blocks Global optimizations --- across basic blocks Reading: Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools, by Aho, Lam, Sethi and Ullman, Chapter 9.1

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**Compilation code optimizer code generator source program**

intermediate code intermediate code target program front end symbol table An optimization is a semantics-preserving transformation

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**Example Define classical optimizations using an example Fortran loop**

Opportunities result from table-driven code generation … sum = 0 do 10 i = 1, n 10 sum = sum + a[i]*a[i]

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**Three Address Code sum = 0 initialize sum**

i = 1 initialize loop counter if i > n goto 15 loop test, check for limit t1 = addr(a) – 4 t2 = i * 4 a[i] t3 = t1[t2] t4 = addr(a) – 4 t5 = i * 4 a[i] t6 = t4[t5] t7 = t3 * t6 a[i]*a[i] t8 = sum + t7 sum = t8 increment sum i = i increment loop counter goto 3 …

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**Control Flow Graph (CFG)**

sum = 0 i = 1 if i > n goto 15 t1 = addr(a) – 4 t2 = i*4 t3 = t1[t2] t4 = addr(a) – 4 t5 = i*4 t6 = t4[t5] t7 = t3*t6 t8 = sum + t7 sum = t8 i = i + 1 goto 3 T 15. … F

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**Common Subexpression Elimination**

sum = sum = 0 i = i = 1 if i > n goto if i > n goto 15 t1 = addr(a) – t1 = addr(a) – 4 t2 = i* t2 = i*4 t3 = t1[t2] t3 = t1[t2] t4 = addr(a) – t4 = addr(a) – 4 t5 = i* t5 = i*4 t6 = t4[t5] t6 = t4[t5] t7 = t3*t t7 = t3*t6 t8 = sum + t7 10a t7 = t3*t3 sum = t t8 = sum + t7 i = i a sum = sum + t7 goto sum = t8 … i = i + 1 14. goto 3

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**Invariant Code Motion 1. sum = 0 1. sum = 0 2. i = 1 2. i = 1**

if i > n goto 15 2a t1 = addr(a) - 4 t1 = addr(a) – if i > n goto 15 5. t2 = i * t1 = addr(a) - 4 t3 = t1[t2] 5. t2 = i * 4 10a t7 = t3 * t t3 = t1[t2] 11a sum = sum + t7 10a t7 = t3 * t3 13. i = i a sum = sum + t7 14. goto i = i + 1 15. … goto 3 15. …

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**Strength Reduction 1. sum = 0 1. sum = 0 2. i = 1 2. i = 1**

2a t1 = addr(a) – 4 2a t1 = addr(a) - 4 3. if i > n goto 15 2b t2 = i * 4 5. t2 = i * if i > n goto 15 6. t3 = t1[t2] t2 = i * 4 10a t7 = t3 * t t3 = t1[t2] 11a sum = sum + t7 10a t7 = t3 * t3 13. i = i a sum = sum + t7 14. goto b t2 = t2 + 4 15. … i = i + 1 14. goto 3 15. …

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**Test Elision and Induction Variable Elimination**

1. sum = sum = 0 2. i = i = 1 2a t1 = addr(a) – 4 2a t1 = addr(a) – 4 2b t2 = i * 4 2b t2 = i * 4 3. if i > n goto 15 2c t9 = n * 4 6. t3 = t1[t2] 3. if i > n goto 15 10a t7 = t3 * t3 3a if t2 > t9 goto 15 11a sum = sum + t7 6. t3 = t1[t2] 11b t2 = t a t7 = t3 * t3 13. i = i a sum = sum + t7 14. goto b t2 = t2 + 4 15. … i = i + 1 14. goto 3a 15. …

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**Constant Propagation and Dead Code Elimination**

1. sum = sum = 0 2. i = i = 1 2a t1 = addr(a) – 4 2a t1 = addr(a) - 4 2b t2 = i * 4 2b t2 = i * 4 2c t9 = n * 4 2c t9 = n * 4 3a if t2 > t9 goto 15 2d t2 = 4 6. t3 = t1[t2] 3a if t2 > t9 goto 15 10a t7 = t3 * t t3 = t1[t2] 11a sum = sum + t7 10a t7 = t3 * t3 11b t2 = t a sum = sum + t7 14. goto 3a 11b t2 = t2 + 4 15. … goto 3a 15. …

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**New Control Flow Graph T F 1. sum = 0 2. t1 = addr(a) - 4**

3. t9 = n * 4 4. t2 = 4 5. if t2 > t9 goto 11 6. t3 = t1[t2] 7. t7 = t3 * t3 8. sum = sum + t7 9. t2 = t2 + 4 10. goto 5 T 11. … F

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**Building Control Flow Graph**

Partition into basic blocks Determine the leader statements (i) First program statement (ii) Targets of conditional or unconditional goto’s (iii) Any statement following a goto For each leader, its basic block consists of the leader and all statements up to but not including the next leader or the end of the program

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**Building Control Flow Graph**

Add flow-of-control information There is a directed edge from basic block B1 to block B2 if B2 can immediately follow B1 in some execution sequence B2 immediately follows B1 and B1 does not end in an unconditional jump There is a jump from the last statement in B1 to the first statement in B2 Dead code.

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**Leader Statements and Basic Blocks**

sum = 0 i = 1 if i > n goto 15 t1 = addr(a) – 4 t2 = i*4 t3 = t1[t2] t4 = addr(a) – 4 t5 = i*4 t6 = t5[t5] t7 = t3*t6 t8 = sum + t7 sum = t8 i = i + 1 goto 3 …

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**Analysis and optimizing transformations**

Local optimizations – performed by local analysis of a basic block Global optimizations – requires analysis of statements outside a basic block Local optimizations are performed first, followed by global optimizations Standard basic block optimizations: Common subexpression elimination, copy propagation, dead-code elimination. Loop optimizations: code motion, induction variable removal and reduction in strength

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**Local optimizations --- optimizing transformations of a basic blocks**

Local common subexpression elimination Dead code elimination Copy propagation Constant propagation Renaming of compiler-generated temporaries to share storage

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**Example 1: Local Common Subexpression Elimination**

t2 = a [ t1 ] t3 = 4 * i t4 = b [ t3 ] t5 = t2 * t4 t6 = prod * t5 prod = t6 t7 = i + 1 i = t7 if i <= 20 goto 1

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**Example 2: Local Dead Code Elimination**

a = y ’. a = y + 2 z = x + w 2’. x = a x = y ’. z = b + c z = b + c 4’. b = a b = y + 2

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**Example 3: Local Constant Propagation**

t1 = 1 Assuming a, k, t3, and t4 are used beyond: a = t1 1’. a = 1 t2 = 1 + a 2’. k = 2 k = t2 3’. t4 = 8.2 t3 = cvttoreal(k) 4’. t3 = 8.2 t4 = t3 t3 = t4 D. Gries’ algorithm: Process 3-address statements in order Check if operand is constant; if so, substitute If all operands are constant, Do operation, and add value to table associated with LHS If not all operands constant Delete any table entry for LHS

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**Problems Troubles with arrays and pointers. Consider: x = a[k];**

a[j] = y; z = a[k]; Can we transform this code into the following? z = x; Does the store into a[j] affect the load of a[k]? An assignment through an array or a pointer kills all the nodes. Also, a procedure call in a basic block kills all the nodes. Introducing ordering edges 1. any evaluation of or assignment to an element of array “a” must follow the previous assignment to an element of that array if there is one. 2. any assignment to an element of array “a” must follow any previous evaluation of “a”. 3. any use of any identifier must follow the previous procedure call or indirect pointer assignment. 4. any proc. Call or indirect assignment must follow all previous evaluations of any identifier. We can do a similar fix for variable access through pointers.

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**Global optimizations --- require analysis outside of basic blocks**

Global common subexpression elimination Dead code elimination Constant propagation Loop optimizations Loop invariant code motion Strength reduction Induction variable elimination

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**Global optimizations --- depend on data-flow analysis**

Data-flow analysis refers to a body of techniques that derive information about the flow of data along program execution paths For example, in order to perform global subexpression elimination we need to determine that 2 textually identical expressions evaluate to the same result along any possible execution path

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**Introduction to Data-flow Analysis**

Collects information about the flow of data along execution paths E.g., at some point we needed to know where a variable was last defined Data-flow information Data-flow analysis

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**Data-flow Analysis 1 G = (N, E, ρ)**

Data-flow equations (also referred as transfer functions): out(i) = gen(i) (in(i) – kill(i)) Equations can be defined over basic blocks or over single statements. We will use equations over single statements 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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**Four Classical Data-flow Problems**

Reaching definitions (Reach) Live uses of variables (Live) Available expressions (Avail) Very Busy Expressions (VeryB) Def-use chains built from Reach, and the dual Use-def chains, built from Live, play role in many optimizations Avail enables global common subexpression elimination VeryB is used for conservative code motion

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Reaching Definitions Definition A statement that may change the value of a variable (e.g., x = i+5) A definition of a variable x at node k reaches node n if there is a path clear of a definition of x from k to n. k x = … x = … n … = x

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Live Uses of Variables Use Appearance of a variable as an operand of a 3-address statement (e.g., y=x+4) A use of a variable x at node n is live on exit from k if there is a path from k to n clear of definition of x. k x = … x = … n … = x

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Def-use Relations Use-def chain links an use to a definition that reaches that use Def-use chain links a definition to an use that it reaches k x = … x = … n … = x

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**Optimizations Enabled**

Dead code elimination (Def-use) Code motion (Use-def) Constant propagation (Use-def) Strength reduction (Use-def) Test elision (Use-def) Copy propagation (Def-use)

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**Dead Code Elimination T F**

1. sum = 0 2. i = 1 T 3. if i > n goto 15 F 4. t1 = addr(a)–4 5. t2 = i * 4 6. i = i + 1 After strength reduction, test elision and constant propagation, the def-use links from i=1 disappear. It becomes dead code.

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**Constant Propagation 1. i = 1 2. i = 1 3. i = 2 4. p = i*2 5. i = 1**

6. q = 5*i+3 = 8

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**Terms Control flow graph (CFG) Basic block Local optimization**

Global optimization Data-flow analysis

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