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Technology Guide 2 Software T2-1. IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-2 Types of Software Application Software –A set of computer instructions, written.

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Presentation on theme: "Technology Guide 2 Software T2-1. IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-2 Types of Software Application Software –A set of computer instructions, written."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology Guide 2 Software T2-1

2 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-2 Types of Software Application Software –A set of computer instructions, written in a programming language Systems Software –An intermediary between computer hardware and application programs and knowledgeable users may also directly manipulate

3 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-3 Types of Application Software Spearsheets software Data management systems (DBMSs) Word processing Desktop publishing Graphics : presentation graphics; analysis graphics; and engineering graphics Multimedia Communications software Software suites Workgroup software Enterprisewide integrated software

4 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-4 Systems Software System Control Programs –Operating systems job management resource management data management –Graphic user interface operating systems –Processing tasks multiprogramming and multiprocessing time-sharing –Virtual memory virtual machine operating system

5 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-5 Systems Support Programs System utility programs –accomplish common tasks System performance monitors –monitor computer system performance and produce reports containing detailed statistics concerning the use of system resources System security monitors –monitor the use of a computer system to protect it and its resources from unauthorized use, fraud, or destruction

6 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-6 Systems Support Programs System development programs –translate user computer programs written in source code into object or machine code

7 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-7 Programming Languages Evolution of Programming Languages –Machine language : 0-1 long; difficult programming –Assembly language : assemble repetitive instructions, shorter code –Procedural language : include commands, shorter code –Non-procedural languages : application generators; commands specify results –Intelligent languages : natural language processing Generations 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5 th Progress

8 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-8 High-Level Languages Procedural Languages ( 3 rd generation) –require the programmer to specify exactly how the computer will accomplish a task Nonprocedural Languages (4 th generation) –allows the user to specify the desired results without having to specify the detailed procedures needed for achieving the results Natural Languages Programming Language –NLP (5 th generation)

9 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-9 New Programming Languages Object-oriented Programming Languages –Object – models “things” in the real world –Class – a template or general framework that defines the methods and attributes to be included in a particular type of object –Message passing – allows objects to interact with each other –Encapsulation – inaccessibility of data in an object –Inheritance – define a class of objects as a special case of a more general class –Polymorphism – send the same message to several different receivers (objects)

10 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-10 New Programming Languages Visual Programming Languages –used within a graphical environment –allows developers to create applications by manipulating graphical images directly –examples: Visual Basic, DELPHI, CA Visual, Power Objects, and Visual C ++

11 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-11 Internet-Oriented Languages Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) –standard language the Web uses for creating and recognizing hypermedia hypermedia –hypertext : an approach to data management in which data area stored in a network of nodes connected by links (called hyperlinks) –uniform resource locators (URLs) : represent hypermedia links and links to network service within HTML –dynamic HTML : next step beyond HTML

12 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-12 Internet-Oriented Languages eXtensible Markup Language (XML) –optimized for document delivery across the Net Java –develop applications that work across the Internet JavaBeans –platform-neutral, component architecture for Java ActiveX –a set of technologies from Microsoft that combines different programming languages into a single, integrated Web site

13 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-13 Internet-Oriented Languages Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) –a file format for describing three-dimensional interactive worlds and objects –represent static and animated objects –have hyperlinks to other media such as sound, video, and image Web Browsers –major software tool for accessing and working with the web –display various media and active the hyperlinks –Major competing browsers : Netscape Navigator and Communicator and Microsoft’s Explorer

14 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-14 Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) It is a tool or programmers, systems analysts, business analysts, and systems developers to help automate software development and at he same time improve software quality. It is a combination of software tools and structured software development methods.

15 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-15 Categories of CASE Tools Upper CASE (U-CASE) –focus primarily on the design aspects of systems development Lower CASE (L-CASE) –helps with programming s and related activities Integrated CASE (I-CASE) –incorporates both U-CASE and L-CASE functionality and provide support for many tasks throughout the SDLC

16 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-16 Advantages of CASE Tools Improves productivity Results in better interaction among users and information systems professionals Makes easier to create prototypes Makers easier to make system design changes as circumstances change

17 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-17 Software Issues and Trends Software Licensing –Vendors can copyright software –Guidelines : when information systems (IS) managers cannot find proof of purchase for software, they should get rid of the software or purchase new licenses

18 IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban T2-18 Software Issues and Trends Software Upgrades –may offer valuable enhancements –may contain bugs Shareware –user is expected to pay the author a modest amount for the privilege of using it Freeware –software that is fee

19 Copyright  2001 John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner in unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Son, Inc. Adopters of the textbook are granted permission to make back-up copies for his/her own use only, to make copies for distribution to student of the course the textbook is used in, and to modify this material to best suit their instructional needs. Under no circumstances can copies be made for resale. The publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. IT for Management Prof. Efraim Turban 6-19


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