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1T2 The forgotten thyroid hormone Marc Harris ND.

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Presentation on theme: "1T2 The forgotten thyroid hormone Marc Harris ND."— Presentation transcript:

1 1T2 The forgotten thyroid hormone Marc Harris ND

2 2 Disclosure Statement 2 I have no relevant financial or non-financial relationship(s) within the products or services described, reviewed, evaluated or compared in this presentation

3 3 Early Thyroid Research Late 1800 ’ s Thermogenesis

4 44

5 5 Mid 1950 ’ s Uncoupling Lardy, H.A and Feldcott, G. (1951)Ann. NY acad. Sci., 54,

6 6Uncoupling 6

7 ’ s 7 Tata 1st considered transcription T3 injected to hypothyroid rats Increased metabolic rate Actinomycin D No increase in metabolism Tata, J. R., Ernster, L., and Lindberg, O. (1962) Nature 193,

8 8 Location of Action 8 Cellular binding sites for T3 Extra nuclear actions Oppenheimer, J. H., Koerner, D., Schwartz, H. L., aand Surks, M.I. (1972) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 35, Oppenheimer, J. H., Schwartz, H.L., Mariash, C.N., Kinlaw, W. B., Wong, N. C. W., and Freake, H.C., (1987) Endocrine Rev., 8,

9 9 Iodothyronine deiodinase 9 D1, D2, D3 D1, D2 D3 T4 > T3 rT3 T4 & T3

10 10

11 11T2 No further studies warranted Inactive Worthless metabolite

12 T3 Deiodinase inhibitor T2 Deiodinase inhibitor Horst,. Rokos H., and Seitz, H. J.(1989) biochem. J. 261,

13 13T2 3,5 ’ - diiodothyronine 3 ’,5 ’ - diiodothyronine 3,5 - diiodothyronine 3,3- diiodothyronine

14 14 T2 Location of action 14 T3 And T2 administered to hypothyroid rats Energy expenditure measured by RER T3 and T2 had equivalent metabolic stimulation Deiodinase inhibited T2 stimulation of Beta Oxidation Cimmino, M., Mion, F., Goglia, F., Minaire, Y., and Geloen, A. (1996) J. Endocrinol., 149,

15 15 Beta Oxidation 15

16 16 T3, T2 16 O2 consumption Thermogenesis Equivalent T2 Peaked at 24 hours T3 Peaked at hours

17 17 Hours T2 T3

18 18 Thyroid and Mitochondria 18 The cold rat study

19 19 Cold exposed Rats 19 T2 and T3 injected Improved cold tolerance by different mechanisms T3 acting on cellular DNA level Lanni, A., Moreno, M., Lombardi A., and Goglia F. (1998) Pflugers Arch.-Eur J. Physiol., 436, , T2 thought to directly interact with mitochondria

20 20 T2 in vitro 20 Cellular energetics Lombardi, A., Lanni, A., Moreno, C., M., and Goglia, F., (1998) Biochem. J., Brand, M.D. (1997)J. Exp, Biology., Where does T2 work? 1. Proton motive force 2. Dissipation

21 21 T2 Location in the mitochondrion NADP > NADPH

22 22 Cytochrome C Oxidase 22

23 23G6PD Lombardi, A., Beneduce, L., Moreno, M., Diano, S., Colantuoni, V., Ursini, M. V., Lanni, A., and Goglia, F. (2000) Endocrinology, 141, G6PD and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway

24 Aromatic Amino Acids 24 TyrosineTryptophan

25 Tyrosine/Tryptophan 25

26 Further tyrosine metabolism 26

27 One more step 27

28 28 Pentose Phosphate Pathway 28 Nucleotide biosynthesis Detoxification Reduction of oxidized glutathione Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases Central Brain Processing Synthesis of ATP Fatty acid biosynthesis Cholesterol biosynthesis Thyroid hormone production Serotonin production Dopamine Production

29 29 GDPD Revisited 29 NADP > NADPH

30 30 Calcium Uptake Hummerich, H., and Soboll, S. (1989) Biochem. J.,258, Cellular calcium - the correct amount

31 31 T2 functions - Summary 31 Increase B Oxidation Increase G6PD Stimulates Growth Hormone Increases Metabolic Rate Warms up Cold Rats Regulates Calcium Uptake Regulates Deiodinases Complementary to T3 stimulation

32 32 T2 Dosage 32 1 mg/kg 120 pounder: 50 mg 200 pounder 90 mg

33 33Availability Green Stone Swiss Waterstone Tech Jinan Boss Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. Phone: Fax:

34 34

35 35 Thyroid hormone T2 Facts are true until proven otherwise Beliefs are true until proven otherwise But, then they are still true Author Unknown

36 36 T2 - the forgotten Thyroid Hormone 36 Marc Harris ND 702 N 19th Ave Bozeman MT

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