Presentation on theme: "Linear Programming Optimal Solutions and Models Without Unique Optimal Solutions 2004/B-Spring%2004/B--"— Presentation transcript:
Linear Programming Optimal Solutions and Models Without Unique Optimal Solutions 2004/B-Spring%2004/B-- PowerPoint%20Excel%20HW.htm
Finding the Optimal Point - Review X X1 OPTIMAL POINT Move the objective function line parallel to itself until it touches the last point of the feasible region.
Minimization Objective Function X X1 OPTIMAL POINT
Different Objective Function X X1 OPTIMAL POINT
Another Objective Function X X1 OPTIMAL POINT
Still Another Objective Function X X1 OPTIMAL POINT
Extreme Points and Optimal Solutions Fundamental Linear Programming Theorem: Why not simply list all extreme points? –More cumbersome than solving the model in most cases. –Model may not have an optimal solution. If a linear programming model has an optimal solution, then extreme point an extreme point will be optimal.
Models With No Solutions Infeasibility X X1. Max 8X 1 + 5X 2 s.t.2X 1 + 1X 2 ≤ X 1 + 4X 2 ≤ 2400 X 1 - X 2 ≤ 350 X 1, X 2 ≥ 0 X 1 ≥ 800 No points in common. No points satisfy all constraints simultaneously. No Solutions! Problem isINFEASIBLE.
Infeasibility infeasibleA problem is infeasible when there are no solutions that satisfy all the constraints. Infeasibility can occur from –Input Error –Misformulation –Simply an inconsistent set of contraints SolveExcel – When Solve is clicked:
Unbounded Feasible Region Models With An “Unbounded” Solution X X1 Max 8X 1 + 5X 2 s.t. X 1 - X 2 ≤ 350 X 1 ≥ 200 X 2 ≥ 200 Can increase indefinitely Unbounded Solution
Unbounded Feasible Region Models With An Unbounded Feasible Region – Optimal Solution X X1 Min 8X 1 + 5X 2 s.t. X 1 - X 2 ≤ 350 X 1 ≥ 200 X 2 ≥ 200 OPTIMAL POINT
Unboundedness An unbounded feasible region extends to infinity in some direction. If the problem is unbounded, the feasible region must be unbounded. If the feasible region is unbounded, the problem may or may not be unbounded. An unbounded solution means you left out some constraints – you cannot make an “infinite” profit. SolveExcel – When Solve is clicked Means the problem isunbounded
Multiple Optimal Solutions s.t.2X 1 + 1X 2 ≤ X 1 + 4X 2 ≤ X 1 - 1X 2 ≤ 350 X 1, X 2 ≥ 0 2X 1 + 1X 2 ≤ X1 + 4X2 ≤ X1 - 1X2 ≤ 350 X X1 MAX 8X1 + 4X2 Optimal Extreme Point All points on the boundary between optimal extreme points are also optimal
Multiple Optimal Solutions canWhen an objective function line is parallel to a constraint the problem can have multiple optimal solutions. –The constraint must not be a redundant constraint but must be a boundary constraint. –The objective function must move in the direction of the constraint— MINIn the previous example if the objective function had been MIN 8X 1 + 4X 2, then it is moved in the opposite direction of the constraint and (0,0) would be the optimal solution. Multiple optimal solutions allow the decision maker to use secondary criteria to select one of the optimal solutions that has another desirable characteristic (e.g. Max X 1 or X 1 = 3X 2, etc.)
Generating the Multiple Optimal Solutions Any weighted average of optimal solutions is also optimal. –In the previous example it can be shown that the two optimal extreme points are (320,360) and (450, 100). Thus.5(320,360) +.5(450,100) = (385,230) is also an optimal point that is half-way between these two points..8(320,360) +.2(450,100) = (346,308) is also an optimal point that is 8/10 of the way up the line toward (320,360).
Multiple Optimal Solutions in Excel Excel – Identification of multiple solutions Sensitivity Report If an Allowable Decrease or an Allowable Increase of an Objective Function Coefficient is 0. We discuss how to generate and choose an appropriate alternate optimal solution using Excel later.
Review When a linear programming model is solved it: –Has a unique optimal solution –Has multiple optimal solutions –Is Infeasible –Is unbounded Identification of each –By graph –By Excel If a linear program has an optimal solution, then an extreme point is optimal.