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Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference - Parametric Fuzzy System - u Takagi and Sugeno introduced a new inference structure based on fuzzy sets theory. Such structure is either called a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system or a parametric fuzzy system. It has been demonstrated to function as a efficient model for systems that can be fully represented by their input / output relationships u Like Mamdani’s Rule-Based Fuzzy Systems, parametric fuzzy systems are also based on a rule base approach. But the rules consequents, instead of being formed by fuzzy relations, are linear parametric equations in terms of the inputs of the system.

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u Theoretically the consequents could be any function, even non-linear. However, linear functions have been employed most of the time. Adaptive training have been used for further non-linear capabilities u Combination of a global rule-base description with local linear approximations by means of a linear regression model corresponding to a linear input-output model that one would use for describing the system locally.

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Parametric Fuzzy Controllers u The parametric form of fuzzy rules has the following structure: IF s 1 = S 1 i AND s 2 = S 2 i THEN v out i = a 0 i + a 1 i s 1 +a 2 i s 2 +…+ a p i s p i where si is an input variable; v out is an output variable, Sji is a linguistic fuzzy membership function, and the coefficient set {aji} is the parameter set to be identified.

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u In the parametric method, the linear equation coefficients Aij are trained by the example data. This is comparable with the learning phase of a neural network ! u The linear equation outputs are then defuzzified, i.e., the weighted average of the consequents is evaluated by the respective membership values to determine the crisp output.

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u Example, consider two rules : R1 : IF x 1 is BIG AND x 2 is MEDIUM THEN u 1 = x 1 -3x 2 R2 : IF x 1 is SMALL AND x 2 is BIG THEN u 2 = 4 +2x 1 BIG (x1) = 0.3 BIG (x2) =0.35 SMALL (x1) = 0.7 MED (x2) = 0.75 u Thus the weighted normalized sum one gets u U = [0.3(-176) + 0.35(12)]/(0.3 + 0.35) = -74.77

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Power Electronics Problem: u Look at the current waveform for a three-phase rectifier and by measuring the width and height of the current pulses try to figure out the RMS total current value

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u Assume that a table of values, gained either from measurements or simulations, is available for a two-input (W and H) single-output (Is) system. The task is to find linear segments of the output function by fitting a straight line on those of its values which correspond to the fuzzy inputs defined by linguistic membership functions.

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u The fuzzy parametric estimation algorithm shown can be summarized as follows: u Read the parameters W and H for an operating condition. u Convert W to a normalized value after dividing by the Wmax value to get W (pu). u Identify the interval in which W (pu) lies. u Fuzzify by calculating the degree of membership 1 and 2, as shown u Fire the two relevant rules and calculate I s1 - I s2, I f1 - I f2 and DPF 1 - DPF 2 from the linear equations using the known W and H. u Defuzzify the crisp output by the weighted average (C-o-A) method.

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Linear Filtering with Parametric Fuzzy Systems u The beauty of Parametric Fuzzy Systems is the ability of representing very complex systems and to embedded linear controllers. u Linear controllers are linear filters as : u This equation describes a filter of n-th order whose coefficients dependent on the state vector

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u The parametric fuzzy controller permits a smooth transition between the individual controllers with the following compact representation : u which expressed linguistically says that IF state vector x has the property L i THEN apply controller f i (x)

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Training Parametric Fuzzy Systems u In order to train the parametric fuzzy system it is necessary to have input-output data sets for the system to be modeled. u Fuzzy partitions are then created for the input variables of the data sets, i. e., fuzzy membership functions are defined to fill in the universe of discourse of the input variables. u Then, the combination of these membership functions for each input variable form the antecedent part of the fuzzy rule base.

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u Given a set of input-output data represented by x 1j, x 2j,…, x kj, y j, (j=1,2,…,m), the consequent parameters can be estimated by RLS where u Equations below show the input-output expressions for a general parametric fuzzy system that uses a set of n fuzzy rules and k inputs.

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u Then the parameter vector P can be calculated by Let X (m x n.(k+1) matrix), Y (m vector) and P (n.(k+1) vector) be :

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u The parameter vector can be recursively estimated by a stable-state Kalman filter like: u where x i are lines of the matrix X. The initial values of P 0 e S 0 are set as follows, with being a large initial value and I the identity matrix. :

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u The following Matlab programs were developed to implement Parametric Fuzzy Models: Init_TSModel.m Adjust_TSModel.m Run_TSModel.m u A test was made with a straight line data set (Adj1Reta.m) as well as a two straight lines data set (Adj2Reta.m). u The TS system is configured with rectangular membership functions covering the entire input space, one at a time, only two rules and 4 parameters. This will allow the system to learn the exact parameters of the straight lines used to generate the data sets.

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Estimation of a system with two straight lines

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u Actual parameters : a1 = 0.2 b1 = -5.0 a2 = -0.7 b2 = 1.5 u Estimated Parameters : a1= 0.1727 b1 = -5.6977 a2 = -0.6289 b2 = 1.6174 => Discontinuity is very hard to capture =>Convex membership functions will help to smooth out the discontinuity => System has good convergence !

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Approximation of a Nonlinear Curve Function approximated: Y = x 3 + 1 Fuzzy partition with 6 terms, yielding 12 parameters to be estimated. Average Error of 1 %.

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Approximation of a Nonlinear Surface Function approximated: Z = 1 – (x 2 + y 2 ) Fuzzy partition with 10 terms, yielding 300 parameters to be estimated. Average error of 2 %.

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Performance Criteria u Accuracy: The accuracy of the parametric approach is generally superior to the rule based approach for the same number of rules. Of course, accuracy can be improved by a larger number of membership functions and a correspondingly larger number of rules. u Response time: One outstanding advantage of fuzzy estimation is a very fast that the response time is very fast when compared to conventional hardware or software estimation. This is because the fuzzy method tends to estimate the output instantaneously from the input pattern. The reason is that fuzzy systems are memoryless input- output mapping systems and pattern recognizers like a neural network. u Robustness: Robustness means the system’s relative insensitivity to both external and internal disturbances. The fact that a system can be updated regularly on line in real time assures that the system is rapidly adapted to the latest changes that occurred.

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Comparison between rule based and parametric fuzzy approaches u Rule based fuzzy approach is more suitable for acquiring and implementing expert human operator knowledge, while the parametric fuzzy approach is best used when input/output numerical data are available. u Parametric fuzzy approach yields a better estimation accuracy because it is a hybrid of rule based fuzzy and numerical components. The rule based fuzzy approach requires no training, while the parametric fuzzy approach requires linear coefficient adjustment performed by statistical multi-linear procedures.

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u Parametric fuzzy algorithm is inherently adaptive, because the coefficients Aij can be altered for system tuning. Thus a real-time adaptive implementation of the parametric approach is feasible by dynamically changing the linear coefficients by means of a recursive least-square algorithm repeatedly on a recurrent basis u Adaptive versions of the rule-based approach, changing the rule weights (Degree of Support) or the membership functions recurrently is possible. u Disadvantage of the parametric fuzzy approach is the loss of the linguistic formulation of output consequents, sometimes important for industrial plant/process control environment

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