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® Apprenticeship in Germany L’apprendistato in Germania Festival del Lavoro, Brescia (Italy) Workshop21 June 2012 “Dove si incontra il lavoro: L’apprendistato.

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Presentation on theme: "® Apprenticeship in Germany L’apprendistato in Germania Festival del Lavoro, Brescia (Italy) Workshop21 June 2012 “Dove si incontra il lavoro: L’apprendistato."— Presentation transcript:

1 ® Apprenticeship in Germany L’apprendistato in Germania Festival del Lavoro, Brescia (Italy) Workshop21 June 2012 “Dove si incontra il lavoro: L’apprendistato in Europa” Jessica Erbe Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB, Bonn)

2 ® Contents of the Presentation 2  “Locating” the apprenticeship in the German education system  Understanding the “dual” apprenticeship system (training purpose, main principles of the VET system, formalisation, organisation or: what's „dual“ about it?)  Financial aspects of the apprenticeship  Key Figures on the apprenticeship (entry rates, age & prior education of pupils, apprentices & companies, duration, success, employment)  Role of social partners Abbreviation: (I)VET stands for (initial) vocational education and training “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

3 ® Continuing education Education System in Germany (simplified) 3 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Dual system 45% ISCED 3B Lower secondary school Secondary level I 10 (12) to 15/16 years Primary level 6 to 10 (12) years Secondary level II 16 to 19 years – with re-entries between sectors Tertiary level over 19 years Primary school Full-time voc. school 15% ISCED 3B Upper secondary school 40% ISCED 3A Intermediate school Grammar school Universities ISCED 5A+6 Continuing vocational training ISCED 5B

4 ® Acquisition of employability Acquisition of knowledge of work processes Self-management and individual responsibility Goals Comprehensive learning Problem and product orientation Task and experience reference Inter-disciplinary character Fea- tures What is the Training Purpose of the Apprenticeship? 4 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Learning at the work place

5 ® 1. Occupation-based approach („Berufskonzept“) Employability through a comprehensive bundle of competencies (skills, knowledge and cross cutting key competencies) Federal state regulated occupational profiles and training regulations Individual and social integration by a foothold in a skilled occupation A foundation for lifelong learning 2. Principle of consensus between employer organisations, trade unions, federal government and federal states (Länder) government 3. Shared responsibilities Two sites of learning: companies and vocational schools Shared responsibility between government and economy Shared responsibility between federal level and federal state level What are the main principles of VET system? 5 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

6 ® National Standards (Vocational Training Regulations) Designation of the training occupation Duration of traineeship Profile of the training occupation General training plan Examination requirements training regulations New training regulations 230 modernised training regulations examplemechatronic On what basis are people trained? 6 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

7 ® In-Company Training Apprenticeship contract Chambers and other competent bodies Trainer Vocational Training Act Company training schedule Enterprise Training regulations Compulsory vocational school District Presidents or School supervisor Vocational school teacher School acts of the states Curriculum Vocational school Framework curricula Counselling and monitoring Training personnel Legal basis for training Learning venues Legal basis for training relationship Legal basis for recognised occupations Content of training School Training What's „Dual“ about the German Dual System? Basic Elements 7 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) FundingTraining enterprises States, districts and municipalities  € §    

8 ® Figures for the year 2007/ 30.9 billion EUR (in total) State Who finances the apprenticeship? 8 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

9 ® Why? What are the Costs and Benefits for Companies? 9 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Source: Walden et al (BIBB) Average amounts per apprentice per year

10 ® Who Enters the Apprenticeship System? 10 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Level of school leaving certificate of all new apprentices in 2009 (100%) Average age of apprenticeship beginner 19+ years Source: BIBB-Datenreport 2011 Entries into IVET 2010 Dual system IVET % Full-time school IVET % Transition/Integration % grammar school (could go to univ.)20% intermediate school43% secondary general school33% no school leaving certificate4%

11 ® Number of newly concluded training contracts in 2010 male 57,7 %; female 42,3 % Number of apprentices in total out of which publicly funded ,5% Source: BIBB-Datenreport 2011, Figures for Germany Key Figures on the Apprenticeship in the Dual System 11 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Companies offering training (2010) = 22,5% of all companies Average training allowance 678 € Training contracts' termination rate (2009) 22,6% Final examinations' success rate 90,2% Number of training profiles350 Regular duration2 – 3,5 years

12 ® How is the Labour Market Situation after the Apprenticeship? 12 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) (in 2011)GermanyEU year olds8,1 %22,7 % year olds5,2 %8,4 % Total5,5 %9,8 % (in 2009)Germany No vocational qualification21,9 % Vocational qualification (IVET/CVET)6,6 % Higher education degree (ISCED 5A)2,5 % Total8,4 % Overall unemployment rate by age Unemployment rate by qualification Companies' in-take rate after graduation61 % Employment in the company where the apprenticeship was made

13 ® National level Participation of representatives of the trade unions and employers in the development of standards; Official recommendations relating to all fields of VET Regional level Federal states: Recommendations regarding the coordination between school and enterprise Competent bodies: Counselling; monitoring / quality assurance; examinations; certificates Sectoral level Negotiations on the supply of apprenticeships; wage agreements covering apprenticeship pay Company levelPlanning and carrying out training in the enterprises Governance: Role of the Social Partners 13 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

14 ® Enter, amend and delete training contracts Conduct interim and final examinations Verify the suitability of training firms and the aptitude of training staff Advise companies and trainees „Competent Bodies“ Support and supervise periods of training that trainees complete abroad Supervise the provision of vocational training preparation, initial vocational training and retraining Governance: Responsibilities of Competent Bodies 14 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) = chambers of skilled crafts = chambers of industry & commerce

15 ® Thank you for your attention. Jessica Erbe Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung Tel.: “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

16 ®  Established: 1970  Legal basis: Federal training act 1969, reformed 2005  Legal supervision: Ministry of Education and Research  The management:  Scientific Advisory Board (7 members)  Staff:630  Budget 2010: 36,5 million Euro  Tasks: The Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) 16 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Research Development Policy Advice President and Deputy President The Board (Hauptausschuss)

17 ® BIBB  analyses structural developments in training place market and in continuing education and training  develops and updates initial and continuing training occupations  conducts international comparative research on VET  carries out early identification of future skills requirements  develops concepts for the training of in-company trainers  supports modern VET centres as a supplement to in-company initial and continuing training  assesses the quality of VET distance learning programmes  manages and supervises national and international programmes designed to continuously develop VET Tasks of the Federal Institute for VET (BIBB) 17 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

18 ® Higher education entry rates* (in %) … 18 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

19 ® Educational attainment by ISCED levels ISCED 1+2ISCED 3+4ISCED 5+6Early school leavers Germany14,559,126,411,1 EU ,825,214,4 Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, Eurostat database, “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

20 ® Institutional framework 20 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Source: Education report working group at the Max Planck Institute for Education Research 1990 State level: State government Minister of Education Conference of the Ministers of Education Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) Employers’ associationsTrade unions Competent Body (Chamber) Examination boards Vocational school In-company training Works council Youth representative Framework curricula Curricula Dual system of vocational education and training Training ordinances, Laws Federal level: FM of Education and Research (BMBF) in cooperation with other Federal Ministries responsible Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB)

21 ® State (Federal Government) Instruments: laws (e.g. BBIG) and statutory orders (e.g. training regulations) Training Companies (companies providing training) Instruments: training contracts and training programmes Competent Bodies (chambers of skilled crafts, chambers of industry & commerce) Instruments: monitoring, consultation & regulations In-company Initial vocational training Who organises the Apprenticeship? Overview Governance Components 21 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

22 ® § Vocational training act § BIBB - The Board Federal Government Federal states (Regions) Unions Employers cooperation between the public and private sector joint steering, regulation and financing arrangements governed by a statutory legislative framework Governance: Shared responsibility in VET - Four parties 22 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

23 ® Tasks of the Board  adopts the annual research programme  adopts the Institute’s budget  recommends on the promotion and development of VET  comments on the draft of the Federal Government’s Annual Report on VET Advisory Members 1 representative of the Federal Employment Agency 1 representative of the organization of municipal associations and 1 representative of the BIBB’s Scientific Advisory Board Organs of the BIBB: The Board Federal Government Employers Employees „Länder“ Role of the Social Partners also known as the "parliament of vocational education" 23 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

24 ® Core features of the dual system of VET 24 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) 1.Close co-operation of government and industry (framework-setting, shared funding, development and implementation of standards, curricula, assessment, certification) – intermediary institutions 2.National Standards (occupational, training, assessment stand.) aiming at the ability to act autonomously in a broad occupational field (technical, social, personal competences) 3.Learning at the workplace with qualified VET staff (skilled workers and trainers) in combination with VET teachers 4.Embeddedness of VET in both, the education and the employment system (governance (state and private), provision (school and company), status (student and employee)) 5.Institutionalised VET and labour market research and career guidance

25 ® Who Enters the Apprenticeship System? 25 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Level of school leaving certificate of the new apprentices in 2009 (in %) Source: BIBB-Datenreport 2011

26 ® Venues for Learning - Company - part-time vocational school Financing - Companies - State Law Areas - Federal law - Federal states law Organisation - State government - Society (stake holders) The Dualities of the “Dual System” 26 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

27 ® Career plans of schools leavers Source: BIBB: VET Data Report “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

28 ® Pathways of school leavers Source: BIBB: VET Data Report “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

29 ® Source: BIBB-Schaubilder 2010 New Apprenticeship Contracts by Area 29 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Share in all new apprenticeship contracts (in %) Service occupations Production occupations Primary services Secondary services Primary service occupations: occupations with mainly commercial and office activities, or cleaning, hosting, storing, transporting Secondary service occupations: occupations with mainly researching, developing, organising, managing, caring, advising, teaching or publishing (i.e. „brain“ or knowledge activities)

30 ® State - costs and benefits 30 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) COSTS Part-time vocational schools / teachers Programmes outside companies/schools Tax reductions (on investments) BENEFITS Higher tax returns (higher wages) Less unemployment > less social expenses (direct and indirect) Less full-time schooling (more expensive)

31 ® Individual benefits 31 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Wage/salary/income with an IVET qualification compared to those with no vocational qualification + 50% In certain areas the salary with an advanced vocational qualification exceeds the salary with a university degree (BA) Career opportunities Status / prestige

32 ® Challenges Lack of training places – ‘Transition system’ Demographic decline – Skill shortages 15% of age cohort with no vocational qualification: Need to bring more school leavers (low achievers, migrants) into apprenticeship Academic drift: competition of the dual system with higher education institutions will increase; there is a need to keep/make apprenticeship attractive for high achievers Lack of permeability between dual training and higher education - Competences acquired during VET must be recognised for further education including for university access. International competitiveness of skilled workforce requires international qualifications like foreign language knowledge and intercultural skills

33 ® Competition of the dual system with higher education institutions will increase. Demographic decline Competences acquired during VET must be recognised for further education including for university access. Raising permeability between dual training and higher education International qualifications like foreign language knowledge and intercultural skills are increasingly important. Raising the international competiveness of our skilled workforce Challenges - Overview 33 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

34 ® Population by age groups (%) Source: Federal Statistical Office, 11th coordinated population forecast, “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Challenges – Demography

35 ® Challenges – some are left out (DS/fulltime school/transition 35 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)

36 ® Responses National pact on VET Creating educational ‚chains‘ More flexibility and permeability Quality assurance and development Make VET more attractive for high achievers Responses to challenges 36 “Apprenticeship in Germany” (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia)


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