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Figure 22.0 Title page from The Origin of Species
Figure 22.1 The historical context of Darwin’s life and ideas
Figure 22.2 Fossils of trilobites, animals that lived in the seas hundreds of millions of years ago
Figure 22.3 Formation of sedimentary rock and deposition of fossils from different time periods
Figure 22.4 Strata of sedimentary rock at the Grand Canyon
Figure 22.5 The Voyage of HMS Beagle
Figure 22.6 Galápagos finches
Figure 22.7 Descent with modification
Figure 22.8 Overproduction of offspring
Figure 22.9 A few of the color variations in a population of Asian lady beetles
Figure Camouflage as an example of evolutionary adaptation
Figure 22.11a Artificial selection: cattle breeders of ancient Africa
Figure 22.11b Artificial selection: diverse vegetables derived from wild mustard
Figure Evolution of insecticide resistance in insect populations
Figure Evolution of drug resistance in HIV
Figure Homologous structures: anatomical signs of descent with modification
Table 22.1 Molecular Data and the Evolutionary Relationships of Vertebrates
Figure Different geographic regions, different mammalian “brands”
Figure The evolution of fruit fly (Drosophila) species on the Hawaiian archipelago
Figure A transitional fossil linking past and present
Figure Charles Darwin in 1859, the year The Origin of Species was published
Figure 22.x1 Darwin as an ape
Figure 22.x2 Georges Cuvier
Figure 22.x3 Charles Lyell
Figure 22.x4 Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Figure 22.x5 Alfred Wallace
Figure 23.0 Shells
Figure 23.1 Individuals are selected, but populations evolve
Figure 23.x1 Edaphic Races of Gaillardia pulchella
Figure 23.2 Population distribution
Figure 23.3a The Hardy-Weinberg theorem
Figure 23.3b The Hardy-Weinberg theorem
Figure 23.4 Genetic drift
Figure 23.5 The bottleneck effect: an analogy
Figure 23.5x Cheetahs, the bottleneck effect
Figure 23.6 Gene flow and human evolution
Figure 23.7 A nonheritable difference within a population
Figure 23x2 Polymorphism
Figure 23.8 Clinal variation in a plant
Figure 23.9 Geographic variation between isolated populations of house mice
Figure Mapping malaria and the sickle-cell allele
Figure Frequency-dependent selection in a host-parasite relationship
Figure Modes of selection
Figure 23.12x Normal and sickled cells
Figure Directional selection for beak size in a Galápagos population of the medium ground finch
Figure Diversifying selection in a finch population
Figure The two-fold disadvantage of sex
Figure 23.16x1 Sexual selection and the evolution of male appearance
Figure 23.16x2 Male peacock
Figure 24.0 A Galápagos Islands tortoise
Figure 24.2a The biological species concept is based on interfertility rather than physical similarity
Figure 24.2b The biological species concept is based on interfertility rather than physical similarity
Figure 24.3 Courtship ritual as a behavioral barrier between species
Figure 24.5 A summary of reproductive barriers between closely related species
Figure 24.1 Two patterns of speciation
Figure 24.6 Two modes of speciation
Figure 24.7 Allopatric speciation of squirrels in the Grand Canyon
Figure 24.8 Has speciation occurred during geographic isolation?
Figure 24.9 Ensatina eschscholtzii, a ring species
Figure Long-distance dispersal
Figure A model for adaptive radiation on island chains
Figure Evolution of reproductive isolation in lab populations of Drosophila
Figure Sympatric speciation by autopolyploidy in plants
Figure 24.14a Botanist Hugo de Vries
Figure 24.14b The new primrose species of botanist Hugo de Vries
Figure One mechanism for allopolyploid speciation in plants
Figure Mate choice in two species of Lake Victoria cichlids
Figure A range of eye complexity among mollusks
Figure Two models for the tempo of speciation
Figure Allometric growth
Figure Heterochrony and the evolution of salamander feet among closely related species
Figure Hox genes and the evolution of tetrapod limbs
Figure Hox mutations and the origin of vertebrates
Figure The branched evolution of horses
Figure 25.1 A gallery of fossils
Figure 25.1a Dinosaur National Monument
Figure 25.1d Leaf impression
Figure 25.1b Skulls of Australopithecus and Homo erectus
Figure 25.1c Petrified trees
Figure 25.1e Ammonite
Figure 25.1f Dinosaur tracks
Figure 25.1g Scorpion in amber
Figure 25.1h Mammoth tusks
Figure 25.1x1 Sedimentary deposit
Figure 25.1x2 Barosaurus
Table 25.1 The Geologic Time Scale
Figure 25.2 Radiometric dating
Figure 25.3x2 San Andreas fault
Figure 25.4 The history of continental drift
Figure 25.5 Diversity of life and periods of mass extinction
Figure 25.6 Trauma for planet Earth and its Cretaceous life
Figure 25.6x Chicxulub crater
Figure 25.7 Hierarchical classification
Figure 25.8 The connection between classification and phylogeny
Unnumbered Figure (page 494) Cladograms
Figure 25.9 Monophyletic versus paraphyletic and polyphyletic groups
Figure Convergent evolution and analogous structures
Figure Aligning segments of DNA
Figure Constructing a cladogram
Figure Cladistics and taxonomy
Figure Simplified versions of a four-species problem in phylogenetics
Figure 25.15a Parsimony and molecular systematics
Figure 25.15b Parsimony and molecular systematics (Layer 1)
Figure 25.15b Parsimony and molecular systematics (Layer 2)
Figure 25.15b Parsimony and molecular systematics (Layer 3)
Figure Parsimony and the analogy-versus-homology pitfall
Figure Dating the origin of HIV-1 M with a molecular clock
Figure Modern systematics is shaking some phylogenetic trees
Figure When did most major mammalian orders originate?
Figure 26.1 Some major episodes in the history of life
Figure 27.2 The three domains of life
Table 27.2 A Comparison of the Three Domains of Life
Figure Contrasting hypotheses for the taxonomic distribution of photosynthesis among prokaryotes
Figure Some major groups of prokaryotes
Figure 28.6 Traditional hypothesis for how the three domains of life are related
Figure 28.7 An alternative hypothesis for how the three domains of life are related
Figure 28.8 A tentative phylogeny of eukaryotes
Figure 29.1 Some highlights of plant evolution
Figure 30.4 Hypothetical phylogeny of the seed plants
Figure 32.4 A traditional view of animal diversity based on body-plan grades
Figure 32.1 Early embryonic development (Layer 1)
Figure 32.1 Early embryonic development (Layer 2)
Figure 32.1 Early embryonic development (Layer 3)
Figure 32.2 A choanoflagellate colony
Figure 32.3 One hypothesis for the origin of animals from a flagellated protist
Figure 32.4 A traditional view of animal diversity based on body-plan grades
Figure 32.5 Body symmetry
Figure 32.6 Body plans of the bilateria
Figure 32.7 A comparison of early development in protostomes and deuterostomes
Figure 32.8 Animal phylogeny based on sequencing of SSU-rRNA
Figure 32.9 A trochophore larva
Figure A lophophorate
Figure Comparing the molecular based and grade-based trees of animal phylogeny
Figure A sample of some of the animals that evolved during the Cambrian explosion
Figure 32.13x Burgess Shale fossils
Figure One Cambrian explosion, or three?
Figure 34.1 Clades of extant chordates
Figure 26.0 A painting of early Earth showing volcanic activity and photosynthetic prokaryotes in dense mats
Figure 26.0x Volcanic activity and lightning associated with the birth of the island of Surtsey near Iceland; terrestrial life began colonizing Surtsey soon after its birth
Figure 26.2 Clock analogy for some key events in evolutionary history
Unnumbered Figure (page 512) Evolutionary clock: Origin of life
Unnumbered Figure (page 512) Evolutionary clock: Prokaryotes
Figure 26.3 Early (left) and modern (right) prokaryotes
Figure 26.3x1 Spheroidal Gunflint Microfossils
Figure 26.3x2 Filamentous cyanobacteria from the Bitter Springs Chert
Figure 26.4 Bacterial mats and stromatolites
Figure 26.4x Stromatolites in Northern Canada
Unnumbered Figure (page 513) Evolutionary clock: Atmospheric oxygen
Figure 26.5 Banded iron formations are evidence of the vintage of oxygenic photosynthesis
Unnumbered Figure (page 514) Evolutionary clock: Eukaryotes
Unnumbered Figure (page 514) Evolutionary clock: Multicellular eukaryotes
Figure 26.6 Fossilized alga about 1.2 billion years old
Figure 26.7 Fossilized animal embryos from Chinese sediments 570 million years old
Unnumbered Figure (page 515) Evolutionary clock: Animals
Unnumbered Figure (page 515) Evolutionary clock: Land plants
Figure 26.8 The Cambrian radiation of animals
Figure 26.9 Louis Pasteur
Figure 26.9 Pasteur and biogenesis of microorganisms (Layer 1)
Figure 26.9 Pasteur and biogenesis of microorganisms (Layer 2)
Figure 26.9 Pasteur and biogenesis of microorganisms (Layer 3)
Figure The Miller-Urey experiment
Figure 26.10x Lightning
Figure Abiotic replication of RNA
Figure Laboratory versions of protobionts
Figure Hypothesis for the beginnings of molecular cooperation
Figure A window to early life?
Figure Whittaker’s five-kingdom system
Figure Our changing view of biological diversity
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