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Figure 22.0 Title page from The Origin of Species.

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Presentation on theme: "Figure 22.0 Title page from The Origin of Species."— Presentation transcript:

1 Figure 22.0 Title page from The Origin of Species

2 Figure 22.1 The historical context of Darwin’s life and ideas

3 Figure 22.2 Fossils of trilobites, animals that lived in the seas hundreds of millions of years ago

4 Figure 22.3 Formation of sedimentary rock and deposition of fossils from different time periods

5 Figure 22.4 Strata of sedimentary rock at the Grand Canyon

6 Figure 22.5 The Voyage of HMS Beagle

7 Figure 22.6 Galápagos finches

8 Figure 22.7 Descent with modification

9 Figure 22.8 Overproduction of offspring

10 Figure 22.9 A few of the color variations in a population of Asian lady beetles

11 Figure Camouflage as an example of evolutionary adaptation

12 Figure 22.11a Artificial selection: cattle breeders of ancient Africa

13 Figure 22.11b Artificial selection: diverse vegetables derived from wild mustard

14 Figure Evolution of insecticide resistance in insect populations

15 Figure Evolution of drug resistance in HIV

16 Figure Homologous structures: anatomical signs of descent with modification

17 Table 22.1 Molecular Data and the Evolutionary Relationships of Vertebrates

18 Figure Different geographic regions, different mammalian “brands”

19 Figure The evolution of fruit fly (Drosophila) species on the Hawaiian archipelago

20 Figure A transitional fossil linking past and present

21 Figure Charles Darwin in 1859, the year The Origin of Species was published

22 Figure 22.x1 Darwin as an ape

23 Figure 22.x2 Georges Cuvier

24 Figure 22.x3 Charles Lyell

25 Figure 22.x4 Jean Baptiste Lamarck

26 Figure 22.x5 Alfred Wallace

27 Figure 23.0 Shells

28 Figure 23.1 Individuals are selected, but populations evolve

29 Figure 23.x1 Edaphic Races of Gaillardia pulchella

30 Figure 23.2 Population distribution

31 Figure 23.3a The Hardy-Weinberg theorem

32 Figure 23.3b The Hardy-Weinberg theorem

33 Figure 23.4 Genetic drift

34 Figure 23.5 The bottleneck effect: an analogy

35 Figure 23.5x Cheetahs, the bottleneck effect

36 Figure 23.6 Gene flow and human evolution

37 Figure 23.7 A nonheritable difference within a population

38 Figure 23x2 Polymorphism

39 Figure 23.8 Clinal variation in a plant

40 Figure 23.9 Geographic variation between isolated populations of house mice

41 Figure Mapping malaria and the sickle-cell allele

42 Figure Frequency-dependent selection in a host-parasite relationship

43 Figure Modes of selection

44 Figure 23.12x Normal and sickled cells

45 Figure Directional selection for beak size in a Galápagos population of the medium ground finch

46 Figure Diversifying selection in a finch population

47 Figure The two-fold disadvantage of sex

48 Figure 23.16x1 Sexual selection and the evolution of male appearance

49 Figure 23.16x2 Male peacock

50 Figure 24.0 A Galápagos Islands tortoise

51 Figure 24.2a The biological species concept is based on interfertility rather than physical similarity

52 Figure 24.2b The biological species concept is based on interfertility rather than physical similarity

53 Figure 24.3 Courtship ritual as a behavioral barrier between species

54 Figure 24.5 A summary of reproductive barriers between closely related species

55 Figure 24.1 Two patterns of speciation

56 Figure 24.6 Two modes of speciation

57 Figure 24.7 Allopatric speciation of squirrels in the Grand Canyon

58 Figure 24.8 Has speciation occurred during geographic isolation?



61 Figure 24.9 Ensatina eschscholtzii, a ring species

62 Figure Long-distance dispersal

63 Figure A model for adaptive radiation on island chains

64 Figure Evolution of reproductive isolation in lab populations of Drosophila

65 Figure Sympatric speciation by autopolyploidy in plants

66 Figure 24.14a Botanist Hugo de Vries

67 Figure 24.14b The new primrose species of botanist Hugo de Vries

68 Figure One mechanism for allopolyploid speciation in plants

69 Figure Mate choice in two species of Lake Victoria cichlids

70 Figure A range of eye complexity among mollusks

71 Figure Two models for the tempo of speciation

72 Figure Allometric growth

73 Figure Heterochrony and the evolution of salamander feet among closely related species

74 Figure Paedomorphosis

75 Figure Hox genes and the evolution of tetrapod limbs

76 Figure Hox mutations and the origin of vertebrates

77 Figure The branched evolution of horses

78 Figure 25.1 A gallery of fossils

79 Figure 25.1a Dinosaur National Monument

80 Figure 25.1d Leaf impression

81 Figure 25.1b Skulls of Australopithecus and Homo erectus

82 Figure 25.1c Petrified trees

83 Figure 25.1e Ammonite

84 Figure 25.1f Dinosaur tracks

85 Figure 25.1g Scorpion in amber

86 Figure 25.1h Mammoth tusks

87 Figure 25.1x1 Sedimentary deposit

88 Figure 25.1x2 Barosaurus

89 Table 25.1 The Geologic Time Scale

90 Figure 25.2 Radiometric dating

91 Figure 25.3x2 San Andreas fault

92 Figure 25.4 The history of continental drift

93 Figure 25.5 Diversity of life and periods of mass extinction

94 Figure 25.6 Trauma for planet Earth and its Cretaceous life

95 Figure 25.6x Chicxulub crater

96 Figure 25.7 Hierarchical classification

97 Figure 25.8 The connection between classification and phylogeny

98 Unnumbered Figure (page 494) Cladograms

99 Figure 25.9 Monophyletic versus paraphyletic and polyphyletic groups

100 Figure Convergent evolution and analogous structures

101 Figure Aligning segments of DNA

102 Figure Constructing a cladogram

103 Figure Cladistics and taxonomy

104 Figure Simplified versions of a four-species problem in phylogenetics

105 Figure 25.15a Parsimony and molecular systematics

106 Figure 25.15b Parsimony and molecular systematics (Layer 1)

107 Figure 25.15b Parsimony and molecular systematics (Layer 2)

108 Figure 25.15b Parsimony and molecular systematics (Layer 3)

109 Figure Parsimony and the analogy-versus-homology pitfall

110 Figure Dating the origin of HIV-1 M with a molecular clock

111 Figure Modern systematics is shaking some phylogenetic trees

112 Figure When did most major mammalian orders originate?

113 Figure 26.1 Some major episodes in the history of life

114 Figure 27.2 The three domains of life

115 Table 27.2 A Comparison of the Three Domains of Life

116 Figure Contrasting hypotheses for the taxonomic distribution of photosynthesis among prokaryotes

117 Figure Some major groups of prokaryotes

118 Figure 28.6 Traditional hypothesis for how the three domains of life are related

119 Figure 28.7 An alternative hypothesis for how the three domains of life are related

120 Figure 28.8 A tentative phylogeny of eukaryotes

121 Figure 29.1 Some highlights of plant evolution

122 Figure 30.4 Hypothetical phylogeny of the seed plants

123 Figure 32.4 A traditional view of animal diversity based on body-plan grades

124 Figure 32.1 Early embryonic development (Layer 1)

125 Figure 32.1 Early embryonic development (Layer 2)

126 Figure 32.1 Early embryonic development (Layer 3)

127 Figure 32.2 A choanoflagellate colony

128 Figure 32.3 One hypothesis for the origin of animals from a flagellated protist

129 Figure 32.4 A traditional view of animal diversity based on body-plan grades

130 Figure 32.5 Body symmetry

131 Figure 32.6 Body plans of the bilateria

132 Figure 32.7 A comparison of early development in protostomes and deuterostomes

133 Figure 32.8 Animal phylogeny based on sequencing of SSU-rRNA

134 Figure 32.9 A trochophore larva

135 Figure Ecdysis

136 Figure A lophophorate

137 Figure Comparing the molecular based and grade-based trees of animal phylogeny

138 Figure A sample of some of the animals that evolved during the Cambrian explosion

139 Figure 32.13x Burgess Shale fossils

140 Figure One Cambrian explosion, or three?

141 Figure 34.1 Clades of extant chordates

142 Figure 26.0 A painting of early Earth showing volcanic activity and photosynthetic prokaryotes in dense mats

143 Figure 26.0x Volcanic activity and lightning associated with the birth of the island of Surtsey near Iceland; terrestrial life began colonizing Surtsey soon after its birth

144 Figure 26.2 Clock analogy for some key events in evolutionary history

145 Unnumbered Figure (page 512) Evolutionary clock: Origin of life

146 Unnumbered Figure (page 512) Evolutionary clock: Prokaryotes

147 Figure 26.3 Early (left) and modern (right) prokaryotes

148 Figure 26.3x1 Spheroidal Gunflint Microfossils

149 Figure 26.3x2 Filamentous cyanobacteria from the Bitter Springs Chert

150 Figure 26.4 Bacterial mats and stromatolites

151 Figure 26.4x Stromatolites in Northern Canada

152 Unnumbered Figure (page 513) Evolutionary clock: Atmospheric oxygen

153 Figure 26.5 Banded iron formations are evidence of the vintage of oxygenic photosynthesis

154 Unnumbered Figure (page 514) Evolutionary clock: Eukaryotes

155 Unnumbered Figure (page 514) Evolutionary clock: Multicellular eukaryotes

156 Figure 26.6 Fossilized alga about 1.2 billion years old

157 Figure 26.7 Fossilized animal embryos from Chinese sediments 570 million years old

158 Unnumbered Figure (page 515) Evolutionary clock: Animals

159 Unnumbered Figure (page 515) Evolutionary clock: Land plants

160 Figure 26.8 The Cambrian radiation of animals

161 Figure 26.9 Louis Pasteur

162 Figure 26.9 Pasteur and biogenesis of microorganisms (Layer 1)

163 Figure 26.9 Pasteur and biogenesis of microorganisms (Layer 2)

164 Figure 26.9 Pasteur and biogenesis of microorganisms (Layer 3)

165 Figure The Miller-Urey experiment

166 Figure 26.10x Lightning

167 Figure Abiotic replication of RNA

168 Figure Laboratory versions of protobionts

169 Figure Hypothesis for the beginnings of molecular cooperation

170 Figure A window to early life?

171 Figure Whittaker’s five-kingdom system

172 Figure Our changing view of biological diversity

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