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AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Andra - Laurent LOTH From Research to Operational Tools: elements of strategy to valorize the results of GNR MoMaS November 23th of 2009 C.TR.AEAP.09.0091
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Summary Numerical Simulation at Andra The radwaste repository projects and their milestones First feedback of the tools used up to now by Andra Consequences for development requests The GNR MoMaS Goals Results Questions Proposals Scientific themes Expected results 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 2
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Numerical Simulation at Andra 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 3
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Simulation for the repositories (1/2) 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 Numerical Simulation: an adequate tool for Application Fields Phenomenological evolution modelling (PARS) Design & Conception Performance/Safety Analysis the dimensioning and interpretation of experiments, in particular at the Underground Laboratory Centre Meuse/Haute Marne / projet HA-MAVL High-Level and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste Deep geological reversible repository Centers/Projects Projet FAVL (Low-level and long lived radwaste) (Radifer - Graphite) Surface and low-depth repository Centre de surface ( Low and very low-level radwaste) CSFMA, CSTFA centre Manche the modelling of elementary mechanisms at the various scales 4
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Simulation for the repositories (2/2) Simulation of elementary mechanisms Apprehend physical processes at very-small scales (nano, meso, micro) et transition to macro- scale Understanding of « mechanical » interactions solid/solid/fluid Transfer of fluid or gas in a porale structure... →Work performed within research laboratories →Numerical Problems centered on ab-initio, molecular modelling, … Simulation of repository Represent end Quantify the THMCR phenomenological evolution of components (waste, package, cell, galleries, geological media, …) at the repository time scales Chemical deterioration of concrete 2 phase-flow with production and migration of gas in the repository, Release of RN out of the waste packages and migration through the repository structures and geological media,… Performance and safety assessment of the repository : performance and dose indicators →Work performed within Andra and by its partners or engineering companies →Numerical Problems centered on numerical methods : discretization, solver, meshing,.. 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 5
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra The main milestones of Andra until 2014 (1/2) 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 200920102011201220132014 HAVL FAVL ? Centre Aube Choose of design optionsDACAPSSelectionof the site Centre Manche APSS / Phenomenologiy phenomenological simulations Preliminary calculations Safety evaluation Calculations / Simulations / Feasability studies Preliminary calculations Safety evaluation Selection of the siteDAC Program will be defined after the evaluationCalculations Safety report Preliminary calculations/ Safety evaluation Hydraulic model review and characterization Safety report Tools stabilized version for the years 2012-2014 6
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra The main milestones of Andra until 2014 (2/2) Strong time schedule for all Andra’s Projects So, it’s necessary to dispose of robust and efficient tools, able to take into account the complexity of processes and geometries but focused on our main applications. Tools current features and foreseen developments : Starting from existing and broadly used tools Possibility to increase the capabilities in physical and numerical functionalities, Possibility to couple tools easily Some assessments Andra must answer to the questions from the different regulators (Scientific Council, CNE, safety authority, …) A keypoint : the time/space understanding of physical processes in each part of the system (PARS) Numerical simulation major tool to fullfill objectives 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 7
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra First feedback of the tools used as of today by Andra (1/4) 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 Since 2005, progress in terms of methods and tools, related to: Hydraulic and solute transfer 2 phase-flow with production and migration of gas Chemical transfer Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis A decisive step in computation performance: Progressive implementation of high performance computing Capacity to model the whole repository Methods and tools are about to fulfill targeted requests for DAC 8
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Flow and solute transfer through the repository structures (whole repository design) and the COX (Porflow) Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis Use of metamodel built by neural network method (cf. presentation of G. Pépin and J. M. Martinez) First feedback of the tools used as of today by Andra (2/4) 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 Champ de concentration en I129 à 90.000 ans Champ de charge hydraulique Maillage représentant toutes les zones et tous les composants du stockage: environ 10 millions de mailles 9
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Two-phase flow and gaz transfer through the repository (Tough2_MP) First feedback of the tools used as of today by Andra (3/4) 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 10 ILLW disposal zone Access zone Gas pressure (Bars) HLW disposal zone Schematic of a generic plan view of a part of the repository, with indication of zones and sectors Schematic of the methodology: Spatial subdivision into zones and sectors, multiplication and connection
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra First feedback of the tools used as of today by Andra (4/4) Carbonatation and dissolution of the portlandite of the package and work concretes (Tough-React) Cf. presentation of B. Cochepin 23 novembre 2009 11 C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 Argilites Matériau cimentaire (revêtement/conteneur) Air (O 2, CO 2 …) Conteneur primaire Déchets Argilites partiellement désaturées Limite de la carbonatation atmos- phérique des matériaux cimentaires O2O2 Limite de désaturation, limite de l’oxydation partielle de la pyrite et de la MO Eau quasi-pure issue des argiles Limite de la dégradation des matériaux cimentaires Limite de la corrosion du fût primaire Eau cimentaire saine Dégradation des déchets CO 2 Corrosion à l’état passif des armatures des colis de stockage Portlandite à t=0 Portlandite à t=1500 ans Calcite à t=0 Calcite à t=1500 ans Portlandite à t=100 ans épaisseur de dissolution de la portlandite du colis de stockage : quelques cm en 100 ans. S. Gaboreau, F. Claret (2009) – BRGM/RP-57194-FR
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Consequences for development requirements For hydraulic flow and solute transfer in saturated porous media, tools have now a high level of performance and robustness Consequently, the evolutions are in the margin Progress of solvers and computer capacities decreases the level of interest in some approaches e.g., the range of application in using term source homogenization and space domain decomposition methods could be reduced with HPC Tools are sometimes in advance on data The credibility of simulation implies a strong link with experimentation To be able to reproduce by simulation some experimentation (calibration) To extrapolate results on long time and large space scales 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 12
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra The GNR MoMaS 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 13
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra GNR MoMaS Goals Gather the knowledge in methods and numerical analysis, in mathematical modeling and in simulation to benefit of the state of the art in the field of repository simulation Ensure communication between applied mathematics and other scientific fields organized such as GNR (or similar) Develop new ideas about phenomena and tools to keep on increasing the level of understanding Develop research level work linked to new modeling and the numerical issues raised by radwaste disposal simulation Highlight research work on practical applications, by improving coupling of knowledge and scientific tools within the community of the applied mathematics 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 14
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Results (1/3) Gather the competences The GNR involves many research laboratories. It proposes benchmarks to international scientific community Develop new ideas and research-level work Many scientific publications Members attend conferences with some specific sessions linked to topics of GNR GNR organizes specific workshops about relevant topics, and open discussions with other teams Ensure communication with other scientific fields Useful and necessary cooperation between scientific fields Previous discussions/exchange with other GNR (FORPRO et PARIS) but some difficulties to set up common projects 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 15
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Results (2/3) Highlight research work on practical applications Andra’s requirements are related to practical cases in terms of physical representation and numerical tools They are reflected in the evolution of GNR themes since 2002, in order to improve the modelization of the physical processes and repository structures Examples of added-value Reactive Transport Significant progress (Benchmarks, PhDs at INRIA and IMFS, etc.) especially on the different coupling methods and their application field Need to take into account much more complex chemical processes: kinetics, flow and transport input data retroaction, number of species, … 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 16
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Results (3/3) AND HOWEVER … The added-value from GNR MoMaS Research work could be of more benefit for ANDRA… 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 17
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Questions Some difficulties Gap between research work and operational tools Development of operational tools, validated, documented, and maintained requires a large amount of work, The structure and funding of GNR MOMAS are not appropriate to sustain such a transition to operational tools Research missions are hardly adapted to development and validation of new methods and tools in case of large scale realistic applications Example : particle-tracking methods in far field require the development of a new tool Simulation tools structure is not always fitted to test new numerical methods Example : Jacobian matrix of chemical system, needed for some coupled algorithms, is not available in geochemistry codes 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 18
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Some proposals 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 19
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Scientific themes (1/2) Themes in relation with the physical processes Two-phase flows and radionuclide transfer Few available tools, but involved physics is enriching continuously Example : the wide range of “EOS” modules for “Tough” code family Progress is still needed in terms of robustness and performance Reactive Transport Coupling algorithms often face convergence trouble when modelling complexity increases It is needed to diversify numerical approaches to deal efficiently with the various configurations But... computation time rapidly increases and becomes prohibitive An open investigation field: multi-scale modelling An advanced theme, upstream from the operational tools, strongly linked with other disciplines and the experimental field Building models at the various scales considered, based upon the elementary mechanisms Approximations when up-scaling must be quantified 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 20
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Scientific themes (2/2) Numerical themes are primarily aimed at robustness, performance and accuracy Error estimation primes over fifth decimal accuracy... For the simulation of flow and solute transfer: Many tools are available, many of them have reached maturity, both in terms of physics taken into account and of resolution methods used Further needs target: Error control, High Performance Computation (HPC) Time discretization control Mesh control 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 21
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Expected Results (1/2) Kinds of works Do not try to develop “complete” industrial codes Andra does not expect new fully integrated tools as Porflow, Tough2, Comsol, etc., able to deal with problems at all repository scales Develop algorithms candidate for integration in existing simulation tools, in direct link with the computers evolution Example: Parallel Solvers, Solvers under constraint, Coupling algorithms Favour continuity in the tools development Example: development of the Traces code at IMFS, the host structure for algorithm studies Multidisciplinarity is crucial to ensure the link between experiment, modelling and simulation Benchmarking activities tightly linked with applications and experimentation are important to: Compare methods and tools Strengthen the confidence in the simulation results 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 22
AGENCE NATIONALE POUR LA GESTION DES DÉCHETS RADIOACTIFS © Andra Expected Results (2/2) Implication of Andra Improve requirements description Associate correspondents dedicated to the different themes in direct link with simulation at Andra Put the stress on the valorisation of validated results in tools Definition of comparative benchmarks Ensure the link with software editors and/or engineering companies Widen the thematic field to Andra’s Scientific Division at large Example : a Ph.D. Thesis just began in collaboration with the Transfer & Migration Department Ensure the link with the experimental field 23 novembre 2009C.TR.AEAP.09.0091 23
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