Presentation on theme: "Phonics Miss Turner & Miss Clarke You will need:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Phonics Miss Turner & Miss Clarke You will need: You might like to provide staff with copies of the ‘Pace and Progression’ document that exemplifies each phase.Miss Turner & Miss Clarke
2 Aims of the SessionTo :Support parents/ carers in developing a good understanding of phonic principlesexamine the 6 phases of phonic development;Provide appropriate resources.
3 High Quality Phonics Brisk pace of learning Systematic Active and fun Multi-sensoryProgress is monitored carefullyTime limited – By end of Y1 children will be secure at phase 5!
4 EnunciationPhonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely – pure soundsNo ‘er’ c-a-tMost consonants should be pronounced in a continuous manner – e.g. ssssss mmmmmm llllllll nnnnnn shshshsh rrrrrrr zzzzzzzz vvvvvvvSome can’t be said like this (e.g. /c/ /t/ /p/ /b/ /d/ and /g/) but /c/, /t/ and /p/ should be enunciated without the voice.Phonemes wwwwww and yyyyyyyy are not easy but can be attempted.Many errors spring from incorrect enunciation e.g. teachers reporting that children confuse ‘ch’ and ‘tr’. If the ‘ch’ is enunciated correctly, as one phoneme, rather than ‘chur’and ‘tr’ clearly as 2, there is far less likelihood of confusion.Regional pronunciation could be a factor here. The PNS states in a position paper on teaching phonics that -Many of the sounds (particularly vowel sounds) can vary slightly according to accent, but they are generally consistent within the speech of an individual and recognisable by others who may pronounce them slightly differently.ACTIVITYTake time in your group to agree the correct pronunciation of phonemes. It is important that all phases represented here have a shared and common understanding of this factor.
5 Phonic terminology: some definitions A phoneme is the smallestunit of sound in a wordA grapheme is the letter, or letters, representing a phonemea-e ai ayCorrect terminology should be introduced from YR onwards.Children do not have a problem using phonic terminology (in fact they are often very proud of their ability to do so).However, you are likely to meet resistance from some teachers who consider it ‘over the top’ and unnecessary to teach this vocabulary to children. It is sometimes worth using a numeracy analogy with these staff: we wouldn’t dream of teaching 3-D shapes to children and using the word ‘ball’ instead of ‘sphere’ or ‘box’ instead of cube/cuboid.The principle with phonic vocabulary is exactly the same – it’s just that we haven’t been used to using these words with children until relatively recently.Using phonic terminology from the outset ensures accuracy and promotes shared understanding between practitioners and practitioners and children.Terminology sheet
6 BlendingBlending is recognising the letter sounds in a written wordi.e. c-u-pand merging them in the order in which they are written to pronounce the word ‘cup’Blending is a phonics skill and as such this needs to be explicitly taught.Blending and segmenting (on slide 12) are reversible skills and this should feature highly in phonic teaching.Oral blendingHearing a series of spoken sounds andmerging them together to make a spokenword – no text is usedFor example, when a teacher calls out‘b-u-s’, the children say ‘bus’This skill is usually taught before blendingand reading printed wordsThis could be a shift of emphasis for some practitioners. Note the reference to ‘no text used’ and ‘before printed words’.Opportunities for oral blending prior to reference to graphemes breaks down the skill of blending further. Many children find this helpful and it prepares them for grapheme-phoneme correspondence.
7 and writing down letters for each sound to form the word. SegmentingSegmenting is identifying the individual sounds in a spoken word(e.g. ‘him’ = h – i - m)and writing down letters for each sound to form the word.
8 Digraph A consonant digraph contains two consonants sh ck th ll Two letters, making one soundA consonant digraph contains two consonantssh ck th llA vowel digraph contains at least one vowelai ee ar oyThe following two definitions are key – digraph and trigraph.Adjacent consonants are often incorrectly classified as digraphs and trigraphs e.g.tr as in trapsp as in spinstr as in stringspl as in splash
9 TrigraphThree letters making one soundlight hair ear
10 Split digraphA digraph in which the two letters making the sound are not adjacentACTIVITYHow can you deliver this message about using correct terminology to less experienced practitioners who may find this challenging?
11 Synthetic phonics For reading: phonemes [sounds] associated with particular graphemes [letters] are pronounced in isolation and blended together (synthesised).For writing:Words are segmented into phonemes orally, and a grapheme written to represent each phoneme.Synthetic phonics’ refers to an approach to the teaching of reading in which the phonemes [sounds] associated with particular graphemes [letters] are pronounced in isolation and blended together (synthesised). For example, children are taught to take a single-syllable word such as cat apart into its three letters, pronounce a phoneme for each letter in turn /k, æ, t/, and blend the phonemes together to form a word. Synthetic phonics for writing reverses the sequence: children are taught to say the word they wish to write, segment it into its phonemes and say them in turn, for example /d, ɔ, g/, and write a grapheme for each phoneme in turn to produce the written word, dog.’Definition adopted by the Rose ReportSynthetic phonics requires critical attention to a focus on phonics as the critical skill for word recognition. The Rose Review:“…if beginner readers, for example, are encouraged to infer from pictures the word they have to decode this may lead to their not realising that they need to focus on the printed word”Some key elements of a synthetic phonics programme:Grapheme/phoneme correspondences are taught in a clearly-defined incremental sequence;Children are taught to apply the highly important skill of blending phonemes LEFT to RIGHT all through a word to read it.Phonics is taught as the prime approach to word recognition – decoding - (one of the axes of the simple view of reading).As a skill it needs to be taught explicitly and opportunities given to apply the skill.Phonics for writing is the reverse. Words are segmented into their constituent phonemes to spell them – encoding.Phonics is taught discretely.Phonics is taught as the prime approach in learning to decode (to read) and to encode (to write/spell) print.It is fast-paced – most of the letter-sound correspondences, including the consonant and vowel digraphs, can be taught in the space of a few months…” Johnston and Watson, quoted in the Rose Review.ACTIVITYWhen and how would this explicit teaching take place in a classroom?What would you want to see as examples of good practice?
12 Phase One- From BirthIn developing their phonological awareness children will improve their ability to distinguish between sounds and to speak clearly and audibly with confidence and control.Phonological awareness: the general ability to attend to the sounds of language as distinct from its meaningLinking Sounds and Letters
13 Enjoy listening to noises EnvironmentalInstrumentalSpeech sound discriminationMaking sounds with their own voices
14 Phase One Outcomes Explore and experiment with sounds and words Listen attentivelyShow a growing awareness and appreciation of rhyme, rhythm and alliterationSpeak clearly and audibly with confidence and controlDistinguish between different sounds in wordsDevelop awareness of the differences between phonemes
15 Phase Two To introduce grapheme-phoneme (letter-sound) correspondences kckeurhbf, ffl, llssProbably between 6 and 10, but left to the professional judgement of the teacher. More guidance may be contained in the new PNS material ‘Letters and Sounds’. Will take about 6 weeks.Teach letter-sound correspondence briskly and then spend time blending and segmenting.Have had some issues with teachers not being clear about what a CVC word is – have done sorting activities in order to discuss this, using words that will allow us to deal with the misconceptions.Have spent some time looking at enunciation and going through the consonant sounds deciding which are ‘bouncy’ and which are ‘stretchy’, which are voiced and which are unvoiced. Correct enunciation is very important. Lots of practitioners recognise the implications of this for parents and are starting to think about how to address this.
16 Phase Two OutcomesChildren know that words are constructed from phonemes and that phonemes are represented by graphemesThey have knowledge of a small selection of common consonants and vowels.They blend them together in reading simple CVC words and segment them to support spelling.
17 Phonics Lesson Revisit and Review Teach Practise Apply Go through each part of the session.Could be all together in one session, or split over the day. Opportunities for application of that specific skill can be found throughout the day.
18 Phase Three j v w x y z qu ch sh th ng ai ee igh oa oo ar or ur ow oi To teach children one grapheme for each of the 44 phonemes in order to read and spell simple regular words.jvwxyzquchshthngaieeighoaooarorurowoiearairureerSEE PHASE 3 HANDOUTPhase 3 is the meatiest part of the programme. About 12 weeks. This equates to about 3 sounds a week. With single letter-sound correspondences this is no problem for many. It’s in line with Jolly Phonics. May prove more challenging with long vowel sounds – diagraphs and trigraphs.On the tracking sheet Phase 3 has been subdivided to allow for closer monitoring of progress.PHONEMES HANDOUT – point out that we are not teaching all of the alternatives, just one grapheme for each. Has the potential to be very empowering for children.‘I was walking down the road when I saw an elephant’ – write it using only the phonemes available to them. Can use the HFWs ‘I’ and ‘the’.Give time to look at the PHASE 3 handout and read some of the activities.
19 s u n r ai n Using a phoneme frame Phoneme buttons Phase Three To exemplify model through Phase 3.
20 Phase Three OutcomesChildren link sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet.They hear and say sounds in the order in which they occur in the word,They read simple words by sounding out and blending the phonemes all through the word from left to right.They recognise common digraphs and read some high frequency words.HFW – if they are phonemically regular, teach them through phonics.
21 dog, black, flat, strip, chest Phase FourTo teach children to read and spell words containing adjacent consonants.dog, black, flat, strip, chestUnderstand the concept of blending together two consonants at the beginning of the word. Once this skill is secure, can be used with any cluster.Suggest 6 weeks to move through this Phase.What is a cluster? – the two phonemes are blended together but they remain two phonemes.Quick show of fingers – how many phonemes? Dog(3), black(4), flat(4), strip(5), chest(4)Phoneme Frame – separate box for each phoneme – 4 boxes for f-l-a-tTo spell the word, need children to be able to hear all the sounds, otherwise we get fat for flat.BIG issue for some practitioners- unable to hear the separate sounds (Ros’ course!) Noisy letters game can help those adults.
22 Phase Four Activities Phoneme frames – to spell words Sound buttons –blendingYes/ No sentencesQuickwrite for spellingPHONEME FRAME – what’s in the bag? Write it in the frame, with a partner. (belt, nest, frog)SOUND BUTTONS – list of words on the flip chart, put buttons under and compare with your partner. (crash, flat, sleep, tent, mast)NSEW – using pictures – objects are better.FULL CIRCLE – Give out some cards and play (slip, clip, flip, slap, slack, black…) s-l-i-p-c-f-a-ckNote how some of these activities translate to independent tasks – making sets, sorting,Good moment to point out mixed ability issues – some activities are ok for whole class. Other times will need to be group work to address differing needs. Just the same as previously when children on different Steps.
23 Phase Four OutcomesChildren are able to blend and segment adjacent consonants in wordsThey apply this skill when reading unfamiliar texts and in spelling.
24 Phase FiveTeaching children to recognise and use alternative ways of pronouncing the graphemes and spelling the phonemes already taught.Phase 5 continues throughout Year 1. Lots of opportunities to secure this, and to revisit learning from Reception. Might want to speak to the Y2 teacher and pinch resources.HOWEVER, must continue teaching from where the learners are!Same letters making different sounds – mean, bread, read (?)Same sound represented by different letters – may, make, pain, etc.See long vowels sounds sheet – teachers to plot words on the sheet.
27 A Real TreatTom was very happy. It was the weekend and he was off to the beach with his mum and dad, his puppy and baby Pete.‘Help me pack the green bag,’ said mum. ‘We need sun cream and lots to eat.’Tom got into his seat in the back of the car and the puppy got on his knee. Pete held his toy sheep. Off they went. Beep! Beep!At the end of the street there was a big truck. It had lost a wheel.‘Oh, no,’ said Tom. ‘We’ll be here for a week!’Dad went to speak to the driver to see if he could help.Taken from the CDROM in PwSThumbs up when hear long /ee/Pick up regional dialect. Go with what the children hear. The phonemes are generally consistent within the speech of an individual. If your own accent is so very different, when teaching a sound try to say it like the children. Be honest, discuss how you say it differently.Highlight /ee/ words and then sort according to the grapheme on the flip chart ‘e’, ‘y’, ‘ee’, ‘ea’, ’e-e’
28 A Real Treat – Phoneme spotters Tom was very happy. It was the weekend and he was off to the beach with his mum and dad, his puppy and baby Pete.‘Help me pack the green bag,’ said mum. ‘We need sun cream and lots to eat.’Tom got into his seat in the back of the car and the puppy got on his knee. Pete held his toy sheep. Off they went. Beep! Beep!At the end of the street there was a big truck. It had lost a wheel.‘Oh, no,’ said Tom. ‘We’ll be here for a week!’Dad went to speak to the driver to see if he could help.Taken from the CDROM in PwSThumbs up when hear long /ee/Pick up regional dialect. (e.g. ‘puppy’ and ‘baby’ in Burnley where the ‘y’ might say /i/ or even /e/) Go with what the children hear. The phonemes are generally consistent within the speech of an individual. If your own accent is so very different, when teaching a sound try to say it like the children. Be honest, discuss how you say it differently.Highlight /ee/ words and then sort according to the grapheme on the flip chart ‘e’, ‘y’, ‘ee’, ‘ea’, ’e-e’ (Rhyming Word Sort - PiPs)
29 Phase Five Outcomes Children will: use alternative ways of pronouncing the graphemes and spelling the phonemes corresponding to long vowel phonemes.identify the constituent parts of two-syllable and three-syllable words and be able to read and spell phonically decodable two-syllable and three-syllable words.recognise an increasing number of high frequency words automatically.apply phonic knowledge and skills as the prime approach in reading and spelling when the words are unfamiliar and not completely decodable.
30 Phase Six Prefixes Suffixes Plurals Past tense Teaching children to develop their skill and automaticity in reading and spelling, creating ever-increasing capacity to attend to reading for meaning.PrefixesSuffixesPluralsPast tenseBegins in and continues through Y2. Aiming to move children towards fluency by the end of Y2.In Y3 the emphasis changes from word recognition to developing language comprehension.Exemplify using the sample session.
31 Phase Six Outcomes Children will: Apply their phonics skills and knowledge to recognise and spell an increasing number of complex words.Read an increasing number of high and medium frequency words independently and automatically.
32 Expected Progress Secure at Phase 4 by end of Reception Secure at Phase 5 by the end of year 1Support for Spelling programme starts in Year 2 –Phase 6 completed by end of year 2